The Endoscope, Endoscopic Equipment and Instrumentation

  • M. Leonhard
  • P. Cappabianca
  • E. de Divitiis


Endoscopic pituitary surgery, like any other surgery performed by means of the endoscope as instrument to see and inspect the human anatomy and the surgical target, can be represented as a sort of chain where its weakest ring determines the overall effectiveness of the whole structure. The rings of the chain can be considered the endoscope itself, all the connections and devices aimed at showing the surgical images, i.e. the endoscopic equipment, and the specific surgical instruments produced to realize all the peculiar steps of the operation under the best conditions.


Sellar Region High Quality Video Endoscopic Endonasal Approach Xenon Light Source Endoscopic Equipment 
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© Springer-Verlag Wien 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Leonhard
  • P. Cappabianca
  • E. de Divitiis

There are no affiliations available

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