Advertisement

Advances in understanding and use of autoantibodies as markers of diseases

  • Marvin J. Fritzler
  • Leeanne J. Schoenroth

Abstract

Human autoantibodies have a significant place in the history of clinical and molecular medicine. First, dating to original observations of the LE cell in 1948 (Hargraves et al. 1948) to the present-day applications of array analyses, their use as diagnostic and prognostic markers of disease has been a valuable adjunct to clinical medicine (Tan 1991,(1999). Second, the role of autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of the disease has provided some useful approaches to therapy (G. Hahn 1986, B. Hahn etal. 2001). Third, a significant impact has been felt in the field of cell and molecular biology, where human autoantibodies have opened new fields of study and resulted in significant incremental knowledge through their use as reagents to discover and understand the function of novel cellular compartments (Tan 1991, von Muhlen and Tan 1995, Fritzler 1996). Small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and the splicesome (Tan 1991, Lerner and Steitz 1981), unique centromere/kinetochore (Earnshaw and Rothfield 1985, Rattner 1995), nucleolar (Reimer etal. 1987, Fritzler 1993), Golgi complex (Chan and Fritzler 1998), and endosome (Selak et al. 1999, Waite et al. 1998) proteins were all elucidated through the use of human autoantibodies.

Keywords

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patient Mixed Connective Tissue Disease Congenital Heart Block Early Endosome Antigen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alarcon-Segovia D, Ruiz-Arguelles A, Fishbein E (1978) Antibody to nuclear ribonucleoprotein penetrates live human mononuclear cells through Fc receptors. Nature 271: 67–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alarcon-Segovia D, Ruiz-Arguelles A, Fishbein E (1979) Antibody penetration into living cells I: intra-nuclear immunoglobulin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in mixed connective tissue disease and systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Exp Immunol 35: 364–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alarcon-Segovia D, Llorente L, Ruiz-Arguelles A (1996a) Autoantibodies that penetrate into living cells. In: Peter JB, Shoenfeld Y (eds) Autoantibodies. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 96–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alarcon-Segovia D, Ruiz-Arguelles A, Llorente L (1996b) Broken dogma: penetration of autoantibodies into living cells. Immunol Today 17: 163–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnett FC, Reveille JD, Goldstein R, Pollard KM, Leaird K, Smith EA, Carwile EC, Fritzler MJ (1996) Autoantibodies to fibrillarin in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma): an immunogenetic, serological and clinical analysis. Arthritis Rheum 39: 1151–1160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnett FC, Fritzler MJ, Ahn C, Holian A (2000) Urinary mercury levels in patients with autoantibodies to U3-RNP (fibrillarin). J Rheumatol 27: 405–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bachman M, Pfeifer K, Schroder HC, Muller WEG (1990) Characterization of the autoantigen La as a nucleic acid-dependent ATPase/dATPase with melting properties. Cell 60: 85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnett J (1996) Statement from the work session on chemically-induced alterations in the developing immune system: the wildlife/human connection. Environ Health Perspect 104: 807–808Google Scholar
  9. Baron M, Lee P, Keystone EC (1982) The articular manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Ann Rheum Dis 41: 147–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ben-Chetrit E, Chan EKL, Sullivan KF, Tan EM (1988) A 52-kD protein is a novel component of the SS-A/Ro antigenic particle. J Exp Med 167: 1560–1571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bigazzi PE (1997) Autoimmunity caused by xenobiotics. Toxicology 119: 1–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bigazzi PE, Burek CL, Rose NR (1992) Antibodies to tissue-specific endocrine, gastrointestinal, and surface-receptor antigens. In: Rose NR, de Macario EC, Fahey JL, Friedman H, Penn GM (eds) Manual of clinical laboratory immunology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, pp 765–774Google Scholar
