Advertisement

Keywords

Carotenoid Pigment Trans Stilbene Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrum Seance Acad Stereochemical Configuration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Abdullah, M. M., S. R. Morcos and M. K. Salah: Content of Vitamin A2 in some Nile Fishes. Biochemic. J. 56, 569 (1954).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahmad, R. and B. C. L. Weedon: Carotenoids and Related Compounds. I. Total Synthesis of “all-trans”-Methylbixin and of a Diketone with the Capsorubin Chromophore. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1953, 3286.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahmad, R. and B. C. L. Weedon: Carotenoids and Related Compounds. IV. A New Synthesis of the Capsorubin Chromophore. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1953, 3815.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Akhtar, M., T. A. Richards and B. C. L. Weedon: Studies with Acetylenes. III. The Synthesis of Three Partly-cis-Diphenyloctatetraenes. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1959, 933.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Akhtar, M. and B. C. L. Weedon: Carotenoids and Related Compounds. VIII. Novel Syntheses of Echinenone and Canthaxanthin. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1959, 4058.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alder, K. und M. Schumacher: Anwendungen der Dien-Synthese für die Erforschung von Naturstoffen. Fortschr. Chem. organ. Naturstoffe 10, 1 (1953).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Allan, J. L. H., G. D. Meakins and M. C. Whiting: Researches on Acetylenic Compounds. L. The Infrared Absorption of Some Conjugated Ethylenic and Acetylenic Systems. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1955, 1874.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ames, D. E. and R. E. Bowman: Synthetic Long-chain Aliphatic Compounds. VIII. The Preparation of cis- and trans-Undec-9-enoic Acids. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1952, 677.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ames, S. R.: Fat-soluble Vitamins. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 27, 371 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ames, S. R. and R. W. Lehman: Estimation of the Biological Potency of Vitamin A Sources from their Maleic Values. J. Assoc. Off. Agric. Chemists 43, 21 (1960).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ames, S. R., W. J. Swanson and P. L. Harris: Biochemical Studies on Vitamin A. XIV. Biopotencies of Geometric Isomers of Vitamin A Acetate in the Rat. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 77, 4134 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ames, S. R., W. J. Swanson and P. L. Harris: Biochemical Studies on Vitamin A. XV. Biopotencies of Geometric Isomers of Vitamin A Aldehyde in the Rat. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 77, 4136 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ames, S. R., W. J. Swanson and P. L. Harris: In vivo Isomerization of Vitamin A Isomers. Federat. Proc. (Amer. Soc. exp. Biol.) 16, 145 (1957).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ames, S. R., W. J. Swanson and R. W. Lehman: Estimation of the Biological Potency of Isomerized Vitamin A Palmitate in Aqueous Multivitamin Dispersions from Maleic Values. J. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., Sci. Ed. 49, 366 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anschütz, R.: Über Fumar- und Maleinsäureäther. II. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 12, 2280 (1879).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Arens, J. F. and D. A. Van Dorp: Synthesis of Vitamin A. Ree. trav. chim. Pays-Bas 68, 604 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Argoud, S.: Oil-Palm Fruit Carotenoids. Oléagineux 13, 249 (1958) [Chem. Abstr. 52, 12425 (1958)].Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baeyer, A.: Über die Constitution des Benzols. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 245, 103 (1888).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bahl, A. N., J. C. Sadana and B. Ahmad: The Provitamin A Activities of Neo-β-carotene B and Neo-β-carotene U. J. Sci. Industr. Res. (India) 7 B, 169 (1948)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ball, S., T. W. Goodwin and R. A. Morton: Studies on Vitamin A. 5. The Preparation of Retinene1 — Vitamin A Aldehyde. Biochemic. J. 42, 516 (1948).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barber, M. S., J. B. Davis, L. M. Jackman and B. C. L. Weedon: Studies in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Part I. Methyl Groups of Carotenoids and Related Compounds. J. Chem. Soc. (London) 1960, 2870.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barber, M. S., L. M. Jackman, C. K. Warren and B. C. L. Weedon: The Structures of the Paprika Ketones. J. Chem. Soc. (London) 1960, 19.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Barber, M. S., L. M. Jackman and B. C. L. Weedon: The Structures of Spirilloxanthin and Related Carotenoids. Proc. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1959, 96.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Barber, M. S., L. M. Jackman and B. C. L. Weedon: Stereochemistry of Bixin. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1960, 23.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Barnholdt, B.: Separation of Neovitamin A1 from All-trans Vitamin Ax by Chromatography on Alumina. Nature (London) 178, 1401 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barnholdt, B.: The Formation of Anhydro Vitamin Ax in the Study of Vitamin A1 Isomers. Acta Chem. Scand. 11, 909 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Barnholdt, B. and W. Hjarde: Chromatographic Separation of two Vitamin A2 Isomers. Acta Chem. Scand. 10, 1635 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Barnholdt, B. and W. Hjarde: Chromatographic Separation of five Vitamin A1 Isomers from the Eyes of Deep-Water Prawns, Pandalus borealis. Acta Physiol. Scand. 41, 49 (1957) [Chem. Abstr. 52, 4041 (1958)].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bauer, L.: Trennung der Karotinoide und Chlorophylle mit Hilfe der Papier-chromatographie. Naturwiss. 39, 88 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Baxter, J. G.: Synthesis and Properties of Vitamin A and Some Related Compounds. Fortschr. Chem. organ. Naturstoffe 9, 41 (1952).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Beadle, B. W. and F. P. Zscheile: Studies on the Carotenoids. II. The Isomerization of β-Carotene and its Relation to Carotene Analysis. J. Biol. Chem. 144, 21 (1942).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Berthod, H. et A. Pullman: Aspects de la structure électronique du rétinène et de ses isomeres d’inéret biologique. C. R. hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 251, 808 (1960).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bickoff, E. M.: Chromatographie Separation of β-Carotene Stereoisomers as a Function of Developing Solvent. Analyt. Chemistry 20, 51 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bickoff, E. M., L. M. White, A. Bevenue and K. T. Williams: Isolation and Spectrophotometric Characterization of four Carotene Isomers. J. Assoc. Off. Agric. Chemists 31, 633 (1948).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Blankenhorn, D. H.: Carotenoids in Man. II. Fractions Obtained from Atherosclerotic and Normal Aortas, Serum, and Depot Fat by Separation on Alumina. J. Biol. Chem. 227, 963 (1957).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bliss, A. F.: Reversible Enzymic Reduction of Retinene to Vitamin A. Biol. Bull. 97, 221 (1949).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bodea, C. und E. Nicoara: Die Konstitution des Physoxanthins. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 609, 181 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bodea, C. und E. Nicoara: Zur Isolierung von α-Carotin, Physoxanthin und Lutein aus Physalis Alkekengi. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 622, 188 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bohlmann, F. und H. J. Mannhardt: Acetylenverbindungen im Pflanzenreich. Fortschr. Chem. organ. Naturstoffe 14, 1 (1957).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Braekkan, O. R., H. Myklestad, L. R. Njaa and F. Utne: Vitamin A Isomers in the Liver of Rats and Chicks. Nature (London) 186, 312 (1960).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Braude, E. A. and E. S. Waight: The Relationships between the Stereochemistry and Spectroscopic Properties of Organic Compounds. Progr. Stereochem. 1, 126 (1954). — CF. E. A. Braude: The Labile Stereochemistry of Conjugated Systems. Experientia 11, 457 (1955).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Briner, E. et E. Dallwigk: Chaleurs d’ozonisation des isomères eis et trans des composés organiques à double liaison; applications à quelques oléfines, notamment au maléate et au fumarate d’éthyle. Helv. Chim. Acta 40, 2466 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Brode, W. R.: Steric Effects in Dyes. In: The Roger Adams Symposium, p. 8. New York: Wiley, and London: Chapman & Hall. 1955.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bro-Rasmussen, F., W. Hjarde and O. Porotnikoff: Chromatographie Separation of Vitamin-A-active Compounds in Cod-liver Oil. Analyst 80, 418 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Brown, P. K. and G. Wald: The neo-b Isomer of Vitamin A and Retinene. J. Biol. Chem. 222, 865 (1955).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Brown, P. S., W. P. Blum and M. H. Stern: Isomers of Vitamin A in Fish Liver Oils. Nature (London) 184, 1377 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 46a.
    Brubacher, G., U. Gloor und O. Wiss: Zum Stoffwechsel von β-Apo-8′-carotinal (C30). Chimia 14, 19 (1960).Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    Burwell, R. L., Jr.: Stereochemistry and Heterogeneous Catalysis. Chem. Rev. 57, 895 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Bush, W. V.: Thesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, 1958.Google Scholar
  50. 49.
    Bush, W. V. and L. Zechmeister: On Some Cleavage Products of the Boron Trifluoride Complexes of α-Carotene, Lycopene, and γ-Carotene. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 80, 2991 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 50.
    Calvin, M. and H. W. Alter: Substituted Stilbenes. I. Absorption Spectra. J. Chem. Physics 19, 765 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Calvin, M. and H. W. Alter: Substituted Stilbenes. II. Thermal Isomerization. J. Chem. Physics 19, 768 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Cama, H. R., F. D. Collins and R. A. Morton: Studies in Vitamin A. 17. Spectroscopic Properties of all-trans-Vitamin A and Vitamin A Acetate. Analysis of Liver Oils. Biochemic. J. 50, 48 (1951).Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    Cama, H. R., P. D. Dalvi, R. A. Morton and M. K. Salah: Studies in Vitamin A. 21. Retinene2 and Vitamin A2. Biochemic. J. 52, 542 (1952).Google Scholar
  55. 54.
    Cama, H. R., P. D. Dalvi, R. A. Morton, M. K. Salah, G. R. Steinberg and A. L. Stubbs: Studies in Vitamin A. 19. Preparation and Properties of Retinene2. Biochemic. J. 52, 535 (1952).Google Scholar
  56. 55.
    Carter, G. P. and A. E. Gillam: The Isomerization of Carotenes. III. Re-consideration of the Change β-Carotene to ψα-Carotene. Biochemic. J. 33, 1325 (1939).Google Scholar
  57. 56.
