On the Continuum as an Assemblage of Homogeneous Elements or States

  • D. C. Drucker
Conference paper
Part of the IUTAM Symposia book series (IUTAM)


Some of the implications are explored of considering a continuum or a “point” in a material as an assemblage of simple models. A discussion is given of the need for and the distinction between a thermodynamics based upon a highly specialized or restricted model and one which is applicable to a wide class of material behavior. A thermodynamic statement developed on the basis of a model of material cannot be a valid general principle if it is not applicable to the combined response of two or more such models. Combinations of viscous models and combinations of elastic — perfectly plastic models are discussed in these terms. The significance of reversibility, or the ability to restore the initial state through mechanical deformation and moderate temperature changes alone, is related to dislocation concepts. Materials which work-harden with strain cycling are contrasted with those which work-soften and those which have been stabilized and do neither. The distinction between frictional and plastic behavior is discussed in thermodynamic terms along with the related questions of the degree of path independence in a space of controllable state variables and the order of the infinity of independent state variables.


Yield Surface Cyclic Strain Isotropic Hardening Kinematic Hardening Homogeneous Element 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1968

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. C. Drucker
    • 1
  1. 1.Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA

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