  13. Blank M, Mendlovic S, Fricke H, Mozes E, Talal N, Shoenfeld Y (1990) Sex hormone involvement in the induction of experimental systemic lupus erythematosus by a pathogenic anti-DNA idiotype in naive mice. J Rheumatol 17: 311–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Boire G, Craft J (1990) Human Ro ribonucleoprotein particles: characterization of native structure and stable association with the La polypeptide. J Clin Invest 85: 1182–1190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boire G, Lopez-Longo F-J, Lapointe S, Menard H-A (1991) Sera from patients with autoimmune disease recognize conformational determinants on the 60-kd Ro/SS-A protein. Arthritis Rheum 34: 722–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bondeson J, Maini RN (2001) Tumour necrosis factor as a therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases: the clinical experience with infliximab (Remicade). Int J Clin Pract 55:211–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bossuyt X, Meurs L, Me wis A, Marien G, Blanckaert N (2000) Screening for autoantibodies to SS-A/Ro by indirect immunofluorescence using HEp-2000TM cells. Ann Clin Biochem 37: 216–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burlingame RW, Rubin RL (1996) Autoantibody to the nucleosome subunit (H2A-H2B)-DNA is an early and ubiquitous feature of lupus-like conditions. Mol Biol Rep 23: 159–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Buyon JP, Slade SG, Chan EKL, Tan EM, Winchester R (1990) Effective separation of the 52 kDa SSA/Ro polypeptide from the 48 kDa SSB/La polypeptide by altering conditions of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. J Immunol Methods 129: 207–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Buyon JP, Waltuck J, Caldwell K, Crawford B, Slade SG, Copel J, Chan EKL (1994) Relationship between maternal and neonatal levels of antibodies to 48 kDa SSB(La), 52 kDa SSA(Ro), and 60 kDa SSA(Ro) in pregnancies complicated by congenital heart block. J Rheumatol 21: 1943–1950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Buyon JP, Tseng CE, DiDonato F, Rashbaum W, Morris A, Chan EKL (1997) Cardiac expression of 52(3, an alternative transcript of the congenital heart block-associated 52-kd SS-A/Ro autoantigen, is maximal during fetal development. Arthritis Rheum 40: 655–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Casiano CA, Humbel RL, Peebles C, Covini G, Tan EM (1995) Autoimmunity to the cell cycle-dependent centromere protein p330d/CENP-F in disorders associated with cell proliferation. J Autoimmun 8: 575–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cavagna L, Caporali R, Epis O, Bobbio-Pallavicini F, Montecucco C (2001) Inflixamab in the treatment of adult Still’s disease refractory to conventional therapy. Clin Exp Rheumatol 19: 329–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chan EKL, Buyon JP (1994) The SS-A/Ro antigen. In: Van Venrooij W, Maini RN (eds) Manual of biological markers of disease. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  25. Chan EKL, Fritzler MJ (1998) Golgins: coiled-coil-rich proteins associated with the Golgi complex. Electronic J Biotechnol 1: http://ejb.ucv.cl/content/voll/issue2/full/l
  26. Charles PJ, Smeenk RJT, DeJong J, Feldman M, Maini RN (2000) Assessment of antibodies to double-stranded DNA induced in rheumatoid arthritis patients following treatment with imflixamab, a monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor a. Arthritis Rheum 43: 2383–2390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Clark G, Reichlin M, Tomasi TB (1969) Characterization of a soluble cytoplasmic antigen reactive with sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Immunol 102: 117–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dalifard I, Daver A, Larra F (1999) Cytosolic p53 protein and serum p53 autoantibody evaluation in breast cancer: comparison with prognostic factors. Anticancer Res 19: 5015–5022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Davies MJ (2001) Microfluidics venture. Trends Biotechnol 19: 331–332Google Scholar
  30. D’Haens GR (1999) Infliximab (Remicade), a new biological treatment for Crohn’s disease. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol 31: 519–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. D’Haens G (2000) Infliximab (Remicade): the magic bullet for Crohn’s disease? Dig Liver Dis 32: 653–656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Drachman DB, Adams RN, Josifek LF, Self SG (1982) Functional activities of autoantibodies to acetylcholine receptors and the clinical severity of myasthenia gravis. N Engl J Med 307: 769–775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Earnshaw WC, Rothfield N (1985) Identification of a family of human centromere proteins using autoimmune sera from patients with scleroderma. Chromosoma 91: 313–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fernandes G, Talal N (1986) SLE: hormones and diet. Clin Exp Rheumatol 4: 