    Cawley, J. D., C. D. Robeson, L. Weisler, E. M. Shantz, N. D. Embree and J. G. Baxter: Crystalline Synthetic Vitamin A and Neovitamin A. Science (Washington) 107, 346 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Celmer, W. D. and I. A. Solomons: Mycomycin. IV. Stereoisomeric 3,5-Diene Fatty Acid Esters. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 75, 3430 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Chatain, H. et M. Debodard: A propos du dosage de la vitamine A. Spectre d’absorption du néoaxérophtol. C. R. hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. 232, 355 (1951).Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    Chatterjee, A. and L. Zechmeister: On Some Stereoisomeric Cryptoxanthins. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 72, 254 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Cholnoky, L., D. Szabo und J. Szabolcs: Untersuchungen über die Carotinoidfarbstoffe. II. Die Struktur des Capsanthins und des Capsorubins. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 606, 194 (1957).Google Scholar
  62. 61.
    Cholnoky, L. und J. Szabolcs: Untersuchungen über die Carotinoidfarb- stoffe. V. Über die Farbstoffe der Kelchblätter von Physalts Alkekengi. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 626, 206 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Cholnoky, L., J. Szabolcs und E. Nagy: Untersuchungen über die Carotinoid- farbstoffe. IV. α-Kryptoxanthin. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 616, 207 (1958).Google Scholar
  64. 63.
    Claes, H.: Biosynthese von Carotinoiden bei Chlorella. 2. Mitt. Tetrahydrolycopin und Lycopin. Z. Naturforsch. 11 b, 260 (1956).Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    Claes, H.: Biosynthese von Carotinoiden bei Chlorella. III. Untersuchungen über die lichtabhängige Synthese von α- und β-Carotin und Xanthophyllen bei der Chlorella-Mutante 5/520. Z. Naturforsch. 12 b, 401 (1957).Google Scholar
  66. 64a.
    Claes, H.: Interaction between Chlorophyll and Carotenes with Different Chromophoric Groups. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 3, 585 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 65.
    Claes, H. and T. O. M. Nakayama: Isomerization of Poly-cis-carotenes by Chlorophyll in vivo and in vitro. Nature (London) 183, 1053 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 66.
    Clarke, P. M. and P. E. E. Todd: Some Observations on the Biological Assay of Vitamin A and its Precursors by the Vaginal-Smear Method. Brit. J. Nutrition 11, 173 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 67.
    Cole, A. R. H.: Infrared Spectra of Natural Products. Fortschr. Chem. organ. Naturstoffe 13, 1 (1956).Google Scholar
  70. 68.
    Collins, F. D., J. N. Green and R. A. Morton: Studies in Rhodopsin. 6. Regeneration of Rhodopsin. Biochemic. J. 53, 152 (1953).Google Scholar
  71. 69.
    Collins, F. D., J. N. Green and R. A. Morton: Studies in Rhodopsin. 7. Regeneration of Rhodopsin by Comminuted Ox Retina. Biochemic. J. 56, 493 (1954).Google Scholar
  72. 70.
    Cook, A. H.: Algal Pigments and their Significance. Biol. Rev. 20, 115 (1945).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 71.
    Cook, A. H. and D. G. Jones: cis-Azo-compounds. II. J. Chem. Soc. (London) 1939, 1309.Google Scholar
  74. 72.
    Coulson, C. A.: The Electronic Structure of Some Polyenes and Aromatic Molecules. VII. Bonds of Fractional Order by the Molecular Orbital Method. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), Ser. A 169, 413 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 73.
    Crombie, L.: Geometrical Isomerism about Carbon-Carbon Double Bonds. Quart. Rev. (Chem. Soc. London) 6, 101 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 74.
    Crombie, L., S. H. Harper and R. J. D. Smith: Stereochemical Studies of Olefinic Compounds. VI. Preparation of the Four Stereoisomeric Sorbyl Alcohols from a Single Precursor. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1957, 2754.Google Scholar
  77. 75.
    Curl, A. L.: Application of Countercurrent Distribution to Valencia Orange Juice Carotenoids. Agric. Food Chem. 1, 456 (1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 76.
    Curl, A. L. and G. F. Bailey: Orange Carotenoids. Polyoxygen Carotenoids of Valencia Orange Juice. Agric. Food Chem. 2, 685 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 77.
    Curl, A. L. and G. F. Bailey: Orange Carotenoids. I. Comparison of Carotenoids of Valencia Orange Peel and Pulp. Agric. Food Chem. 4, 156 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 78.
    Curtin, D. Y., H. Gruen and B. A. Shoulders: Use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to Determine Configurations of cis-trans Isomers. Chem. and Ind. 1958, 1205.Google Scholar
  81. 79.
    Dale, J.: Empirical Relationships of the Minor Bands in the Absorption Spectra of Polyenes. Acta Chem. Scand. 8, 1235 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 80.
    Dale, J.: The Free-Electron Model, “Overtone” Bands, and Vibrational Structure in Absorption Spectra of Polyenes and Polyenynes. Acta Chem. Scand. 11, 265 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 81.
    Dale, J.: Infrared Absorption Spectra of ortho- and para-Linked Polyphenyls. Acta Chem. Scand. 11, 640 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 82.
    Dale, J.: Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of ortho- and para- Linked Polyphenyls. Acta Chem. Scand. 11, 650 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 83.
    Dale, J.: Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of Chain Molecules Consisting of Alternating Benzene Ringsand Ethylenic Bonds. Acta Chem. Scand. 11, 971 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 84.
    Dale, J. and L. Zechmeister: On the Stereochemistry of Azines: Cinnamalazine and Phenylpentadienalazine. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 75, 2379 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 85.
    Dalvi, P. D. and R. A. Morton: Studies in Vitamin A. 16. Preparation of Neovitamin A Esters and Neoretinene1. Biochemic. J. 50, 43 (1951).Google Scholar
  88. 86.
    Dartnall, H. J. A.: The Visual Pigments. New York: Wiley and Sons, and London: Methuen. 1957.Google Scholar
  89. 87.
    Davis, J. B., L. M. Jackman, P. T. Siddons and B. C. L. Weedon: The Structures of Phytoene, Phytofluene, ζ-Carotene and Neurosporene. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1961, 261.Google Scholar
  90. 88.
    Deuel, H. J., Jr.: The Lipids. Vol. III: Biochemistry, p. 540. New York: Interscience Publ. 1957.Google Scholar
  91. 89.
    Deuel, H. J., Jr., J. Ganguly, B. K. Koe and L. Zechmeister: Stereo- isomerization of the Polycz’s Compounds, Pro-γ-carotene and Prolycopene in Chickens and Hens. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 33, 143 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 90.
    Deuel, H. J., Jr., S. M. Greenberg, E. Straub, T. Fukui, A. Chatterjee and L. Zechmeister: Stereochemical Configuration and Provitamin A Activity. VII. Neocryptoxanthin U. Arch. Biochemistry 23, 239 (1949).Google Scholar
  93. 91.
    Deuel, H. J., Jr., C. Hendrick, E. Straub, A. Sandoval, J. H. Pinckard and L. Zechmeister: Stereochemical Configuration and Provitamin A Activity. VI. Some cis-trans Isomers of γ-Carotene. Arch. Biochemistry 14, 97 (1947).Google Scholar
  94. 92.
    Deuel, H. J., Jr., H. H. Inhoffen, J. Ganguly, L. Wallcave and L. Zechmeister: Stereochemical Configuration and Provitamin A Activity. XI. A Comparison of Synthetic All-trans- and Dicis-16,16′-homo-β-carotene C42H58 with All-trans-β-carotene in the Rat. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 40, 352 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 93.
    Deuel, H. J., Jr., C. H. Johnston, E. R. Meserve, A. Polgar and L. Zechmeister: Stereochemical Configuration and Provitamin A Activity. IV. Neo-α-carotene B and Neo-β-carotene B. Arch. Biochemistry 7, 247 (1945).Google Scholar
  96. 94.
    Deuel, H. J., Jr., C. H. Johnston, E. Sumner, A. Polgär, W. A. Schroeder and L. Zechmeister: Stereochemical Configuration and Provitamin A Activity. II. All-trans-γ-carotene and Pro-γ-carotene. Arch. Biochemistry 5, 365 (1944).Google Scholar
  97. 95.
    Deuel, H. J., Jr., C. H. Johnston, E. Sumner, A. Polgär and L. Zechmeister: Stereochemical Configuration and Provitamin A Activity. I. All- trans-β-carotene and Neo-β-carotene U. Arch. Biochemistry 5, 107 (1944).Google Scholar
  98. 96.
    Deuel, H. J., Jr., E. R. Meserve, A. Sandoval and L. Zechmeister: Stereochemical Configuration and Provitamin A Activity. V. Neocryptoxanthin A. Arch. Biochemistry 10, 491 (1946).Google Scholar
  99. 97.
    Deuel, H. J., Jr., E. Sumner, C. H. Johnston, A. Polgär and L. Zechmeister: Stereochemical Configuration and Provitamin A Activity. III. All-trans-α-carotene and Neo- α -carotene U. Arch. Biochemistry 6, 157 (1945).Google Scholar
  100. 98.
    Dieterle, J. M. and C. D. Robeson: Crystalline Neoretinene b. Science (Washington) 120, 219 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 99.
    Drefahl, G. und G. Plötner: Untersuchungen über Stilbene. XX. Polyphenylpolybutadiene. Chem. Ber. 91, 1285 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 100.
    Eckzert, R. und H. Kuhn: Richtungen der Übergangsmomente der Absorp-tionsbanden von Polyenen, Cyaninen und Vitamin B12 aus Dichroismus und Fluoreszenzpolarisation. Z. Elektrochem. 64, 356 (1960).Google Scholar
  103. 101.
    Edisbury, J. R., A. E. Gillam, I. M. Heilbron and R. A. Morton: Absorption Spectra of Substances Derived from Vitamin A. Biochemic. J. 26, 1164 (1932).Google Scholar
  104. 102.
    Elvidge, J. A., R. P. Linstead and P. Sims: Polyene Acids. III. A Reinvestigation of Karrer’s β-Methylmuconic Acid. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1951, 3398.Google Scholar
  105. 103.
    Embree, N. D., S. R. Ames, R. W. Lehman and P. L. Harris: Determination of Vitamin A. Methods Biochem. Anal. 4, 43 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 104.
