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Navigation pp 59-76 | Cite as

Physical fundamentals

  • Bernhard Hofmann-Wellenhof
  • Klaus Legat
  • Manfred Wieser

Abstract

Electromagnetic waves are formed when an electric field (E-field) couples with a magnetic field (H-field). Field vectors of the electric and the magnetic field of an electromagnetic wave are perpendicular to each other and to the direction of the wave (Fig. 4.1). The plane containing the field vectors of the E-field defines the polarization of the wave (linear, circular, or elliptical).

Keywords

Electromagnetic Wave Radio Wave Physical Fundamental Neutral Atmosphere Clock Error 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernhard Hofmann-Wellenhof
    • 1
  • Klaus Legat
    • 1
  • Manfred Wieser
    • 2
  1. 1.Abteilung für Positionierung und NavigationAustria
  2. 2.Abteilung für Theoretische GeodäsieTechnische Universität GrazGrazAustria

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