Endoscopic Anatomy Along the Transnasal Approach to the Pituitary Gland and the Surrounding Structures

  • M. Tschabitscher
  • R. J. Galzio


“The nasal route is impracticable and can be never otherwise”, Dandy, 1945 [2]. This assumption of one of the greatest neurosurgeons of the 20th century proved to be wrong. The idea of reaching the pituitary along the preformed route through the nose and the sphenoid sinus goes back to Davide Giordano’s [4] theoretical considerations in 1894. Schloffer [13] first practically tried to access the pituitary by reflecting the nose and removing most of what is inside it, i.e. the nasal septum, the turbinates and the ethmoid. Kanavel [8] only reflected the lower half of the nose and thus spared the ethmoid, while Halstead [5] used a sublabial approach. With Hirsch’s [6, 7] work the transnasal approach made its first breakthrough in 1909.


Internal Carotid Artery Cavernous Sinus Sphenoid Sinus Nasal Septum Ophthalmic Artery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Wien 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Tschabitscher
  • R. J. Galzio

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