    Entschel, R. und P. Karrer: Zur Konstitution des Capsanthins und Capsorubins. Helv. Chim. Acta 43, 89 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 105.
    Erdtman, H.: Corticrocin, a Pigment from the Mycelium of a Mycorrhiza Fungus. II. Acta Chem. Scand. 2, 209 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 106.
    Eugster, C. H., C. (F.) Garbers und P. Karrer: Carotinoidsynthesen. IX. Stereoisomere I,18-Diphenyl-3,7,12,16-tetramethyl-octadeca-nonaene. Helv. Chim. Acta 35, 1179 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 107.
    Eugster, C. H., C. (F.) Garbers und P. Karrer: Carotinoidsynthesen. XIII. Über zwei isomere cis-β-Carotine mit eis-Konfiguration an behinderten Doppelbindungen. Helv. Chim. Acta 36, 1378 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 108.
    Eugster, C. H. und P. Karrer: Taraxanthin und Tarachrom sowie Beobachtungen über stereoisomere Trollixanthine. Helv. Chim. Acta 40, 69 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 109.
    Eugster, C. H., E. Linner, A. H. Trivedi und P. Karrer: Carotinoidsynthesen. XIX. Synthese eines 6,7,6′,7′-Tetrahydro-lycopins und dessen Beziehung zum Neurosporin. Helv. Chim. Acta 39, 690 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 110.
    Eugster, C. H., A. H. Trivedi und P. Karrer: Carotinoidsynthesen. XVII. Synthese des 2,2′-Dimethyl-β-carotins. Helv. Chim. Acta 38, 1359 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 111.
    Euler, B. V., H. V. Euler und H. Hellström: A-Vitamin Wirkungen der Lipochrome. Biochem. Z. 203, 370 (1928).Google Scholar
  114. 112.
    Euler, B. V., H. V. Euler und P. Karrer: Zur Biochemie der Carotinoide. Helv. Chim. Acta 12, 278 (1929).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 113.
    Euler, H. v., P. Karrer und U. Solmssen: Homologe des Vitamins A (Axerophtols) und ein Abbauprodukt des α-Carotins, α-Apo-2-carotinal. Helv. Chim. Acta 21, 211 (1938).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 113.
    a. Faigle, H. und P. Karrer: Konstitution und Konfiguration vonCapsanthin und Capsorubin. Helv. Chim. Acta 44, 1257 (1961).Google Scholar
  117. 114.
    Farkas, A. and L. Farkas: The Mechanism of Hydrogenation Reactions and the Formation of Stereochemical Isomers. Trans. Faraday Soc. 33, 837 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 115.
    Farrar, K. R., J. C. Hamlet, H. B. Henbest and E. R. H. Jones: Studies in the Polyene Series. XLIII. The Structure and Synthesis of Vitamin A2 and Related Compounds. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1952, 2657.Google Scholar
  119. 116.
    Fazakerley, S. and J. Glover: The Provitamin A Activity of Some Possible Intermediates in β-Carotene Metabolism. Biochemic. J. 65, 38 P (1957).Google Scholar
  120. 117.
    Fisher, L. R. and S. K. Kon: Vitamin A in the Invertebrates. Biol. Rev. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 34, 1 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 118.
    Fisher, L. R., S. K. Kon and P. A. Plack: Vitamin A Isomers in some Eucaridan Crustacea. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 147, 200 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 119.
    Fishwick, M. J. and J. Glover: The Metabolism of Uniformly 14C-labelIed β-Carotene in the Rat. Biochemic. J. 66, 36 P (1957).Google Scholar
  123. 120.
    Forbes, W. F. and R. Shilton: Electronic Spectra and Molecular Dimensions. III. Steric Effects in Methyl-substituted α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 81, 786 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 121.
    Frank, R. L., R. D. Emmick and R. S. Johnson: cis- and trans-Piperylenes. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 69, 2313 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 122.
    Gansser, CH. and L. Zechmeister: On Some CZS-Forms of Phenylundeca- pentaenal. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 79, 3854 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 123.
    Gansser, CH. and L. Zechmeister: Über einige as-Formen des Canthaxanthins. Helv. Chim. Acta 40, 1757 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 124.
    Garbers, C. F.: Synthesis of all-trans-, 2-cis- (or neo-), and 6-cis-[2-14C] Vitamin A. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1956, 3234.Google Scholar
  128. 125.
    Garbers, C. F., C. H. Eugster und P. Karrer: Carotinoidsynthesen. X. Weitere stereoisomere i, 18-Diphenyl-3,7,12,16-tetramethyl-octadecanonaene. Zugleich ein Beitrag zu L. Pauling’s Theorie der sterischen Hinderung bei cis-trans-isomeren Polyenen. Helv. Chim. Acta 35, 1850 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 126.
    Garbers, C. F., C. H. Eugster und P. Karrer: Carotinoidsynthesen. XI. Weitere, mit i,18-Diphenyl-3,7,12,16-tetramethyl-octadecanonaen verwandte Polyene. Helv. Chim. Acta 36, 562 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 127.
    Garbers, C. F., C. H. Eugster und P. Karrer: Über die Vitamin-A-Wirkung des cis-β-Carotins C (mit behinderter Doppelbindung). Helv. Chim. Acta 37, 382 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 128.
    Garbers, C. F. und P. Karrer: Carotinoidsynthesen. XII. Bis-dehydrolycopine und totalsynthetische cis-Lycopine. Helv. Chim. Acta 36, 828 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 129.
    Gillam, A. E. and M. S. El Ridi: Adsorption of Grass and Butter Carotenes on Alumina. Nature (London) 136, 914 (1935)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 130.
    Gillam, A. E. and M. S. El Ridi: The Isomerization of Carotenes by Chromatographic Adsorption. I. Pseudo-α-csxotene. Biochemic. J. 30, 1735 (1936).Google Scholar
  134. 131.
    Gillam, A. E., M. S. El Ridi and S. K. Kon: The Isomerization of Carotenes by Chromatographic Adsorption. II. Neo-α-carotene. Biochemic. J. 31, 1605 (1937).Google Scholar
  135. 131a.
    Glover, J.: The Conversion of β-Carotene into Vitamin A. Vitamins and Horm. 18, 371 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 132.
    Glover, J., T. W. Goodwin and R. A. Morton: Studies in Vitamin A. 6. Conversion in vivo of Vitamin A Aldehyde (Retinene1) to Vitamin A1 Biochemic. J. 43, 109 (1948).Google Scholar
  137. 133.
    Glover, J., T. W. Goodwin and R. A. Morton: Studies in Vitamin A. 8. Conversion of β-Carotene into Vitamin A in the Intestine of the Rat. Biochemic. J. 43, 512 (1948).Google Scholar
  138. 134.
    Glover, J. and E. R. Redfearn: The Mechanism of the Transformation of β-Carotene into Vitamin A in vivo. Biochemic. J. 58, xv (1954).Google Scholar
  139. 135.
    Goodwin, T. W.: The Comparative Biochemistry of the Carotenoids. London: Chapman & Hall. 1952.Google Scholar
  140. 136.
    Goodwin, T. W.: Studies in Carotenogenesis. 13. The Carotenoids of the Flower Petals of Calendula officinalis. Biochemic. J. 58, 90 (1954).Google Scholar
  141. 137.
    Goodwin, T. W.: Carotenoids. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 24, 497 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 138.
    Goodwin, T. W.: Studies in Carotenogenesis. 19. A Survey of the Polyenes in a Number of Ripe Berries. Biochemic. J. 62, 346 (1956).Google Scholar
  143. 139.
    Goodwin, T. W. and M. Jamikorn: Studies in Carotenogenesis. 11. Carotenoid Synthesis in the Alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Biochemic. J. 57, 376 (1954).Google Scholar
  144. 140.
    Goodwin, T. W. and D. G. Land: Studies in Carotenogenesis. 20. Carotenoids of Some Species of Chlorobium. Biochemic. J. 62, 553 (1956).Google Scholar
  145. 141.
    Graham, W., D. A. Van Dorp and J. F. Arens: Synthesis of a eis Isomer of Vitamin A Aldehyde. Ree. trav. chim. Pays-Bas 68, 609 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 142.
    Grangaud, R. et P. Chardenot: Stéréoisomérisation cis-trans de l’astaxanthine. C. R. hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. 242, 1767 (1956).Google Scholar
  147. 143.
    Grangaud, R. et I. Garcia: Chromatographie de partage des caroténoïdes. I. Séparation de l’astaxanthine. Bull. soc. chim. biol. (Paris) 34, 754 (1952).Google Scholar
  148. 144.
    Green, A., C. H. Eugster und P. Karrer: Über Inhaltsstoffe der Wurzeln von Aristolochia cymbifera MART. Helv. Chim. Acta 37, 1717 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 145.
    Greenberg, S. M., C. E. Calbert, J. H. Pinckard, H. J. Deuel, Jr. and L. Zechmeister: Stereochemical Configuration and Provitamin A Activity. IX. A Comparison of All-trans-γ-carotene and Pro-γ-carotene with All-trans-β-carotene in the Chick. Arch. Biochemistry 24, 31 (1949).Google Scholar
  150. 146.
    Greenberg, S. M., A. Chatterjee, C. E. Calbert, H. J. Deuel, Jr. and L. Zechmeister: A Comparison of the Provitamin A Activity of β-Carotene and Cryptoxanthin in the Chick. Arch. Biochemistry 25, 61 (1950).Google Scholar
  151. 147.
    Grummitt, O. and F. J. Christoph: Geometric Isomers of 1-Phenyl-1,3-butadiene. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 71, 4157 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 148.
    Grummitt, O. and F. J. Christoph: Geometric Isomers of 1-Phenyl-1,3-butadiene. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 73, 3479 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 149.
    Haagen-Smit, A. J., J. H. Pinckard and L. Zechmeister: Contribution to the Structure of Pro-y-carotene and Prolycopene Obtained from Various Sources. Arch. Biochemistry 26, 358 (1950).Google Scholar
  154. 150.
    Harman, R. A. and H. Eyring: The Structure of Substituted Ethylenes and their Isomerization, Polymerization and “Peroxide Addition” Reactions. J. Chem. Physics 10, 557 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 151.
