Advertisement

Determination of Physical Constants

  • Frank L. Schneider
Part of the Monographien aus dem Gebiete der Qualitativen Mikroanalyse book series (MIKROANANALYSE, volume 2)

Abstract

The physical constants of both the original compound and at least one of its derivatives must be determined for the final recognition of a substance. As pointed out before, in addition to serving to identify a substance the physical constants may indicate its purity.

Keywords

Refractive Index Boiling Point Test Substance Physical Constant Molecular Weight Determination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. (1).
    Alber, H. K., Z. analyt. Chem. 90, 87 (1932).Google Scholar
  2. (2).
    Alber, H. K., and J. T. Bryant, Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 12, 305 (1940).Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    Amdtjr, I., and E. V. Hjort, Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 2, 259 (1930).Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    Anderson, H. H., Analyt. Chem. 20, 1241 (1948).Google Scholar
  5. (5).
    Arrequine, V., Anales soc. quim. Argentina 3, 133 (1915).Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    Ashton, F., D. F. Houston, and C. P. Saylor, Bur. Standards J. Research 11, 233 (1933).Google Scholar
  7. (7).
    Barger, G., Ber. 37, 1754 (1904).Google Scholar
  8. (8).
    Barker, T. V., Systematic Crystallography, London, Thomas Murphy and Co., 1930.Google Scholar
  9. (9).
    Behrens, H., and P. D. C. Kley, Mikrochemische Analyse, Leipzig, Leopold Voss, 1921, p. 258.Google Scholar
  10. (10).
    Behrens, H., and P. D. C. Kley, Organische mikrochemische Analyse, Leipzig, Leopold Voss, 1922.Google Scholar
  11. (11).
    Behrens, H., and Küster, Tabellen zum Gebrauch bei mikroskopischen Arbeiten, Leipzig, Leopold Voss, 1908, pp. 48, 50, 52.Google Scholar
  12. (12).
    Benedetti-Pichler, A. A., and F. Schneider, Z. analyt. Chem. 86, 69 (1931).Google Scholar
  13. (13).
    Benson, S. W., Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 13, 502 (1941).Google Scholar
  14. (14).
    Berl, E., and O. Hefter, Ann. 478, 235 (1930).Google Scholar
  15. (15).
    Biles, J. A., Mikrochem. 39, 69 (1952).Google Scholar
  16. (16).
    Blank, E.W., Ind. Eng. ehem., Analyt. Ed. 5, 74 (1933).Google Scholar
  17. (17).
    Blank, E.W., Ind. Eng. ehem., Analyt. Ed. 3, 9 (1961).Google Scholar
  18. (18).
    Blank, E. W., and M. Willard, J. Chem. Education 10, 109 (1933).Google Scholar
  19. (19).
    Blank, E.W., Ind. Eng. ehem., Analyt. Ed. 9, 1819 (1932).Google Scholar
  20. (20).
    Bold’irev, A. K., Mém. soc. russe mineral. [2] 53, 251; C (1962).Google Scholar
  21. (21).
    Bolland, A., Monatsh. 31, 387 (1910).Google Scholar
  22. (22).
    Bratton, A. C., and H. L. Lochte, Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 4, 365 (1932).Google Scholar
  23. (23).
    Brill, O., and C. Evans, J. Chem. Soc. London 93, 1442 (1908).Google Scholar
  24. (24).
    Btjrt-Gerrans, J. T., Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada, 26, Sect. III, 175 (1932).Google Scholar
  25. (25).
    Caley, E. R., Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 2, 177 (1930).Google Scholar
  26. (26).
    Cap, F., Mikrochem. 33, 195(1947).Google Scholar
  27. (27).
    Castle, R. N., Mikrochem. 38, 92(1951).Google Scholar
  28. (28).
    Castle, R. N., and N.F. Witt, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 71, 228 (1949).Google Scholar
  29. (29).
    Castle, R. N., N. F. Witt, and C. F. Poe, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 68, 64 (1946).Google Scholar
  30. (30).
    Chamot, E. and C. W. Mason, Handbook of Chemical Microscopy, 2nd ed., New York: J. Wiley and Sons, 1939; p. 383.Google Scholar
  31. (31).
    Chamot, E. and C. W. Mason, Handbook of Chemical Microscopy, 2nd ed., New York: J. Wiley and Sons, 1939;p. 261.Google Scholar
  32. (32).