183–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Forman MS, Nakamura M, Mimori T, Gelpi C, Hardin JA (1985) Detection of antibodies to small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and small cytoplasmic ribonucleoproteins using unlabeled cell extracts. Arthritis Rheum 28: 1356–1361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fritzler MJ (1986) Autoantibody testing: procedures and significance in systemic rheumatic diseases. Methods Achiev Exp Pathol 12: 224–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fritzler MJ (1993) Autoantibodies in scleroderma. J Dermatol 20: 257–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fritzler MJ (1996) Clinical relevance of autoantibodies in systemic rheumatic diseases. Mol Biol Rep 23: 133–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fritzler MJ (1997) Autoantibodies: diagnostic fingerprints and etiologic perplexities. Clin Invest Med 20: 50–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Fritzler MJ, Miller BJ (1995) Detection of autoantibodies to SS-A/Ro by indirect immunofluorescence using a transfected and overexpressed human 60 kD Ro autoantigen in HEp-2 cells. J Clin Lab Anal 9: 218–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fritzler MJ, Rubin RL (1993) Drug-induced lupus. In: Dubois EL, Hahn B, Wallace DJ (eds) Dubois’ lupus erythematosus. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 442–453Google Scholar
  42. Fritzler MJ, Salazar M (1991) The diversity and origin of rheumatologic autoantibodies. Clin Microbiol Rev 4: 256–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fülllekrug J, Scheiffele P, Simons K (1999) VIP36 localisation to the early secretory pathway. J Cell Sci 112: 2813–2821Google Scholar
  44. Golden RJ, Noller KL, Titus-Ernstoff L, Kaufman RH, Mittendorf R, Stillman R, Reese EA (1998) Environmental endocrine modulators and human health: an assessment of the biological evidence. Crit Rev Toxicol 28: 109–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Golsteyn EJ, Fritzler MJ (1987) Review: The role of the thymus-hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in normal immun processes and autoimmunity. J Rheumatol 14: 982–990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gomez CM, Richman DP (1983) Anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies directed against the α-bungarotoxin binding site induce a unique form of experimental myasthenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80: 4089–4093PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gorman JD, Sack KE, Davis JC (2001) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of etanercept (Enbrel®) in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 44: S91Google Scholar
  48. Hahn BH (2001) Animal models of systemic lupus erythematosus. In: Wallace DJ, Hahn BH (eds) Dubois’ lupus erythematosus. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 339–388Google Scholar
  49. Hahn BH, Singh RR, Wong WK, Tsao BP, Bulpitt K, Ebling FM (2001) Treatment with a consensus peptide based on amino acid sequences in autoantibodies prevents T cell activation by autoantigens and delays disease onset in murine lupus. Arthritis Rheum 44: 432–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hahn GS (1986) Immunoglobulin-derived drugs. Nature 324: 283–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hargraves MM, Richmond H, Morton R (1948) Presentation of two bone marrow elements: the “tart” cells and the “L.E.” cell. Mayo Clin Proc 27: 25–28Google Scholar
  52. Harmon CE, Deng JS, Peebles CL, Tan EM (1984) The importance of tissue substrate in the SS-ARo antigen-antibody system. Arthritis Rheum 27: 166–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Herkel J, Erez-Alon N, Mimran A, Wolkowicz R, Harmelin A, Ruiz P, Rotter V, Cohen IR (2000) Systemic lupus erythematosus in mice, spontaneous and induced, is associated with autoimmunity to the C-terminal domain of p53 that recognizes damaged DNA. Eur J Immunol 30: 977–984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hultman P, Enestrom S, Pollard KM, Tan EM (1989) Anti-fibrillarin antibodies in mercury-treated mice. Clin Exp Immunol 78: 470–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hultman P, Enestrom S, Turley SJ, Pollard KM (1994a) Selective induction of anti-fibrillarin autoantibodies by silver nitrate in mice. Clin Exp Immunol 96: 285–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hultman P, Johansson U, Turley SJ, Lindh U, Enestrom S, Pollard KM (1994b) Adverse immunological effects and autoimmunity induced by dental amalgam and alloy in mice. FASEB J 8: 1183–1190Google Scholar