    Harris, P. L., S. R. Ames and J. H. Brinkman: Biochemical Studies on Vitamin A. IX. Biopotency of Neovitamin A in the Rat. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 73, 1252 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 152.
    Hasselt, J. F. B. Van: Études sur la constitution de la bixine. Ree. trav. chim. Pays-Bas 30, 1 (1911).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 153.
    Hausser, K. W., R. Kuhn und G. Seitz: Lichtabsorption und Doppelbindung. V. Über die Absorption von Verbindungen mit konjugierten Kohlestoffdoppelbindungen bei tiefer Temperatur. Z. physik. Chem. B 29, 391 (1935).Google Scholar
  158. 154.
    Haxo, F. (T.): Studies on the Carotenoid Pigments of Neurospora. I. Composition of the Pigment. Arch. Biochemistry 20, 400 (1949).Google Scholar
  159. 155.
    Hayes, E. and M. A. Petitpierre: Neovitamin A and Vitamin A Alcohol in Commercial Fish Liver Oils and Vitamin A Concentrates. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 4, 879 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 156.
    Heilbron, I. M., R. N. Heslop, R. A. Morton, E. T. Webster, J. L. Rea and J. C. Drummond: Characteristics of Highly Active Vitamin A Preparations. Biochemic. J. 26, 1178 (1932).Google Scholar
  161. 157.
    Heilbron, I. M., A. W. Johnson, E. R. H. Jones and A. Spinks: Studies in the Polyene Series. Part V. The Employment of 3-(2′: 6′: 6′-Trimethyl-cyclohexenyl)-1-methylcrotonaldehyde for the Synthesis of Vitamin A and Analogues. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1942, 727.Google Scholar
  162. 158.
    Heilbron, I. M., R. A. Morton and E. T. Webster: The Structure of Vitamin A. Biochemic. J. 26, 1194 (1932).Google Scholar
  163. 159.
    Henbest, H. B., E. R. H. Jones and T. C. Owen: Studies in the Polyene Series. Part LI. Conversion of Vitamin A1 into Vitamin A2. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1955, 2765.Google Scholar
  164. 160.
    Hengstenberg, J. und R. Kuhn: Die Kristallstruktur der Diphenylpolyene. Z. Kristallogr., Mineral., Petrogr. A 75, 301 (1930).Google Scholar
  165. 161.
    Herzig, J. und F. Faltis: Zur Kenntnis des Bixins. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 431, 40 (1923).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 162.
    Hirshberg, Y., E. Bergmann and F. Bergmann: The Fluorescence of 1,4-Diarylbutadienes and its Relation to their Configuration. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 72, 5117 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 163.
    Hirshberg, Y., E. Bergmann and F. Bergmann: Absorption Spectra and Photoisomerization of Arylated Dienes. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 72, 5120 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 164.
    Holme, D., E. R. H. Jones and M. C. Whiting: The Synthesis of an All-cis-tetraene. Chem. and Ind. 1956, 928.Google Scholar
  169. 165.
    Hubbard, R.: Cis-trans Isomers of Vitamin A and Retinene in the Rhodopsin System. Federat. Proc. (Amer. Soc. exp. Biol.) 11, 233 (1952).Google Scholar
  170. 166.
    Hubbard, R.: Retinene Isomerase. Federat. Proc. (Amer. Soc. exp. Biol.) 14, 229 (1955).Google Scholar
  171. 167.
    Hubbard, R.: Geometrical Isomerization of Vitamin A, Retinene and Retinene Oxime. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 78, 4662 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 168.
    Hubbard, R.: Retinene Isomerase. J. Gen. Physiol. 39, 935 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 169.
    Hubbard, R.: Bleaching of Rhodopsin by Light and by Heat. Nature (London) 181, 1126 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 170.
    Hubbard, R.: The Thermal Stability of Rhodopsin and Opsin. J. Gen. Physiol. 42, 259 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 171.
    Hubbard, R., P. K. Brown and A. Kropf: Action of Light on Visual Pigments. Vertebrate Lumi- and Metarhodopsins. Nature (London) 183, 442 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 172.
    Hubbard, R. and A. D. Colman: Vitamin-A Content of the Frog Eye during Light and Dark Adaptation. Science (Washington) 130, 977 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 173.
    Hubbard, R., R. I. Gregerman and G. Wald: Geometrical Isomers of Retinene. J. Gen. Physiol. 36, 415 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 174.
    Hubbard, R. and A. Kropf: The Action of Light on Rhodopsin. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 44, 130 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 175.
    Hubbard, R. and A. Kropf: Chicken Lumi- and Metaiodopsin. Nature (London) 183, 448 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 176.
    Hubbard, R. and G. Wald: The Mechanism of Rhodopsin Synthesis. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 37, 69 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 177.
    Hubbard, R. and G. Wald: Cis-trans Isomers of Vitamin A and Retinene in Vision. Science (Washington) 115, 60 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 178.
    Hubbard, R. and G. Wald: Cis-trans Isomers of Vitamin A and Retinene in the Rhodopsin System. J. Gen. Physiol. 36, 269 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 179.
    Huisman, H. O., A. Smit, P. H. Van Leeuwen and J. H. Van Rij: Investigations in the Vitamin A Series. III. Rearrangement of the retro-System to the normal System of Conjugated Double Bonds in the Vitamin A Series. Ree. trav. chim. Pays-Bas 75, 977 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 180.
    Hunter, R. F. and E. G. E. Hawkins: Vitamin A Aldehyde. Nature (London) 153, 194 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 181.
    Hunter, R. F., A. D. Scott and J. R. Edisbury: Palm Oil Carotenoids. 2. The Isolation of Lipoid Pigments from a West African Plantation Oil and Some Remarks on the Isomerization of Carotenoids. Biochemic. J. 36, 697 (1942).Google Scholar
  186. 182.
    Inhoffen, H. H. und G. Von Derbey: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. XXVII. Stereoisomere C10-Diole und Dialdehyde. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 583, 100 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 183.
    Inhoffen, H. H., F. Bohlmann, H.-J. Aldag, S. Bork und G. Leibner: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. XXI. Kondensation von Carotinoid- ketonen und -aldehyden mit Diacetylen; zugleich eine weitere Synthese des β-Carotins. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 573, 1 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 184.
    Inhoffen, H. H., F. Bohlmann, K. Bartram und H. Pommer: Totalsynthese des β-Carotins. Chem.-Ztg. 74, 285 (1950).Google Scholar
  189. 185.
    Inhoffen, H. H., F. Bohlmann, K. Bartram, G. Rummert und H. Pommer: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. XV. Über die Darstellung von trans und von 9,9′-mono-cis-β-Carotin. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 570, 54 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 186.
    Inhoffen, H. H., F. Bohlmann und G. Rummert: Synthesen in der Carotinoid- Reihe. X. 7,7′-Bis-desmethyl-β-carotin. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 569, 226 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 187.
    Inhoffen, H. H., F. Bohlmann und G. Rummert: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. XVIII. Über die Stereo-isomerisierung des 9,9′-mono-cis-β-Carotins. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 571, 75 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 188.
    Inhoffen, H. H., O. Isler, G. Von Derbey, G. Raspe, P. Zeller und R. Ahrens: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. XXVI. Totalsynthese des Crocetin-dimethylesters. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 580, 7 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 189.
    Inhoffen, H. H., H.-J. Krause und S. Bork: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. XXIX. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 585, 132 (1953).Google Scholar
  194. 190.
    Inhoffen, H. H. und G. Raspé: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. XXXI. Synthese des 10,10′-cis-Bixinmethylesters. Ein Beitrag zur Stereochemie der cis-trans-isomeien Bixine. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 592, 214 (1955).Google Scholar
  195. 191.
    Inhoffen, H. H. und G. Raspé: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. XXXII. Totalsynthese des 3,4,3′,4′-Bisdehydro-β-carotins. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 594, 165 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 192.
    Inhoffen, H. H., U. Schwieter und G. Raspé: Synthesen in der Carotinoid- Reihe. XXX. Totalsynthese des d,l,-α-Carotins. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 588, 117 (1954).Google Scholar
  197. 193.
    Inhoffen, H. H. und H. Siemer: Synthetische Chemie der Carotinoide. Fortschr. Chem. organ. Naturstoffe 9, 1 (1952).Google Scholar
  198. 194.
    Isler, O.: Über das Vitamin A und die Carotinoide. Angew. Chem. 68, 547 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 195.
    Isler, O., L. H. Chopard-dit-Jean, M. Montavon, R. Rüeggund P. Zeller: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. 12. Mitt. Synthese von 11,11′-Di-cis-β-carotin nach einem neuen Aufbauprinzip. Helv. Chim. Acta 40, 1256 (1957).Google Scholar
  200. 196.
    Isler, O., W. Guex, R. Rüegg, G. Ryser, G. Saucy, U. Schwieter, M. Walter und A. Winterstein: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. 16. Mitt. Carotinoide vom Typus des Torularhodins. Helv. Chim. Acta 42, 864 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 197.
    Isler, O., H. Gutmann, H. Lindlar, M. Montavon, R. Rüegg, G. Ryser und P. Zeller: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. 6. Mitt. Synthese von Crocetindialdehyd und Lycopin. Helv. Chim. Acta 39, 463 (1956).Google Scholar
  202. 198.
    Isler, O., H. Gutmann, M. Montavon, R. Rüegg, G. Ryser und P. Zeller: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. 10. Mitt. Anwendung der Wittig-Reaktion zur Synthese von Estern des Bixins und Crocetins. Helv. Chim. Acta 40, 1242 (1957).Google Scholar
  203. 199.
    Isler, O., W. Huber, A. Ronco und M. Kofler: Synthese des Vitamin A. Helv. Chim. Acta 30, 1911 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 200.
    Isler, O., M. Kofler, W. Huber und A. Ronco: Synthese von Vitamin-A- Methyläther. Experientia 2, 31 (1946).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 201.
    Isler, O., H. Lindlar, M. Montavon, R. Rüegg, G. Saucy und P. Zeller: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. 7. Mitt. Totalsynthese von Zeaxanthin und Physalien. Helv. Chim. Acta 39, 2041 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 202.
