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Methods for Somatic Classification of Pilots According to Status of Functional Muscular, Circulatory and Respiratory Capacities, and Possibilities of Further Development During Training

  • Gunnar Ström
Conference paper

Abstract

In the Swedish Defence Forces, especially the Air Force, testing of the physical capability of personnel at different ages has been carried out systematically for a number of years. A full series of measurements would appraise (a) certain body dimensions, such as height, weight, adipose tissue and lean body mass, skeletal length and breadth, total heart volume in the horizontal body position, and total blood volume; (b) functional muscular capacity, judged from the maximal isometric force of contraction in representative muscle groups; (c) functional circulatory and respiratory capacities, judged from the ventilation, oxygen uptake, heart rate, respiratory rate, blood lactate concentration and Ecg reaction etc., under steady-state conditions during stepwise increasing work loads of submaximal intensity and under non-steady-state conditions during maximum work load; from the circulatory responses to orthostatic testing; and from vital capacity and maximal ventilatory volume; (d) some index of endurance for work of very long duration.

The results of the dynamic tests are evaluated as indices of maximal functional output and of maximal steady-state level. These indices of physical capability depend on the dimensional prerequisites as well as on the efficacy of the homeostatic regulative functions. The different indices are mutually interrelated, to a greater or lesser degree, in the normal individual. Appraisal of these interrelationships is an important part of the testing procedure.

Results from testing large personnel groups with some of the above- mentioned methods will be mentioned.

Physical training of the circulatory system results in e. g. increased circulatory dimensions and increased maximal functional output, and apparently also in a higher efficacy of the homeostatic regulation — the orthostatic circulatory changes are less pronounced, and a higher proportion of the maximal output can be used under conditions of steady state.

Results from longitudinal studies of physical capability in large personnel groups during periods of physical training will be mentioned.

Keywords

Physical Training Maximal Heart Rate Blood Lactate Concentration Respiratory Capacity Physical Capability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abstract

Méthodes de classification somatique des pilotes selon l’état actuel de la capacité fonctionnelle musculaire, circulatoire et respiratoire et selon les possibilités de développement acquis au cours de l’ëntralnement.Dans les forces armées suédoises, spécialement dans l’armée de l’air, la verification des capacités physiques du personnel à des ages divers a été faite systématiquement depuis un certain nombre d’années.Une série complète de mesures évaluerait: a) certaines dimensions du corps, telles que taille, poids, tissus adipeux, poids de chair, longueur et largeur du squelette, volume total du coeur pour une position horizontale du corps, et volume de sang; b) la capacité fonctionnelle des muscles, jugée d’après la force de contraction isométrique maximum des graines de muscles considérés; c) les possibilités fonctionnelles circulatoires et respiratores jugées d’après: la ventilation, la consommation d’oxygène, le pouls, le rythme respiratoire, la concentration de lactate du sang, les réactions aux E.C. G., etc… dans des conditions de calme pendant des périodes de travail graduées n’ayant pas une intensité maximum, et dans des conditions d’agitation avec un effort maximum; d’après les réponses circulatoires aux tests ortho statique s et d’après la capacité vitale et le volume ventilatoire maximum; d) un repère d’endurance pour un travail de très longue durée.

Les résultats des essais dynamiques sont évalués comme des indices de rendement fonctionnel maximum, et de niveau maximum au steady-state. Ces indices de capacité physique dépendent des facteurs dimensionnels aussi bien que de l’efficacité des fonctions homéostatique. Les divers indices sont tous en relation, plug ou moins, chez l’individu normal. L’évaluation de ces relations est une partie importante de la procédure expérimentale.

Les résultats d’expériences sur des groupes importants de personnel, avec quelques-unes des méthodes énumérées ci-dessus, seront donnés.

L’exercice physique du système circulatoire apporte des dimensions circulatoires et un rendement fonctionnel maximum accrus, et apparemment aussi une plus grande efficacité delà régulation homéostatique. Les changements de circulation orthostatique sont moins prononcés, et une plus grande partie du rendement maximum peut être utilisée dans des conditions de steady state.

Les résultats d’études longitudinales des capacités physiques dans d’importants groupes de personnel, durant des périodes d’éducation physique, seront mentionnés.

резЮме

Методы соматической классификации пилотов в соответствии с данным состоянием мышечной, кровеносной и дыхательной функциональной способности и возможностями дальнейшего развития в ходе тренировки. Шведские силы обороны, особенно военно-воздушные, проводят испытание физической способности личного состава различных возрастов систематически в течение ряда лет. Полная серия измерений могла бы установить: I Некоторые показатели тела, как рост, вес, жировые ткани и масса тела без жира, длина и ширина скелета, общий объем сердца при горизонтальном положении тела и общее количество крови; II функциональную мышечную способность, судя по максимальной

изометрической силе сокращения характерных групп мышц; III функциональную кровеносную и дыхательную способность, судя по аэрации, поглощению кислорода, частоте пульса, частоте дыхания, содержанию молочно-кислой соли в крови, реакции электрокардиограммы и т.д. при условиях постоянного состояния во время постепенного увеличения рабочих нагрузок почти максимальной интенсивности и при условиях непостоянного состояния во время максимальной рабочей нагрузки; по жизнеспособности и максимальному аэрационному объему; IV некоторый показатель выносливости по отношению к работе в течение длительного срока.

Результаты динамических испытаний оцениваются как показатели максимальной функциональной производительности и максимального постоянного уровня. Эти показатели физической способности зависят от предпосылок измерений, а также от действенности гомеостатических регулирующих функций. Различные показатели у нормального человека в большей или меньшей степени взаимосвязаны. Оценка этих взаимосвязей является важной частью этой процедуры испытаний.

Приведены результаты испытаний больших групп личного состава с применением некоторых вышеуказанных методов.

Физическая тренировка системы кровообращения ведет, например, к увеличению размеров кровообращения и к увеличению максимальной функциональной производительности, и, очевидно,также к повышению эффективности гомеостатического регулирования; ортостатические изменения кровообращения менее определенны и большую часть максимальной производительности можно использовать при условиях постоянного состояния.

Приведены результаты продолжительных исследований физической способности больших групп личного состава в периоды физической подготовки.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1965

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gunnar Ström
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical PhysiologyUniversity Hospital UppsalaSweden

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