  57. Imai H, Ochs RL, Kiyosawa K, Furuta S, Nakamura RM, Tan EM (1992) Nucleolar antigens and autoantibodies in hepatocellular carcinoma and other malignancies. Am J Pathol 140: 859–870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Imai H, Chan EKL, Kiyosawa K, Fu XD, Tan EM (1993a) Novel nuclear autoantigen with splicing factor motifs identified with antibody from hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Invest 92: 2419–2426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Imai H, Nakano Y, Kiyosawa K, Tan EM (1993b) Increasing titers and changing specificities of anti-nuclear antibodies in patients with chronic liver disease who develop hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 71: 26–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Imai H, Furuta K, Landberg G, Kiyosawa K, Liu LF, Tan EM (1995) Autoantibody to DNA topoisomerase II in primary liver cancer. Clin Cancer Research 1: 417–424Google Scholar
  61. Kalden JR (2000) The application of infliximab (Remicade), a chimeric monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Isr Med Assoc J 2 Suppl: 11–2–1–12Google Scholar
  62. Kavlock RJ, Daston GP, DeRosa C, Fenner-Crisp P, Gray LE, Kaattari S, Lucier G, Luster M, Mac MJ, Maczka C, Miller R, Moore J, Rolland R, Scott GSDM, Sinks T, Tilson HA (1996) Research needs for the risk assessment of health and environmental effects of endocrine disruptors: a report of the U.S. EPA-sponsored Workshop. Environ Health Perspect 104: 715–808PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Keech CL, McCluskey J, Gordon TP (1994) Transfection and overexpression of the human 60-kDa Ro/SS-A autoantigen in HEp-2 cells. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 73: 146–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Keech CL, Howarth S, Coates T, Rischmueller M, McCluskey J, Gordon TP (1996) Rapid and sensitive detection of anti-Ro (SS-A) antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence of 60 kDa Ro HEp-2 transfectants. Pathology 28: 54–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kovacs B, Patel A, Hershey JN, Dennis GJ, Kirschfink M, Tsokos GC (1997) Antibodies against p53 in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases. Arthritis Rheum 40: 980–985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lahita RG (1992) The importance of estrogens in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 63: 17–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lerner MR, Steitz JA (1981) Snurps and scyrps. Cell 25: 298–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Leung PSC, Gershwin ME (1990) The molecular structure of autoantigens. Curr Opin Immunol 2: 567–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lovell DJ, Giannini EH, Reiff A, Cawkwell GD, Silverman ED, Nocton JJ (2000) Etanercept in children with polyarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med 342: 763–769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lubin R, Schlichtholz B, Bengoufa D, Zalcman G, Tredaniel J, Hirsch A, Caron de Fromentel C, Preud-homme C, Fenaux P, Fournier G, Mangin P, Laurent-Puig P, Pelletier G, Schlumberger M, Desgrand-champs F, Le Due A, Peyrat JP, Janin N, Bressac B, Soussi T (1993) Analysis of p53 antibodies in patients with various cancers define B-cell epitopes of human p53: distribution on primary structure and exposure on protein surface. Cancer Res 53: 5872–5876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Manoussakis MN, Kistis KG, Liu X, Aidinis V, Guialis A, Moutsopoulos HM (1993) Detection of anti-Ro(SS-A) antibodies in autoimmune diseases: comparison of five methods. Br J Rheumatol 32: 449–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mease PJ, Goffe MS, Metz J, Van der Stoep A, Finck B, Burge DJ (2000) Etanercept in the treatment of psoraitic arthritis and psoriasis: a randomized trial. Lancet 356: 385–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Meilof JF, Bantjes I, de Jong J, Van Dam AP, Smeenk RJT (1990) The detection of anti-Ro(SS-A) and anti-La(SS-B) antibodies: a comparison of counterimmunoelectrophoresis with immunoblot, ELISA, and RNA-precipitation assays. J Immunol Methods 133: 215–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Miranda ME, Tseng CE, Rashbaum W, Ochs RL, Casiano CA, Di Donato F, Chan EKL, Buyon JP (1998) Accessibility of SSA/Ro and SSB/La antigens to maternal autoantibodies in apoptotic human fetal cardiac myocytes. J Immunol 161: 5061–5069PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Miranda-Carús ME, Askanase AD, Clancy RM, Di Donato F, Chou TM, Libera MR, Chan EKL, Buyon JP (2000) Anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La autoantibodies bind the surface of apoptotic fetal cardiocytes and promote secretion of TNF-a by