    Isler, O., H. Lindlar, M. Montavon, R. Rüegg, G. Saucy und P. Zeller: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. 8. Mitt. Totalsynthese von Kryptoxanthin und eine weitere Synthese von Zeaxanthin. Helv. Chim. Acta 40, 456 (1957).Google Scholar
  207. 203.
    Isler, O., H. Lindlar, M. Montavon, R. Rüegg und P. Zeller: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. 1. Mitt. Die technische Synthese von β-Carotin. Helv. Chim. Acta 39, 249 (1956).Google Scholar
  208. 204.
    Isler, O., H. Lindlar, M. Montavon, R. Rüegg und P. Zeller: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. 3. Mitt. Die Synthese von 3,4;3′,4′-Bisdehydro-β-Carotin und 3,4-Monodehydro-β-carotin. Helv. Chim. Acta 39, 274 (1956).Google Scholar
  209. 205.
    Isler, O., H. Lindlar, M. Montavon, R. Rüegg und P. Zeller: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. 4. Mitt. Synthese von Isozeaxanthin. Helv. Chim. Acta 39, 449 (1956).Google Scholar
  210. 206.
    Isler, O., M. Montavon, R. Rüegg, G. Saucy und P. Zeller: Synthese hydroxylhaltiger Carotinoide. Verh. naturforsch. Ges. Basel 67, 379 (1956).Google Scholar
  211. 207.
    Isler, O., M. Montavon, R. Rüegg und P. Zeller: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. 9. Mitt. Neuer Aufbau symmetrischer Carotinoide. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 603, 129 (1957).Google Scholar
  212. 208.
    Isler, O., A. Ronco, W. Guex, N. C. Hindley, W. Huber, K. Dialer und M. Kofler: Über die Ester und Äther des synthetischen Vitamins A. Helv. Chim. Acta 32, 489 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 209.
    Isler, O., R. Rüegg und U. Schwieter: Sterisch gehinderte Raumformen der Vitamine A und A2. Chimia 15, 288 (1961); cf. 14, 362 (1960).Google Scholar
  214. 209aa.
    Isler, O., R. Rüegg, U. Schwieter and J. Würsch: The Synthesis and Labeling of Vitamin A and Related Compounds. Vitamins and Horm. 18, 295 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 210.
    Isler, O. and P. Zeller: Total Syntheses of Carotenoids. Vitamins and Horm. 15, 31 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 211.
    Jackson, J. E., R. F. Paschke, W. Tolberg, H. M. Boyd and D. H. Wheeler: Isomers of Linoîeic Acid. Infrared and Ultraviolet Properties of Methyl Esters. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 29, 229 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 212.
    Jenkins, J. A. and G. Mackinney: Inheritance of Carotenoid Differences in the Tomato Hybrid Yellow X Tangerine. Genetics 38, 107 (1953).Google Scholar
  218. 213.
    Jensen, A. and S. L. Jensen: Quantitative Paper Chromatography of Carotenoids. Acta Chem. Scand. 13, 1863 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 214.
    Jensen, S. L.: A Note on the Constitutions of Spirilloxanthin and P-481. Acta Chem. Scand. 13, 381 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 215.
    Jensen, S. L., G. Cohen-Bazire, T. O. M. Nakayama and R. Y. Stanier: The Path of Carotenoid Synthesis in a Photosynthetic Bacterium. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 29, 477 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 216.
    Johnson, R. M. and C. A. Baumann: Storage and Distribution of Vitamin A in Rats Fed Certain Isomers of Carotene. Arch. Biochemistry 14, 361 (1947).Google Scholar
  222. 217.
    Jones, R. N.: The Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of Arylethylenes. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 65, 1818 (1943).Google Scholar
  223. 218.
    Joyce, A. E.: Some Polyenes from Brassica rutabaga. Nature (London) 173, 311 (1954)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 219.
    Joyce, A. E.: Carotenoids of Brassica napus. J. Sci. Food Agric. 10, 342 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 220.
    Jurkowitz, L.: Photochemical and Stereochemical Properties of Carotenoids at Low Temperatures. 1. Photochemical Behaviour of Retinene. Nature (London) 184, 614 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 221.
    Karmakar, G. and L. Zechmeister: On Some Dehydrogenation Products of α-Carotene, β-Carotene and Cryptoxanthin. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 77, 55 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 222.
    Karrer, P.: Carotinoid-epoxyde und furanoide Oxyde von Carotinoid- farbstoffen. Fortschr. Chem. organ. Naturstoffe 5, 1 (1948).Google Scholar
  228. 223.
    Karrer, P.: Syntheses and Stereochemistry of Carotenoids. J. Sci. Industr. Res. (India), Ser. A 14, 166 (1955).Google Scholar
  229. 224.
    Karrer, P.: Zur Konstitution des Rhodoviolascins (Spirilloxanthin). Helv. Chim. Acta 43, 181 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 225.
    Karrer, P. und J. Benz: Axerophten, der dem Vitamin A zugrunde liegende Kohlenwasserstoff. Helv. Chim. Acta 31, 1048 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 226.
    Karrer, P. et C. H. Eugster: Synthèse totale du β-carotène. C. R. hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. 230, 1920 (1950).Google Scholar
  232. 227.
    Karrer, P. et C. H. Eugster: Synthese von Carotinoiden. I.Totalsynthese des β-Carotins. I. Helv. Chim. Acta 33, 1172 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 228.
    Karrer, P. et C. H. Eugster: Carotinoidsynthesen. VIII. Synthese des Dodecapreno-β-carotins. Helv. Chim. Acta 34, 1805 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 229.
    Karrer, P., C. H. Eugster und M. Faust: Über das Auftreten von Carotinoiden in Pollen und Staubbeuteln verschiedener Pflanzen. Helv. Chim. Acta 33, 300 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 230.
    Karrer, P., A. Helfenstein, R. Widmer und TH. B. Van Itallie: Über Bixin. XIII. Mitt, über Pflanzenfarbstoffe. Helv. Chim. Acta 12, 741 (1929).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 231.
    Karrer, P. und W. Hess: Über die katalytische Oxydation von Vitamin A mit Sauerstoff und Platin zu Vitamin-A-aldehyd (eine neue Methode). Helv. Chim. Acta 40, 265 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 232.
    Karrer, P. and E. Jucker: Carotenoids. Translated and Revised by E. A. Braude. New York: Elsevier Publ. Co. 1950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 233.
    Karrer, P., R. Morf und K. Schopp: Zur Kenntnis des Vitamins A aus Fischtranen. II. Helv. Chim. Acta 14, 1431 (1931).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 234.
    Karrer, P., R. Morf und K. Schopp: Synthese des Perhydro-vitamins A. Helv. Chim. Acta 16, 557 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 235.
    Karrer, P. und J. Rutschmann: Über Violaxanthin, Auroxanthin und andere Pigmente der Blüten von Viola tricolor. Helv. Chim. Acta 27, 1684 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 236.
    Karrer, P. und J. Rutschmann: Carotinoide aus den Früchten von Cotoneaster occidentalis und Pyracantha coccinia. Helv. Chim. Acta 28, 1528 (1945).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 237.
    Karrer, P., R. Schwyzer und A. Neuwirth: Oxydation von 4-Methyl-o- benzochinon zu cis-cis-β-Methylmuconsäure-anhydrid. Helv. Chim. Acta 31, 1210 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 238.
    Karrer, P. und U. Solmssen: Stufenweiser Abbau des labilen und stabilen Bixins. Zur Stereochemie der Carotinoide. Helv. Chim. Acta 20, 1396 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 239.
    Karrer, P. und T. Takahashi: Pflanzenfarbstoffe. XLVII. Über die Isomerieverhältnisse beim Bixin. Bemerkungen zu den Theorien über die Bildung von Carotinoidpigmenten in der Pflanze. Helv. Chim. Acta 16, 287 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 240.
    Karrer, P. und E. Würgler: Absorptionsspektren einiger Carotinoide. Helv. Chim. Acta 26, 116 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 241.
    Kawakami, K.: On New Crystalline Derivatives of Vitamin A. Sci. Papers Inst. Phys. Chem. Res. (Tokyo) 26, 77 (1935).Google Scholar
  247. 242.
    Kelber, C. und A. Schwarz: Über kolloidales Palladium. Partielle und totale Hydrogenisation von Phenylacetylen, Tolan und Diphenyl-diacetylen. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 45, 1946 (1912).Google Scholar
  248. 243.
    Kemmerer, A. R. and G. S. Fraps: Constituents of Carotene Extracts of Plants. Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 15, 714 (1943).Google Scholar
  249. 244.
    Kemmerer, A. R. and G. S. Fraps: Relative Value of Carotene in Vegetables for Growth of the White Rat. Arch. Biochemistry 8, 197 (1945).Google Scholar
  250. 245.
    Kemmerer, A. R. and G. S. Fraps: The Vitamin A Activity of neo-β-Carotene U and its Steric Rearrangement in the Digestive Tract of Rats. J. Biol. Chem. 161, 305 (1945).Google Scholar
  251. 246.
    Kharasch, M. S., J. V. Mansfield and F. R. Mayo: cis-trans Isomerization by Bromine Atoms. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 59, 1155 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 247.
    Kistiakowsky, G. B. and W. R. Smith: Kinetics of Thermal cis-trans Isomerization. III. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 56, 638 (1934).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 248.
    Kodicek, E.: Fat-soluble Vitamins. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 25, 497 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 249.
    Koe, B. K. and L. Zechmeister: In Vitro Conversion of Phytofluene and Phytoene into Carotenoid Pigments. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 41, 236 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 250.
    Koe, B. K. and L. Zechmeister: Preparation and Spectral Characteristics of all-trans- and a cis-Phytofluene. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 46, 100 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 250a.
    Kofler, M. and S. H. Rubin: Physicochemical Assay of Vitamin A and Related Compounds. Vitamins and Horm. 18, 315 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 251.
    Kohler, E. P., J. T. Walker and M. Tishler: The Resolution of an Allenic Compound. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 57, 1743 (1935)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 252.
    Krinsky, N. I.: The Enzymatic Esterification of Vitamin A. J. Biol. Chem. 232, 881 (1958).Google Scholar
  259. 253.
    Kropf, A. and R. Hubbard: The Mechanism of Bleaching Rhodopsin. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 74, 266 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 254.
    Kuhn, H.: The Electron Gas Theory of the Color of Natural and Artificial Dyes: Problems and Principles. Fortschr. Chem. organ. Naturstoffe 16, 169 (1958).Google Scholar
  261. 255.
    Kuhn, H.: The Electron Gas Theory of the Color of Natural and Artificial Dyes: Applications and Extensions. Fortschr. Chem. organ. Naturstoffe 17, 404 (1959).Google Scholar
  262. 256.
    Kuhn, H.: Neuere Untersuchungen über das Elektronengasmodell organischer Farb¬stoffe. Angew. Chem. 71, 93 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 257.
    Kuhn, L. P., R. E. Lutz and C. R. Bauer: A Spectroscopic Study of eisend trans-Dibenzoylethylenes and Related Compounds. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 72, 5058 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 258.
    Kuhn, R.: Cis-trans-Umlagerungen der Äthylenkörper. In: K. Freudenberg, Stereochemie, S. 913. Leipzig und Wien: F. Deuticke. 1933.Google Scholar
  265. 258a.
    Kuhn, R.: Molekulare Umlagerungen organischer Verbindungen, österr. Chem.-Ztg. 62, 184 (1961).Google Scholar
  266. 259.
    Kuhn, R. und D. Blum: Über Kumulene, X. cis-trans-Isomerie bei Dinitrotetraphenyl-kumulenen. Chem. Ber. 92, 1483 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 260.
    Kuhn, R. und P. J. Drumm: Umkehrbare Hydrierung und Dehydrierung bei Polyenen. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 65, 1458 (1932).Google Scholar
  268. 261.
    Kuhn, R., P. J. Drumm, M. Hoffer und E. F. Möller: Farbreaktionen und Autoxydation von Hydropolyen-carbonsäure-estern. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 65, 1785 (1932).Google Scholar
  269. 262.
    Kuhn, R. und H. Fischer: Über Kumulene, XII. cis-Polyene durch Partial-hydrierung von Kumulenen. Chem. Ber. 93, 2285 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 263.
    Kuhn, R., H. H. Inhoffen, H. A. Staab und W. Otting: Vergleich des cis- Crocetin-dimethylesters aus Safran mit 8.8′-cis-Crocetin-dimethylester. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 86, 965 (1953).Google Scholar
  271. 264.
    Kuhn, R. und J. Jahn: Über Kumulene, V. Chem. Ber. 86, 759 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 265.
    Kuhn, R. und H. Krauch: Kumulene, VIII. Reduktion von Acetylen-, Diacetylen- und Triacetylen-Glykolen mit Zinn-(II). chlorid; Kumulene mit nur zwei aromatischen Substituenten. Chem. Ber. 88, 309 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 266.
    Kuhn, R. und E. Lederer: Isocarotin (Über das Vitamin des Wachstums, III. Mitt.). Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 65, 637 (1932).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 267.
    Kuhn, R. und K. L. Scholler: Über Kumulene, VI. cis-trans-lsomere Bis-[2-nitrodiphenylen]-butatriene. Chem. Ber. 87, 598 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 268.
    Kuhn, R. und K. Wallenfels: Über 11-Phenyl-undeca-pentaenal und 15-Phenyl-pentadeca-heptaenal. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 70, 1331 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 269.
    Kuhn, R. und A. Winterstein: Über konjugierte Doppelbindungen. I. Synthese von Diphenyl-poly-enen. II. Synthese von Biphenylen-polyenen. Helv. Chim. Acta 11, 87, 116 (1928).Google Scholar
  277. 270.
    Kuhn, R. und A. Winterstein: Die Dihydroverbindung der isomeren Bixine und die Elektronen-Konfiguration der Polyene (Über konjugierte Doppelbindungen, XXIII. Mitt.). Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 65, 646 (1932).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 271.
    Kuhn, R. und A. Winterstein: Über einen licht-empfindlichen Carotin-Farbstoff aus Safran. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 66, 209 (1933).Google Scholar
  279. 272.
    Kuhn, R. und A. Winterstein: Über die Konstitution des Pikro-crocins und seine Beziehung zu den Carotin-Farbstoffen des Safrans. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 67, 344 (1934).Google Scholar
  280. 273.
    Kuhn, R., A. Winterstein und E. Lederer: Zur Kenntnis der Xanthophylle. Z. physiol. Chem. (Hoppe-Seyler) 197, 141 (1931).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 274.
    Kuhn, R., H. Zahn und K. L. Scholler: Über stereoisomere 2,2′-Diaminobisdiphenylen-äthylene. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 582, 196 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 275.
    Kuhn, W. und R. Landolt: Über den Photodichroismus fester Carotinoid- Lösungen. II. Helv. Chim. Acta 34, 1929 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 276.
    Lambertsen, G. and O. R. Braekkan: Studies on the Vitamin A Components of Fish Livers: Determination and Origin. In: G. Popjäk and E. Le Breton, Biochemical Problems of Lipids, p. 56. London: Butterworths Sci. Publ. 1956.Google Scholar
  284. 277.
    Landolt, R. und W. Kuhn: Über den Photodichroismus fester Carotinoid- Lösungen. I. Helv. Chim. Acta 34, 1900 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 278.
    Lederer, E. and M. Lederer: Chromatography. A Review of Principles and Applications. 2nd ed. New York: Elsevier Publ. Co. 1957.Google Scholar
  286. 279.
    Lehman, R. W., J. M. Dieterle, W. T. Fisher and S. R. Ames: Isomerization of Vitamin A in Aqueous Multivitamin Drop Preparations. J. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 49, 363 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 280.
    Le Rosen, A. L.: Continuous Washing Apparatus for Solutions in Organic Solvents. Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 14, 165 (1942).Google Scholar
  288. 281.
    Le Rosen, A. L.: A Method for Standardization of Chromatographic Analysis. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 64, 1905 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 282.
    LeRosen, A. L. and L. Zechmeister: Prolycopene. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 64, 1075 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 283.
    LeRosen, A. L. and L. Zechmeister: The Carotenoid Pigments of the Fruit of Celastrus scandens L. Arch. Biochemistry 1, 17 (1942).Google Scholar
  291. 284.
    Lewis, G. N. and M. Calvin: The Color of Organic Substances. Chem. Rev. 25, 273 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 285.
    Lewis, G. N., T. T. Magel and D. Lipkin: The Absorption and Re-emission of Light by cis- and trans-Stilbenes and the Efficiency of their Photochemical Isomerization. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 62, 2973 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 286.
    Lindlar, H.: Ein neuer Katalysator für selective Hydrierungen. Helv. Chim. Acta 35, 446 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 287.
    Linner, E., C. H. Eugster und P. Karrer: Caxotinoidsynthesen. XVIII. Synthese des 1,18-Di-β-naphtyl-3,7,12,16-tetramethyl-octadeca-nonaens. Helv. Chim. Acta 38, 1869 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 288.
    Loeb, J. N., F P. K. Brown and G. Wald: Photochemical and Stereochemical Properties of Carotenoids at Low Temperatures. 2. Cis-trans Isomerism and Steric Hindrance. Nature (London) 184, 617 (1959).Google Scholar
  296. 289.
    Lowe, J. S. and R. A. Morton: Some Aspects of Vitamin A Metabolism- Vitamins and Horm. 14, 97 (1956).Google Scholar
  297. 290.
    Lunde, K.: Note on the Infrared Spectra of Pro-γ-carotene and Neo-γ-carotene P. Acta Chem. Scand. 13, 2154 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 291.
    Lunde, K. and L. Zechmeister: A Study of the Infrared Spectra of Some Stereoisomeric Diphenylpolyenes. Acta Chem. Scand. 8, 1421 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 292.
    Lunde, K. and L. Zechmeister: Cis-trans Isomeric 1,6-Diphenylhexatrienes. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 76, 2308 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 293.
    Lunde, K. and L. Zechmeister: Infrared Spectra and cis-trans Configurations of Some Carotenoid Pigments. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 77, 1647 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 294.
    Lunde, K. and L. Zechmeister: On the Infrared Spectrum of cis-Stilbene. Naturwiss. (in press).Google Scholar
  302. 295.
    Lythgoe, R. J.: The Absorption Spectra of Visual Purple and of Indicator Yellow. J. Physiol. (London) 89, 331 (1937).Google Scholar
  303. 296.
    Mackinney, G.: Carotenoids. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 21, 473 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 297.
    Mackinney, G. and J. A. Jenkins: Inheritance of Carotenoid Differences in Lycopersicon esculentum Strains. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 35, 284 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 298.
    Mackinney, G. and J. A. Jenkins: Carotenoid Differences in Tomatoes. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 38, 48 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 299.
    Magoon, E. F. and L. Zechmeister: On the cis Forms of Some Biphenylene Derivatives of Butadiene and Hexatriene. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 77, 5642 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 300.
    Magoon, E. F. and L. Zechmeister: On a cis-Neurosporene ex Pyracantha and the in vitro Stereoisomerization of Neurosporene. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 68, 263 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 301.
    Magoon, E. F. and L. Zechmeister: Stepwise Stereoisomerization of Prolycopene, a Polyczs Carotenoid, to all-trans-Lycopene. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 69, 535 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 302.
    Maitland, P. and W. H. Mills: Experimental Demonstration of the Aliene Asymmetry. Nature (London) 135, 994 (1935).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 303.
    Maitland, P. and W. H. Mills: Resolution of an Aliene Hydrocarbon into Optical Antipodes by Asymmetric Catalysis. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1936, 987.Google Scholar
  311. 304.
    Mantjnta, C.: The Manner of Action of the Genes Responsible for the Color of the Fruit in Cultivated Strains of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and in Wild Species of the Genus. Genet, agrar. (Pavia) 3, 38 pp. (1951) [Chem. Abstr. 48, 9476 (1954)].Google Scholar
  312. 305.
    Martinez Garcia, F.: The Carotenoids of Red Pepper. Rev. fac. ciênc., Univ. Coimbra 20, 21 (1951) [Chem. Abstr. 46, 8287 (1952)].Google Scholar
  313. 306.
    Martinez Garcia, F.: The Presence of Stereoisomerism of Capsorubin in the Pimiento. Farmacognosia (Madrid) 12, 169 (1952) [Chem. Abstr. 48, 5443 (1954)].Google Scholar
  314. 306a.
    Marusich, W., E. De Ritter, J. Vreeland and R. Krukar: Vitamin A Activity of Beta-apo-8′-carotenal. Agrie. Food Chem. 8, 390 (1960).Google Scholar
  315. 307.
    Mase, Y., W. J. Rabourn and F. W. Quackenbush: Carotene Production by Pénicillium sclerotiorum. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 68, 150 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 308.
    Mayo, F. R. and C. Walling: The Peroxide Effect in the Addition of Reagents to Unsaturated Compounds and in Rearrangement Reactions. Chem. Rev. 27, 351 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. 309.
    Mcconnell, H.: Catalysis of Cis-Trans Isomerization by Paramagnetic Substances. J. Chem. Physics 20, 1043 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 310.
    McNicholas, H. J.: The Visible and Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of Carotene and Xanthophyll and the Changes Accompanying Oxydation. Bureau Standards J. Res. 7, 171 (1931).Google Scholar
  319. 311.
    Meunier, P. et J. Jouanneteau: Recherches sur l’isomérie cis-trans dans la série de la vitamine A (Axérophtol). Bull. soc. chim. biol. (Paris) 30, 260 (1948)Google Scholar
  320. 312.
    Meunier, P., J. Jouanneteau et G. Zwingelstein: Sur la coupure oxydante du β-carotène en rétinène (axérophtal) par MnOa. C. R. hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. 231, 1170 (1950).Google Scholar
  321. 313.
    Meunier, P., J. Jouanneteau et G. Zwingelstein: Sur l’isomérisation cis trans des caroténoides en C40 provoquée par adsorption sur des oxydes métalliques. Bull. soc. chim. biol. (Paris) 33, 1228 (1951).Google Scholar
  322. 314.
    Mikhailov, B. M. and G. S. Ter-Sarkisyan: Polyene Compounds. I. Synthesis of 1,5-Aryl-substituted Derivatives of 1,3,5-Hexatriene. Izvest. Akad. Nauk USSR, Otdel. Khim. Nauk 1956, 1079 [Chem. Abstr. 51, 5025 (1957)].Google Scholar
  323. 315.
    Milas, N. A.: Synthesis of Biologically Active Vitamin A Substances. Science (Washington) 103, 581 (1946).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. 316.
    Milas, N. A., P. Davis, I. Belic and D. A. Fles: Synthesis of β-Carotene. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 72, 4844 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 317.
    Milas, N. A., E. Sakal, J. T. Plati, J. T. Rivers, J. K. Gladding, F. X. Grossi, Z. Weiss, M. A. Campbell and H. F. Wright: Synthesis of Products Related to Vitamin A. VI. The Synthesis of Biologically Active Vitamin A Ethers. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 70, 1597 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 318.
    Miller, E. S.: A Precise Method, with Detailed Calibration for the Determination of Absorption Coefficients; the Quantitative Measurement of the Visible and Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of α-Carotene, β-Carotene, and Lycopene. Plant Physiol. 12, 667 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. 319.
    Miller, E. S.: Quantitative Biological Spectroscopy. Absorption Spectra, Vol. I. Minneapolis: Burgess Publ. Co. 1940.Google Scholar
  328. 320.
    Moore, T.: Vitamin A and Carotene. I. The Association of Vitamin A Activity with Carotene in the Carrot Root. Biochemic. J. 23, 803 (1929).Google Scholar
  329. 321.
    Moore, T.: Vitamin A. New York: Elsevier Publ. Co.; London: Cleaver-Hume. 1957.Google Scholar
  330. 322.
    Morton, R. A.: Chemical Aspects of the Visual Process. Nature (London) 153, 69 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. 323.
    Morton, R. A. and F. Bro-Rasmussen: Comments on the Determination of Vitamin A in Natural Products and Especially in Cod-liver Oils. Analyst 80, 410 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 324.
    Morton, R. A. and T. W. Goodwin: Preparation of Retinene in vitro. Nature (London) 153, 405 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. 325.
    Morton, R. A. and T. W. Goodwin: Carotenoids and Vitamin A. Brit. Med. Bull. 12, 37 (1956).Google Scholar
  334. 326.
    Morton, R. A. and G. A. J. Pitt: Studies on Rhodopsin. 9. pH and the Hydrolysis of Indicator Yellow. Biochemic. J. 59, 128 (1955).Google Scholar
  335. 327.
    Morton, R. A. and G. A. J. Pitt: Visual Pigments. Fortschr. Chem. organ. Naturstoffe 14, 244 (1957).Google Scholar
  336. 328.
    Morton, R. A., M. K. Salah and A. L. Stubbs: Retinene2 and Vitamin A2. Nature (London) 159, 744 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 329.
    Mulliken, R. S.: Intensities of Electronic Transitions in Molecular Spectra. VII. Conjugated Polyenes and Carotenoids. J. Chem. Physics 7, 364 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 330.
    Mulliken, R. S.: Structure and Ultraviolet Spectra of Ethylene, Butadiene and their Alkyl Derivatives. Rev. Modern Physics 14, 265 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 331.
    Mulliken, R. S.: Quantum-mechanical Methods and the Electronic Spectra and Structure of Molecules. Chem. Rev. 41, 201 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 332.
    Nash, H. A. and F. P. Zscheile: The cis-trans Isomerization of «-Carotene Isomers. Arch. Biochemistry 5, 77 (1944).Google Scholar
  341. 333.
    Nayler, P. and M. C. Whiting: Researches on Polyenes. II. The Synthesis of Cosmene. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1954, 4006.Google Scholar
  342. 334.
    Oroshnik, W.: Synthesis of Polyenes. V. α-Vitamin A Methyl Ether. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 76, 5499 (1954).Google Scholar
  343. 335.
    Oroshnik, W.: The Synthesis and Configuration of Neo-b Vitamin A and Neoretinene b. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 78, 2651 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. 336.
    Oroshnik, W., P. K. Brown, R. Hubbard and G. Wald: Hindered cis Isomers of Vitamin A and Retinene: the Structure of the Neo-b Isomer. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 42, 578 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. 337.
    Oroshnik, W., G. Karmas and A. D. Mebane: Synthesis of Polyenes. I. Retrovitamin A Methyl Ether. Spectral Relationships between the β-Ionylidene and Retroionyliene Series. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 74, 295 (1952)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. 338.
    Oroshnik, W., G. Karmas and A. D. Mebane: Synthesis of Polyenes. II. Ally lie Rearrangement and Dehydrations in Substituted β-Ionols. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 74, 3807 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 339.
    Oroshnik, W. and A. D. Mebane: Synthesis of Polyenes. VI. Isoprenoid Polyenes Containing Sterically Hindered cis Configurations. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 76, 5719 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 340.
    Oroshnik, W., A. D. Mebane and G. Karmas: Synthesis of Polyenes. III. Prototropic Rearrangements in β-Ionols and Related Compounds. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 75, 1050 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 341.
    Ott, E. und R. Schröter: Über die Halbhydrierung der Acetylen-Bindung und die Abhängigkeit der geometrischen Konfiguration der entstehenden Äthylen-Verbindungen von der Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit. Ber. dtsch. ehem. Ges. 60, 624 (1927).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. 342.
    Otting, W.: Über Kumulene, VII. Die Ultrarotspektren einiger Kumulene und Acetylenglykole. Chem. Ber. 87, 611 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 343.
    Otto, R. und F. Stoffel: Das zweite Stilben. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 30, 1799 (1897).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. 344.
    Paal, C. und W. Hartmann: Über katalytische Wirkungen kolloidaler Metalle der Platingruppe. VIII. Die stufenweise Reduktion der Phenyl-propiolsäure. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 42, 3930 (1909).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 344a.
    Para, J. and L. S. Forster: Thermal cis-trans Isomerization of Diphenylhexatriene in Solution. Trans. Faraday Soc. 57, 87 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. 345.
    Paschke, R. F., W. Tolberzg and D. H. Wheeler: Cis-Trans Isomerism of the Eleostearate Isomers. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 30, 97 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 346.
    Paul, M. F., V. R. Ells and H. E. Paul: The Effect of Mineral Oil on Food Utilization. II. Changes of β-Carotene in Mineral Oil. Amer. J. Digestive Diseases 18, 278 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 347.
    Pauling, L.: Recent Work on the Configuration and Electronic Structure of Molecules; with some Applications to Natural Products. Fortschr. Chem. organ. Naturstoffe 3, 203 (1939).Google Scholar
  357. 348.
    Pauling, L.: A Theory of the Color of Dyes. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 25, 577 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. 349.
    Pauling, L.: Zur cis-trans-Isomerisierung von Carotinoiden. Helv. Chim. Acta 32, 2241 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. 550.
    Petracek, F. J. and L. Zechmeister: Stereoisomeric Phytofluenes. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 74, 184 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. 351.
    Petracek, F. J. and L. Zechmeister: Reaction of β-Carotene with N-Bromosuccinimide: The Formation and Conversions of Some Polyene Ketones. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 78, 1427 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. 352.
    Petracek, F. J. and L. Zechmeister: The Hydrolytic Cleavage Products of Boron Trifluoride Complexes of β-Carotene, Some Dehydrogenated Carotenes and Anhydrovitamin Av J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 78, 3188 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 352a.
    Petzold, E. N., F. W. Quackenbush and M. Mcquistan: Zeacarotenes, New Provitamins A from Corn. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 82,- 117 (1959).Google Scholar
  363. 353.
    Pinckard, J. H.: Thesis, California Institute of Technology Pasadena, 1949.Google Scholar
  364. 354.
    Pinckard, J. H., J. S. Kittredge, D. L. Fox, F. T. Haxo and L. Zechmeister: Pigments from a Marine “Red Water” Population of the Dino- flagellate Prorocentrum micans. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 44, 189 (1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. 355.
    Pinckard, J. H., B. Wille and L. Zechmeister: A Comparative Study of the Three Stereoisomeric 1,4-Diphenylbutadienes. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 70, 1938 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. 356.
    Pitt, G. A. J. and R. A. Morton: cis-trans Isomers of Retinene in Visual Processes. Biochemic. J. 72, 40 P (1959).Google Scholar
  367. 357.
    Pitt, G. A. J. and R. A. Morton: cis-trans Isomers of Retinene in Visual Processes. Biochem. Soc. Symposia (Cambridge), No. 19, 67 (1960).Google Scholar
  368. 358.