    Chamot, E. and C. W. Mason, Handbook of Chemical Microscopy, 2nd ed., New York: J. Wiley and Sons, 1939; p. 377.Google Scholar
  33. (33).
    Clemo, G. R., and A. McQuillen, J. Chem. Soc. London, 1935, 1220.Google Scholar
  34. (34).
    Clerici, E., Atti Accad. Lincei Roma 31, 1, 116 (1922)Google Scholar
  35. (34a).
    Clerici, E., Atti Accad. Lincei Roma [6] 1, 329 (1925).Google Scholar
  36. (35).
    Clevenger S. F., Ind. Eng. Chem., 16, 854 (1924).Google Scholar
  37. (36).
    Codd, L. W., and W. T. Moore, Scientia Pharm. 5, 105 (1934).Google Scholar
  38. (37).
    Dangl, F., Mikrochem. 9, 333 (1931).Google Scholar
  39. (38).
    Davies, E. J., and N. H. Harts-horne, J. Chem. Soc. London 1830 (1934).Google Scholar
  40. (39).
    DeCrinis, M., Mikrochem. Pregl-Festschrift 25 (1929).Google Scholar
  41. (40).
    Deininger, J., Pharm. Ztg. 78, 362 (1933).Google Scholar
  42. (41).
    De Jong, W. F., Zentr. Mineral. Geol. Abt. A, 1935, 140.Google Scholar
  43. (42).
    Detre, L., Deutsch, med. Wochsch. 49, 985 (1923).Google Scholar
  44. (43).
    Donnay, J. P., and W. A. O’Brien, Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 17, 593 (1945).Google Scholar
  45. (44).
    Duc de Chatjlnes: Johannsen, Manual of Pétrographie Methods, New York: McGraw-Hill 1914, p. 238.Google Scholar
  46. (45).
    Dunbar, R.E., Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 11, 516 (1939).Google Scholar
  47. (46).
    Dunbar, R. E., and J. Knuteson, Microchem. J. 1, 17 (1957).Google Scholar
  48. (47).
    Edwards, A. E., and C. E. Otto, Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 10, 225 (1938).Google Scholar
  49. (48).
    Eigenberger, C., Mikrochem. 26, 264(1939).Google Scholar
  50. (49).
    Eisenlohr, F., and E. Wöhlisch, Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 53, 1746, 2053 (1920).Google Scholar
  51. (49a).
    Eisenlohr, F., and E. Wöhlisch, Z. angew. Chem. 34, 266 (1921).Google Scholar
  52. (50).
    Emich, F., Monatsh. 38, 219 (1917).Google Scholar
  53. (51).
    Emich, F., and F. Schneider, Microchemical Laboratory Manual, New York: John Wiley, 1932; p. 40.Google Scholar
  54. (52).
    Fajans, K., andC. A. Knorr, Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 59, 249 (1926).Google Scholar
  55. (53).
    Fen-ger-Erikson, K., A. Krough, and H. H. Ussing, Biochem. J. 30, 1264(1936).Google Scholar
  56. (54).
    Fischer, E., Ber. dtsch chem. Ges. 44, 129 (1911).Google Scholar
  57. (55).
    Friedel, W., Biochem. Z. 209, 65 (1929).Google Scholar
  58. (56).
    Friedrich, A., Mikrochem. 6, 97 (1928).Google Scholar
  59. (57).
    Fuchs, L., Mikrochim. Acta 2, 317 (1937).Google Scholar
  60. (58).
    Fulweiler, W. H., Proc. Am. Soc. Testing Materials, Pt. I, 519 (1926).Google Scholar
  61. (59).
    Garcia, C., Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 15, 648 (1943).Google Scholar
  62. (60).
    Garner, W., Ind. Chemist 5, 58 (1929).Google Scholar
  63. (61).
    Gicklhorn, J., R. Collander, Protoplasma 8, 440 (1930).Google Scholar
  64. (62).
    Gicklhorn, J., and A. Nistler, Protoplasma 7, 323 (1929).Google Scholar
  65. (63).
    Gilfillan, E. S., J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 56, 406 (1934).Google Scholar
  66. (64).
    Gill, A. H., and H. S. Simms, Ind. Eng. Chem. 13, 547 (1921).Google Scholar
  67. (65).
    Gilmore, E. H., M. Menaull, and V. Schneider, Analyt. Chemistry 22, 892 (1950).Google Scholar
  68. (66).
    Gould, C., G. Holzman, and C. Nieman, Analyt. Chemistry 19, 204 (1947).Google Scholar
  69. (67).
    Granick, S., Science 80, 272 (1934).Google Scholar
  70. (68).
    Groth, P., Elemente der physikalischen und chemischen Krystallographie, Munich: R.Oldenbourg, 1921.Google Scholar
  71. (69).
    Haas, P., Mikrochemie, Emich-Festschrift, 83 (1930).Google Scholar
  72. (70).
    Haber, F., and J. Jaenicke, Z. anorg. Chem. 147, 156 (1925).Google Scholar
  73. (71).
    Hansen-Houben, Die Methoden der organischen Chemie, 3rd ed., Vol. I, Leipzig: Georg Thieme, 1925; p. 850.Google Scholar
  74. (72).
    Hartshorne, N. H., and A. Stuart, Crystals and the Polarizing Microscope, 2nd ed. London: Arnold and Co., 1950.Google Scholar
  75. (73).
    Hays, E. E., F. W. Hart, and R. G. Gu-stavson, Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 8, 286 (1936).Google Scholar
  76. (74).
    Hochberg, S., and V. K. LaMer, Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 9, 291 (1937).Google Scholar
  77. (75).
    Houben, J., J. prakt. Chemie 105, 27 (1923).Google Scholar
  78. (76).
    Hultquist, M. E., C. F. Poe, and N. F. Witt, Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 14, 219 (1942).Google Scholar
  79. (77).
    Izmailov, N. A., and Z. P. Tkachenko, Farm. Zhur. 1938, No. 3, 29, (78)Google Scholar
  80. (78).
    Janák, F., Chem. Listy 24, 134 (1930).Google Scholar
  81. (79).
    Jelley, E. E., J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. 54, 234 (1934).Google Scholar
  82. (80).
    Johns, I. B., Laboratory Manual of Micro chemistry, Minneapolis: Burgess. 1942.Google Scholar
  83. (81).
    Jones, H. C., J. Chem. Soc. London, 33, 175 (1878).Google Scholar
  84. (82).
    Kamm, O., Qualitative Organic Analysis, 2nd ed., New York: John Wiley, 1932; p. 130.Google Scholar
  85. (82).
    Keenan, G. andR. M. Hann, J. Phys. Chem. 31, 1082 (1927).Google Scholar
  86. (84).
    Kiplinger, C. C., J. Chem. Soc. London 125, 963 (1924).Google Scholar
  87. (85).
    Kirk, P. L., and C. S. Gibson, Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 11, 403 (1939).Google Scholar
  88. (85).
    Klein, G., Mikro-chem. Pregl-Festschrift 193 (1929).Google Scholar
  89. (87).
    Kofler, L., Mikrochem. 22, 241 (1937).Google Scholar
  90. (88).
    Kofler, L., and H. Hilbck, Mikrochem. 9, 317 (1939).Google Scholar
  91. (89).
    Kofler, L., A. Kofler, and A. Mayrhofer, Mikroskopische Methoden in der Mikrochemie, Vienna: E. Haim, 1936.Google Scholar
  92. (90).
    Kofler, L., and E. Lindpaintner, Mikrochem. 24, 43 (1938).Google Scholar
  93. (91).
    Komárek, K., Chemie (Prague) 4, 30 (1948).Google Scholar
  94. (92).
    Ksanda, C. J., and H. E. Merwin, Amer. Miner. 24, 482 (1939).Google Scholar
  95. (93).
    Lakshminarayan, S., and U. M. Nayak, Journ. Ind. Chem. Soc. 8, 599 (1931).Google Scholar
  96. (94).
    Lewis, G. N., and R. T. McDonald, Journ. Chem. Physics 1, 341 (1933).Google Scholar
  97. (95).
    LinderstrøM-Lang, K., Nature 139, 713 (1937).Google Scholar
  98. (96).
    Linser, H., Mikrochem. 9, 253 (1930).Google Scholar
  99. (97).
    Ma, T. S., and R. T. Schenck, Microchem. 40, 242 (1953).Google Scholar
  100. (98).
    Marion, A., Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 12, 777 (1940).Google Scholar
  101. (99).
    Mason, F. A., Chem. and Ind. 44, 577 (1925).Google Scholar
  102. (100).
    Mayrhofer, A., Mikrochemie der Arzneimittel und Gifte, Berlin: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1928.Google Scholar
  103. (101).
    Mayrhofer, A., Pharm. Presse 37, 129 (1952)Google Scholar
  104. (101a).
    Mayrhofer, A., Pharm. Presse and Scientia Pharm. 5, 105 (1934).Google Scholar
  105. (102).
    McMullen, R. B., J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 48, 439 (1926).Google Scholar
  106. (103).
    Moehring, A., Wissenschaft u. Ind. 2, 17 (1923).Google Scholar
  107. (104).
    Morton, A. A., and J. F. Mahoney, Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 13, 498 (1941).Google Scholar
  108. (105).
    Muller, P., Ann. chim. anal. chim. appl. [2], 14, 340 (1932).Google Scholar
  109. (106).
    Mtjlliken, S. P., and E. H. Huntress, Identification of Pure Organic Compounds, New York: John Wiley, 1941.Google Scholar
  110. (107).
    Nash, L. K., Analyt. Chemistry 19, 799 (1947).Google Scholar
  111. (108).
    Nichols, L., Nat. Paint Bull. 1, 12, 1, 14, 1, 5 (1937).Google Scholar
  112. (109).
    Niederl, J. B., D. R. Kasanof, G. K. Kisch, and D. Subba Rao, Mikrochem. 34, 132 (1949)Google Scholar
  113. (110).
    Niederl, J. B., and A. M. Levy, Science 92, 225 (1940).Google Scholar
  114. (111).
    Niederl, J. B., and W. Saschek, Z. analyt. Chem. 77, 169 (1929)Google Scholar
  115. (111).
    Niederl, J. B., and W. Saschek, Z. analyt. Chem. and Mikrochem. 11, 237 (1932).Google Scholar
  116. (112).
    Niethammer, A., Mikrochem. 7, 223 (1929).Google Scholar
  117. (113).
    Peak, D. A., and R. A. Robinson, J. Phys. Chem. 38, 941 (1934).Google Scholar
  118. (114).
    Per-man, E. P., J. Chem. Soc. London 87, 194 (1905).Google Scholar
  119. (115).
    Porter, M. W., Endeavour 10, 188 (1951).Google Scholar
  120. (116).
    Porter, M. W., and R. C. Spiller, The Barker Index of Crystals, Cambridge: Heffer and Sons, 1951.Google Scholar
  121. (117).
    Pregl-Fylemann, Quantitative Organic Microanalysis, Philadelphia: Blakiston 1930; p. 206.Google Scholar
  122. (118).
    Pregl-Roth, Die quantitative organische Mikroanalyse, Berlin: J. Springer 1935; p. 307.Google Scholar
  123. (119).
    Rassow, H., Z. anorg. Chemie 114, 117 (1920).Google Scholar
  124. (120).
    Rast, K. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 55, 1051, 3727 (1922).Google Scholar
  125. (121).
    Rast, K., Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 54, 1979 (1921).Google Scholar
  126. (122).
    Ray, R. C., and Y. Dayal, Trans. Faraday Soc. 32, 741 (1936).Google Scholar
  127. (123).
    Retgers, Z. physik. Chem. 3, 289 (1889).Google Scholar
  128. (124).
    Rieche, A., Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 59, 2181 (1926).Google Scholar
  129. (125).
    Riesenfeld, E.H., and G.M. Schwab, Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 55, 2088 (1922).Google Scholar
  130. (126).
    Rosenblum, C., Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 8, 286 (1936).Google Scholar
  131. (127).
    Sanchez, S. A., Anales asoc. quim. Argentina 13, 478 (1925).Google Scholar
  132. (128).
    Say-lor, C. P., J. Research Nat. Bur. Standards 15, 97, 277 (1935).Google Scholar
  133. (129).
    Schally, E., Monatsh. 58, 399 (1931).Google Scholar
  134. (130).
    Schleiermacher, A., Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 24, 944 (1891).Google Scholar
  135. (131).
    Schmalfuss, H., and H. Barthmeyer, Mikrochem. 5, 6 (1932).Google Scholar
  136. (132).
    Schneider, F., Paper presented at symposium of Metropolitan Microchemical Society (1955).Google Scholar
  137. (133).