macrophages. J Immunol 165: 5345–5351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Mitchell P (2001) Microfluidics: downsizing large-scale biology. Nat Biotechnol 19: 717–721PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mongey AB, Hess EV (1993) Drug and environmental effects on the induction of autoimmunity. J Lab Clin Med 122: 652–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Montanaro A, Bardana EJ (1991) Dietary amino acid-induced systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 17: 323–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Moore A (2001) Brave small world: biotechnology and nanotechnology may give rise to a completely new industry. EMBO Rep 2: 86–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Morozzi G, Bellisai F, Simpatico A, Pucci G, Bacarelli MR, Campanella V, Marcolongo R, Galeazzi M (2000) Comparison of differrent methods for the detection of anti-Ro/SSAm antibodies in connective tissue diseases. Clin Exp Rheumatol 18: 729–731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Mountz JD, Wu J, Cheng J, Zhou T (1994) Autoimmune disease: a problem of defective apoptosis. Arthritis Rheum 37: 1415–1420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mudenda B, Green JA, Green B, Jenkins JR, Robertson L, Tarunina M, Leinster SJ (1994) The relationship between serum p53 autoantibodies and characteristics of human breast cancer. Br J Cancer 69: 1115–1119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ochs RL, Stein TW Jr, Tan EM (1994) Coiled bodies in the nucleolus of breast cancer cells. J Cell Sci 107: 385–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Okano Y, Steen YD, Medsger TA Jr (1992) Autoantibody to U3 nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (fibrillarin) in patients with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 35: 95–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Overwijk WW, Restifo NP (2001) Autoimmunity and immunotherapy of cancer: targeting the “self” to destroy the “other”. Crit Rev Immunol 20: 433–450Google Scholar
  86. Peene I, Van Ael W, Van den bossche M, Vervaet T, Veys E, De Keyser F (2000) Sensitivity of the HEp-2000 substrate for the detection of anti-SSA/Ro60 antibodies. Clin Rheumatol 19: 291–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Petri M, Howard D, Repke J (1991) Frequency of lupus flare in pregnancy: the Hopkins lupus pregnancy center experience. Arthritis Rheum 34: 1538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pisetsky DS (2000) Tumor necrosis factor alpha blockers and the induction of anti-DNA autoantibodies. Arthritis Rheum 43: 2381–2382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pollard KM, Pearson DL, Hultman P, Deane TN, Lindh U, Kono DH (2001) Xenobiotic acceleration of idiopathic systemic autoimmunity in lupus-prone BXSB Mice. Environ Health Perspect 109: 27–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pollock W, Toh BH (1999) Routine immunofluorescence detection of Ro/SS-A autoantibody using HEp-2 cells transfected with human 60 kDa Ro/SS-A. J Clin Pathol 52: 684–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rader MD, O’Brien C, Liu Y, Harley JB, Reichlin M (1989) Heterogeneity of the Ro/SSA antigen: different molecular forms in lymphocytes and red blood cells. J Clin Invest 83: 1293–1298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rattner JB (1995) Centromeres and telomeres. In: Bittar EE, Bittar N (eds) Principles of medical biology. JAI Press, Greenwich, Conn, pp 93–120Google Scholar
  93. Rattner JB, Rees J, Whitehead CM, Casiano CA, Tan EM, Humbel R-L, Conrad K, Fritzler MJ (1997) High frequency of neoplasia in patients with autoantibodies to centromere protein CENP-F. Clin Invest Med 20: 308–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Reimer G, Raska I, Tan EM, Scheer U (1987) Human autoantibodies: probes for nucleolus structure and function. Virchows Arch B 54: 131–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rothfield NF (1992) Autoantibodies in scleroderma. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 18: 483–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Rubin RL, Burlingame RW (1991) Biochemical mechanisms in autoimmunity. Biochem Soc Trans 19: 153–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Saleem G, Li SC, MacPherson BR, Cooper SM (2001) Hepatitis with interference inflammation and IgG, IgM, and IgA anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies following inflixamab therapy: comment of article by Charles et al. Arthritis Rheum 44: 1966–1968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Selak S, Scheonroth L, Senecal J-L, Fritzler MJ (1999) Early endosome antigen 1: an autoantigen associated with neurological diseases. J Invest Med 47: 311–318Google Scholar