    Plack, P. A.: Maleic Anhydride in the Study of Naturally Occurring Isomers of Vitamin A. Biochemic. J. 64, 56 (1956).Google Scholar
  369. 359.
    Plack, P. A.: The Conversion of 11-cis into oil-trans Vitamin A in the Rat. Brit. J. Nutrit. 13, III (1959).Google Scholar
  370. 360.
    Plack, P. A.: Vitamin A1 Aldehyde in Hen’s Eggs. Nature (London) 186, 234 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. 361.
    Plack, P. A., L. R. Fisher, K. M. Henry and S. K. Kon: cis-Isomers of Vitamin A in some Marine Crustacea. Biochemic. J. 64, 17 P (1956).Google Scholar
  372. 362.
    Plack, P.-A., S. K. Kon and S. Y. Thompson: Vitamin A1 Aldehyde in the Eggs of the Herring (Clupea harengusL,.) and other Marine Teleosts. Biochemic. J. 71, 467 (1959).Google Scholar
  373. 363.
    Platt, J. R.: Electronic Structure and Excitation of Polyenes and Porphyrins. In: A. Hollaender, Radiation Biology, Vol. III, p. 71. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1956.Google Scholar
  374. 364.
    Polgar, A., C. B. Van Niel and L. Zechmeister: Studies on the Pigments of the Purple Bacteria. II. A Spectroscopic and Stereochemical Investigation of Spirilloxanthin. Arch. Biochemistry 5, 243 (1944).Google Scholar
  375. 365.
    Polgar, A. and L. Zechmeister: Isomerization of β-Carotene. Isolation of a Stereoisomer with Increased Adsorption Affinity. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 64, 1856 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. 366.
    Polgar, A. and L. Zechmeister: Action of Cold Concentrated Hydriodic Acid on Carotenes: Structure and cis-trans Isomerization of Some Reaction Products. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 65, 1528 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. 367.
    Polgar, A. and L. Zechmeister: A Spectroscopic Study in the Stereoisomeric Capsanthin Set. Cis-peak. Effect and Configuration. J. Amer. Chem.β Soc. 66, 186 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. 368.
    Porter, J. W.: Relationships Between Physical Properties and Structure of Carotenes and Colorless Polyenes. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 45, 291 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. 369.
    Porter, J. W. and R. E. Lincoln: I. Lycopersicon Selections Containing a High Content of Carotenes and Colorless Polyenes. II. The Mechanism of Carotene Biosynthesis. Arch. Biochemistry 27, 390 (1950).Google Scholar
  380. 570.
    Porter, J. W. and F. P. Zscheile: Carotenes of Lycopersicon Species and Strains. Arch. Biochemistry 10, 537 (1946).Google Scholar
  381. 371.
    Poutet, J. J.: Procédé pour reconnaître la falsification de l’huile d’olive par celle de graines. Ann. chim. phys. [2] 12, 58 (1819).Google Scholar
  382. 372.
    Pradhan, S. K. and N. G. Magar: Vitamins A1 A2, and Neovitamin A in Shark-liver Oils. Indian J. Med. Res. 44, 11 (1956) [Chem. Abstr. 50, 9687 (1956)].Google Scholar
  383. 373.
    Price, C. C. and G. Berti: The Polymerization of Stilbene in Boron Fluoride Etherate. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 76, 1219 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. 374.
    Price, C. C. and M. Meister: cis-trans-Isomerization with Boron Fluoride. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 61, 1595 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. 375.
    Pullman, A.: Caractéristiques électroniques des polyènes conjugués d’intérêt biologique (caroténoïdes, vitamines A, rétinènes). C. R. hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. 251, 1430 (1960).Google Scholar
  386. 376.
    Pullman, A. and B. Pullman: The cis-trans Isomerization of Conjugated Polyenes and the Occurrence of a Hindered cis-Isomer of Retinene in the Rhodopsin System. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 47, 7 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. 377.
    Quackenbush, F. W., H. Steenbock and W. H. Peterson: The Effect of Acids on Carotenoids. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 60, 2937 (1938).Google Scholar
  388. 378.
    Rabourn, W. J. and F. W. Quackenbush: The occurrence of Phytoene in Various Plant Materials Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 44, 159 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. 379.
    Rabourn, W. J. and F. W. Quackenbush: The Structure of Phytoene. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 61, 111 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. 380.
    Rabourn, W. J. and F. W. Quackenbush: A Unified Concept of Carotene Photosynthesis. Amer. Chem. Soc. Meeting, Sept. 1957. Abstr. p. 88 C.Google Scholar
  391. 381.
    Rabourn, W. J., F. W. Quackenbush and J. W. Porter: Isolation and Properties of Phytoene. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 48, 267 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. 382.
    Radding, C. M. and G. Wald: The Action of Enzymes on Rhodopsin. J. Gen. Physiol. 42, 371 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. 383.
    Rasmussen, R. S.: Infrared Spectroscopy in Structure Determination and its Application to Penicillin. Fortschr. Chem. organ. Naturstoffe 5, 331 (1948).Google Scholar
  394. 384.
    Rasmussen, R. S. and R. R. Brattain: Infra-red Absorption Spectra of the C2 to C4 Mono-olefins and of 2-Methyl-2-butene. J. Chem. Physics 15, 120 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. 385.
    Rasmussen, R. S. and R. R. Brattain: Infra-red Absorption Spectra of Some C4 and C5 Dienes. J. Chem. Physics 15, 131 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. 386.
    Rasmussen, R. S. and R. R. Brattain: Infrared Spectra of Some Carboxylic Acid Derivatives. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 71, 1073 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. 387.
    Rau, W. und C. Zehender: Die Carotinoide von Fusarium aquaeductum Lagh. Arch. Mikrobiol. 32, 423 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. 387a.
    Riezebos, G. and E. Havinga: The Influence of N011 Planarity in Styrene and Stilbene Derivatives, III. Syntheses and Ultra-violet Spectra of 4-4′- Substituted cis- and trans-Stilbenes. Ree. trav. chim. Pays-Bas 80, 446 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. 388.
    Robeson, C. D. and J. G. Baxter: A new Vitamin A. Nature (London) 155, 300 (1945).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. 38g.
    Robeson, C. D. and J. G. Baxter: Neovitamin A. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 69, 136 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. 390.
    Robeson, C. D., W. P. Blum, J. M. Dieterle, J. D. Cawley and J. G. Baxter: Chemistry of Vitamin A. XXV. Geometrical Isomers of Vitamin A Aldehyde and an Isomer of its α-Ionone Analog. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 77, 4120 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. 391.
    Robeson, C. D., J. D. Cawley, L. Weisler, M. H. Stern, C. C. Eddinger and A. J. Chechak: Chemistry of Vitamin A. XXIV. The Synthesis of Geometric Isomers of Vitamin A via Methyl β-Methylglutaconate. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 77, 4111 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. 392.
    Rosenberg, B.: Photoconduction and Cis-Trans Isomerism in β-Carotene. J. Chem. Physics 31, 238 (1959); see also 34, 63 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. 393.
    Rüegg, R., H. Lindlar, M. Montavon, G. Saucy, S. F. Schaeren, U. Schwieter und O. Isler: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. 14. Mitt. Synthese von β-Apo-I2′-carotinal (C25). Helv. Chim. Acta 42, 847 (1959).Google Scholar
  405. 394.
    Rüegg, R., M. Montavon, G. Ryser, G. Saucy, U. Schwieter und O. Isler: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. 15. Mitt. Synthesen in der β-Carotinai- und β-Carotinol-Reihe. Helv. Chim. Acta 42, 854 (1959).Google Scholar
  406. 394a.
    Rüegg, R., U. Schwieter, G. Ryser, P. Schudel und O. Isler: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. 17. Mitt. γ-Carotin sowie d,l-α- und β-Carotin aus Dehydro-β-apo-12′-carotinal (C25). — 18. Mitt. Synthese von 7′,8′-Dihydro-γ-carotin (β-Zeacarotin) und 3′,4′-Dehydro-γ-carotin (Torulin). Helv. Chim. Acta 44, 985, 994 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. 395.
    Sandoval, A. and L. Zechmeister: Some Spectroscopic Changes Connected with the Stereoisomerization of Diphenylbutadiene. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 69, 553 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. 396.
    Saperstein, S. and M. P. Starr: Association of Carotenoid Pigments with Protein Components in non-photosynthetic Bacteria. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 16, 482 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. 397.
    Savinov, B. G. and A. A. Mikhaylovnina: Neo-β-carotene as the Product of Primary Stereoisomeric Transformation of β-Carotene on Heating. Dokl. Akad. Nauk USSR 88, 887 (1953) [Chem. Abstr. 48, 3311 (1954)]Google Scholar
  410. 398.
    Schroeder, W. A.: Formation of Pro-carotenoids in “Monkey Flowers” under Some Conditions. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 64, 2510 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  411. 399.
    Schulte-Frohlinde, D.: Quantenausbeuten der photochemischen eis trans-Umlagerung von p-Nitro-p′-methoxy-stilben in verschiedenen Lösungsmitteln. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 615, 114 (1958).Google Scholar
  412. 400.
    Seitz, K., Hs. H. Günthard und O. Jeger: Veilchenriechstoffe. 37. Mitt. Über die Trennung von α- und β-Jonon durch fraktionierte Destillation. Helv. Chim. Acta 33, 2196 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. 401.
    Shantz, E. M.: Rehydro Vitamin A, the Compound from Anhydro Vitamin A in vivo. J. Biol. Chem. 182, 515 (1950).Google Scholar
  414. 402.
    Shantz, E. M., J. D. Cawley and N. D. Embree: Anhydro (“Cyclized”) Vitamin A. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 65, 901 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. 403.
    Shechter, H., J. J. Gardikes and A. H. Pagano: Stereochemistry of Addition of Dinitrogen Tetroxide to cis and trans Stilbenes. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 81, 5420 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. 404.
    Sheppard, N. and D. M. Simpson: The Infra-red and Raman Spectra of Hydrocarbons. I. Acetylenes and Olefins. Quart. Rev. Chem. Soc. (London) 6, 1 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. 405.
    Sheppard, N. and G. B. B. M. