Advertisement

Use of olfactory ensheathing cells as candidates for transplant-mediated repair of central nervous system lesions

  • Susan C. Barnett

Abstract

The rat olfactory system is a tissue of extreme interest. It has the capacity to support axonal outgrowth throughout the life of the animal and more specifically can maintain continual growth of olfactory axons during natural turnover and also after injury. These newly generated neurons originate from stem cells present in the olfactory epithelium and extend axons which can penetrate into the adult central nervous system (CNS) tissue and resynapse with the second-order axons present at the glomerolus in the olfactory bulb (Doucette 1984, Farbman 1990, Raisman 1985). It is thought that this property is in part due to the specialized glial cells that ensheath the olfactory neurons and reside in the olfactory bulb and nerve known as olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) (Fig. 1).

Keywords

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Olfactory Bulb Olfactory Epithelium Olfactory Nerve Central Nervous System Lesion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander CL, FitzGerald UF, Barnett SC (2002) Identification of growth factors that promote long-term proliferation of olfactory ensheathing cells and modulate their antigenic phenotype. Glia 37: 349–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barber PC, Dahl D (1987) Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-like immunoreactivity in normal and transected rat olfactory nerve. Exp Brain Res 65: 681–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnett SC (1993) The culture of central nervous system (CNS) glial cells. In: Freshney IR (ed) Culture of animal cells, 3rd edn. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 337–341Google Scholar
  4. Barnett SC, Franceschini IA (1999) Adhesion molecule expression and phenotype of glial cells in the olfactory tract. Adv Exp Med Biol 468: 297–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnett SC, Hutchins AM, Noble M (1993) Purification of olfactory nerve ensheathing cells from the olfactory bulb. Dev Biol 155: 337–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnett SC, Alexander CL, Gilson J, Clark L, Dunn L, Papanastassiou V, Kennedy PGE, Ishwashita Y, Franklin RJM (2000) Identification of the human olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) and demonstration of its ability to remyelinate experimentally-induced demyelinating lesions in the rat spinal cord. Brain 123: 101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blakemore WF, Franklin RJM (1991) Transplantation of glial cells into the CNS. Trends Neurosci 14: 323–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blakemore WF, Crang AJ, Franklin RJ (1990) Transplantation of glial cell cultures into areas of demyelination in the adult CNS. Prog Brain Res 82: 225–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blakemore WF, Franklin RJ, Crang AJ (1994) Repair of demyelinated lesions by glial cell transplantation. J Neurol 242: S61–S63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blakemore WF, Olby NJ, Franklin RJM (1995) The use of transplanted glial cells to reconstruct glial environments in the CNS. Brain Pathol 5: 443–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bottenstein J, Hayashi I, Hutchings S, Masui H, Mather J, McCLure DB, Ohasa S, Rizzino A, Sato G, Serrero G, Wolfe R, Wu R (1979) The growth of cells in serum-free hormone-supplemented media. Methods Enzymol 58: 94–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bonfanti L, Poulain DA, Theodosis DT (1993) Putative factors implicated in the structural plasticity of the hypothalamoneurohypophyseal system. Regul Pept 45: 165–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Doucette JR (1984) The glial cells in the nerve fiber layer of the rat olfactory bulb. Anat Rec 210: 385–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Farbman Al (1990) Olfactory neurogenesis: genetic or environmental controls? Trends Neurosci 13: 362–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Franceschini IA, Barnett SC (1996) Low-affinity NGF-receptor and E-N-CAM expression define two types of olfactory nerve ensheathing cells that share a common lineage. Dev Biol 173: 327–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Franklin RJM, Barnett SC (1997) Do olfactory glia have advantages over Schwann cells for CNS repair? J Neurosci Res 50: 1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Franklin RJM, Barnett SC (2000) Olfactory ensheathing cells and CNS regeneration: the sweet smell of success? Neuron 28:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Franklin RJ, Blakemore WF (1998) Transplanting myelin-forming cells into the central nervous system: principles and practice. Methods 16: 311–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Franklin RJ, Gilson JM, Franceschini IA, Barnett SC (1996) Schwann cell-like myelination following transplantation of an olfactory bulb-ensheathing cell line into areas of demyelination in the adult CNS. Glia 17: 217–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Imaizumi T, Lankford KL, Waxman SG, Greer CA, Kocsis JD (1998) Transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells remyelinate and enhance axonal conduction in the demyelinated dorsal columns of the rat spinal cord. J Neurosci 18: 6176–6185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Imaizumi T, Kato T, Honmou O, Uede T, Hashi K (2000) Transplantation of human olfactory ensheathing cells elicits remyelination of demyelinated rat spinal cord. Glia 30: 209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li Y, Field PM, Raisman G (1997) Repair of adult rat corticospinal tract by transplants of olfactory ensheathing cells. Science 277: 2000–2002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li Y, Field PM, Raisman G (1998) Regeneration of adult rat corticospinal axons induced by transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells. J Neurosci 18: 10514–10524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lu J, Feron F, Ho SM, Mackay-Sim A, Waite PME (2001) Transplantation of nasal olfactory tissue promotes partial recovery in paraplegic adult rats. Brain Res 889: 344–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moran DT, Rowley JC, Jafek BW (1982) The fine structure of the human olfactory mucosa in man. JNeurocytol 11: 721–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Morrison EE, Costanzo RM (1990) Morphology of the human olfactory epithelium. J Comp Neurol 297: 1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Muller F, O’Rahilly R (1990) The human brain at stages 21–23, with particular reference to the cerebral cortical plate and to the development of the cerebellum. Anat Embryol 182: 375–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nakashima T, Kimmelman CP, Snow JB (1984) Structure of human fetal and adult olfactory neuro-epithelium. Arch Otolaryngol 71: 49–62Google Scholar
  29. Nakashima T, Kimmelman CP, Snow JB Jr (1985) Immunohistopathology of human olfactory epithelium, nerve and bulb. Laryngoscope 95: 391–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Navarro X, Valero A, Gudino G, Fores J, Rodriguez FJ, Verdu E, Pascual R, Cuadras J, Nieto-Sampedre M (1999) Ensheathing glia transplants promote dorsal root regeneration and spinal reflex restitution after multiple lumbar rhizotomy. Ann Neurol 45: 207–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Noble MD, Murray K (1984) Purified astrocytes promote the in vitro division of a bipotential glial progenitor cell. EMBO J 3: 2243–2247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Pixley SK (1992) The olfactory nerve contains two populations of glia, identified both in vivo and in vitro. Glia 5: 269–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pollock GS, Graham G, Marchionni MA, Barnett SC (1999) Neuregulin is a mitogen and survival factor for olfactory bulb ensheathing cell and is an isoform produced by astrocytes. Eur J Neurosci 11: 769–780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Raisman G (1985) Specialized neuroglial arrangement may explain the capacity of vomeronasal axons to reinnervate central neurons. Neuroscience 14: 237–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Raisman G (2001) Olfactory ensheathing cells: another miracle cure for spinal cord injury. Nat Rev Neurosci 2: 369–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ramon-Cueto A, Nieto-Sampedro M (1992) Glial cells from adult rat olfactory bulb: immunocytochemical properties of pure cultures of ensheathing cells. Neuroscience 47: 213–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ramon-Cueto A, Nieto-Sampedro M (1994) Regeneration into the spinal cord of transected dorsal root axons is promoted by ensheathing glia transplants. Exp Neurol 127: 232–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ramon-Cueto A, Perez J, Nieto-Sampedro M (1993) In vitro enfolding of olfactory neurites by p75 NGF receptor positive ensheathing cells from adult rat olfactory bulb. Eur J Neurosci 5: 1172–11780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ramon-Cueto A, Cordero MI, Santos-Benito FF, Avila J (2000) Functional recovery of paraplegic rats and motor axon regeneration in their spinal cords by olfactory ensheathing glia. Neuron 25: 425–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Seki T, Rutishauser U (1998) Removal of polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule induces aberrant mossy fiber innervation and ectopic synaptogenesis in the hippocampus. J Neurosci 18: 3757–3766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Smale KA, Doucette R, Kawaja MD (1996) Implantation of olfactory ensheathing cells in the adult rat brain following fimbria-fornix transection. Exp Neurol 137: 225–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Theodosis DT, Bonhomme R, Vitiello S, Rougon G, Poulain DA (1999) Cell surface expression of polysialic acid on NCAM is a prerequisite for activity-dependent morphological neuronal and glial plasticity. J Neurosci 19: 10228–10236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Yan H, Bunge MB, Wood PM, Plant GW (2001) Mitogenic response of adult rat olfactory ensheathing glia to four growth factors. Glia 33: 334–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan C. Barnett
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Neurology and Medical OncologyUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK

Personalised recommendations