  99. Slobbe RL, Pruijn GJM, Damen WGM, Van Der Kemp JWCM, Van Venrooij WJ (1991) Detection and occurrence of the 60-and 52-kD Ro-(SS-A) antigens and of autoantibodies against these proteins. Clin Exp Immunol 86: 99–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Soussi T (2000) p53 antibodies in the sera of patients with various types of cancer: a review. Cancer Res 60: 1777–1788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Stokes DL, Griffin GD, Yo-Dinh T (2001) Detection of E. coli using a microfluidics-based antibody biochip detection system. Fresenius J Anal Chem 369: 295–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Stollar BD (1990) The origin and pathogenic role of anti-DNA antibodies. Curr Opin Immunol 2: 607–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Stone M, Salomen D, Lax B, Payne U, Lapp V, Inman R (2001) Clinical and imaging correlates of response to treatment with inflixamab in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol 28: 1605–1614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Takano S, Matsushima H, Hiwatashi T, Miyachi K (1989) Detection of anti-SS-A/Ro antibody by using pig spleen supernatant and characterization of corresponding antigen. 2(1): 67–78Google Scholar
  105. Takeuchi K, Turley SJ, Tan EM, Pollard KM (1995) Analysis of the autoantibody response to fibrillarin in human disease and murine models of autoimmunity. J Immunol 154: 961–971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Tan EM (1989) Antinuclear antibodies: diagnostic markers for autoimmune diseases and probes for cell biology. Adv Immunol 44: 93–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tan EM (1991) Autoantibodies in pathology and cell biology. Cell 67: 841–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Tan EM (1999) Autoantibodies in diagnosis and identifying autoantigens. Immunologist 7: 85–92Google Scholar
  109. Tan EM, Smolen JS, McDougal JS, Klippel JH, Fritzler MJ, Gordon TP, Hardin JA, Kalden JR, Lahita RG, Maini RN, Rothfield NF, Takasaki Y, Wiik A, Wilson MR, Koziol JA (2002) A critical evaluation of enzyme immunoassay kits for the detection of antinuclear antibodies of defined specificities II: potential for quantitation of antibody content. J Rheumatol 29: 68–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Tseng CE, Buyon JP (1997) Neonatal lupus syndromes. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 23: 31–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Tseng CE, Caldwell K, Feit S, Chan EKL, Buyon JP (1996) Subclass distribution of maternal and neonatal anti-Ro(SSA) and La(SSB) antibodies in congenital heart block. J Rheumatol 23: 925–932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. van Bruggen MC, Kramers C, Hylkema MN, Smeenk RJ, Berden JH (1994) Pathophysiology of lupus nephritis: the role of nucleosomes. Neth J Med 45: 273–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Verthelyi D, Ahmed SA (1999) Characterization of estrogen-induced autoantibodies to cardiolipin in non-autoimmune mice. Autoimmunity 10: 115–125Google Scholar
  114. von Muhlen CA, Tan EM (1995) Autoantibodies in the diagnosis of systemic rheumatic disease. Semin Arthritis Rheum 24: 323–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. von Muhlen CA, Chan EKL, Angles-Cano E, Mamula MJ, Garcia-de la Torre I, Fritzler MJ (1998) Advances in autoantibodies in SLE. Lupus 7: 507–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Waite RL, Sentry JW, Stenmark H, Toh BH (1998) Autoantibodies to a novel early endosome antigen 1.Clin Immunol Immunopathol 86: 81–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wolin SL, Steitz JA (1984) The Ro small cytoplasmic ribonucleoproteins: identification of the antigenic protein and its binding site on the Ro RNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 1996–2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Woolley AT (2001) Biomedical microdevices and nanotechnology. Trends Biotechnol 19: 38–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Xia P, Fritz KA, Geoghegan WD, Jordon RE (1987) The particulate (speckled-like thread) nuclear staining pattern: species and cellular distribution of the Ro/SS-A antigen. J Clin Lab Immunol 22: 101–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Yang JM, Baserga SJ, Turley SJ, Pollard KM (2001) Fibrillarin and other snoRNP proteins are targets of autoantibodies in xenobiotic-induced autoimmunity. Clin Immunol 101: 38–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marvin J. Fritzler
    • 1
    • 2
  • Leeanne J. Schoenroth
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations