Microcantilevers for Physical, Chemical, and Biological Sensing
Recent advances in designing and fabricating microcantilever beams capable of detecting extremely small forces, mechanical stresses, and mass additions offer the promising prospects of chemical, physical, and biological sensing with unprecedented sensitivity and dynamic range. Molecular adsorption on a cantilever surface can be detected by measuring the shift in the cantilever resonance frequency. If the adsorption is confined to one surface of a cantilever, the resulting differential surface stress leads to cantilever bending, thus providing an additional method of detecting molecular adsorption. Differential stresses can also be created by mismatches in thermal expansion of two cantilever materials, thus resulting in highly sensitive temperature and radiation sensors. By functionalizing cantilever beams with receptors, and by using the selectivity of chemical and biochemical receptor-ligand interactions, chemical and biological sensing can be achieved with high specificity and sensitivity. Here, we review the development of microcantilever sensors and sensor arrays, and present illustrative applications of chemical, physical, and biological sensing based on microcantilevers.
KeywordsSurface Acoustic Wave Gold Film Cantilever Deflection Mercury Adsorption Probe ssDNA
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Albrecht TR, Akamine S, Carver TE, Quate CF (1990) Microfabrication of cantilever styli for the atomic force microscope. J Vac Sci Technol A8: 3386–3396Google Scholar
- Ballantine DS, White RM, Martin SJ, Ricco AJ, Frye GC, Zellers ET, Wohltjen H (1997) Acoustic Wave Sensors: Theory, Design, and Physicochemical Applications. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
- Baller MK, Lang HP, Fritz J, Gerber Ch, Gimzewski JK, Drechsler U, Rothuizen H, Despont M, Vettiger P, Battison FM, Ramseyer JP, Fornaro P, Mayer E, Guntherdot HJ (2000) A cantilever array based artificial nose. Ultra-microscopy 82: 1–9Google Scholar
- Ji HF, Hansen KM, Hu Z, Thundat T (2001) Detection of pH variation using modified microcantilever sensors. Sens Actuators B72: 233–238Google Scholar
- McGill RA, Abraham MH, Grate JW (1994). Choosing polymer coatings for chemical sen-sors. CHEMTECH 24: 27–37Google Scholar
- Sarid D (1994) Scanning Force Microscopy. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Tulle ON, Stelzer EL (1993) Piezoresistive prop-erties of silicon diffused layers. J Appl Phys 34: 323–329Google Scholar