    Schneider, and Zimmerman, Botanische Mikrotechnik, Jena: 1922, p. 49.Google Scholar
  138. (134).
    Schwarz, K., Monatsh. 53, 926 (1929).Google Scholar
  139. (135).
    Shead, A. C., Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci. 16, 87 (1936).Google Scholar
  140. (135a).
    Shead, A. C., Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci.also Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 17, 593 (1945).Google Scholar
  141. (136).
    Sierra, F., Inform, quim. anal. 1, 73 (1947).Google Scholar
  142. (137).
    Signer, R., Ann. 478, 246 (1930).Google Scholar
  143. (138).
    Siwoloboff, A., Ber. dtsch. ehem. Ges. 19, 795 (1886).Google Scholar
  144. (139).
    Slawson, C. B., and A. B. Peck, Am. Mineral. 21, 523 (1936).Google Scholar
  145. (140).
    Smart, W. A., and F. A. Hocking, Pharm. J. 106, 286 (1921).Google Scholar
  146. (141).
    Smith, A., and A. W. Menzies, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 32, 897 (1910).Google Scholar
  147. (142).
    Smith, D., and S. A. Ehrhardt, Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 18, 81 (1946).Google Scholar
  148. (143).
    Smith, J. H. C., and H. W. Milner, Mikrochem. 9, 117 (1931).Google Scholar
  149. (144).
    Smith, P.E., Chemist-Analyst 19, 4 (1930).Google Scholar
  150. (145).
    Soltys, A.: Pregl-Fyleman, Quantitative Organic Microanalysis, Philadelphia: Blakiston, 1930; p. 219.Google Scholar
  151. (146).
    Speroni, G., Ann. chim. applicata 23, 432 (1933).Google Scholar
  152. (147).
    Spies, J. R., J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 55, 250 (1933).Google Scholar
  153. (148).
    Stancitj, V., Neues Jahrb. Mineral. Geol. Referate, I, 1933, 354.Google Scholar
  154. (149).
    Steinbach, O. F., and A. W. Devor, J. Chem. Education 22, 496 (1945).Google Scholar
  155. (150).
    Struszynski, M., Przemysl Chem. 20, 51 (1936).Google Scholar
  156. (151).
    Sullivan, J. D., U. S. Bur. Mines, Tech. Paper 381 (1927).Google Scholar
  157. (152).
    Terpstra, P., Natuurw. Tijdschr. 14, 168 (1932).Google Scholar
  158. (153).
    Thiel, A., and L. Stoll, Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 53, 2033 (1920).Google Scholar
  159. (154).
    Van Zijp, C., Pharm. Weekblad 69, 125 (1932).Google Scholar
  160. (155).
    von Engelhardt, W., Zentr. Mineral. Geol. 1938A, 212.Google Scholar
  161. (156).
    Vorlaender, D., and U. Haberland, Ber. dtsch. ehem. Ges. 58, 2652 (1925).Google Scholar
  162. (157).
    Walsh, W. L., Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 6, 468 (1934).Google Scholar
  163. (158).
    Wey-gand, C., and W. Gruentzig, Mikrochem. 10, 1 (1931).Google Scholar
  164. (159).
    Wherry, E. T., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 49, 578 (1927).Google Scholar
  165. (160).
    Wiberley, J. S., R. K. Siegfriedt, and A. A. Benedetti-Pichler, Mikrochim. Acta 38, 471 (1951).Google Scholar
  166. (161).
    Winchell, A. N., Amer. Mineral. 23, 805 (1938).Google Scholar
  167. (162).
    Winchell, A. N., The Optical Properties of Organic Compounds, 2nd ed., New York: Academic Press, 1954.Google Scholar
  168. (163).
    Winchell, A. N., Elements of Optical Mineralogy, New York: John Wiley, 1927.Google Scholar
  169. (164).
    Wood, R. G., and S. H. Ayliffe, Phil. Mag. [7] 21, 321 (1936).Google Scholar
  170. (165).
    Yuster, S. T., and L. H. Reyerson, Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 8, 61 (1936).Google Scholar
  171. (166).
    Zscheile, F. P., and J.W. White, Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 12, 436 (1940).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1964

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank L. Schneider
    • 1
  1. 1.Queens College of the City University of New YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations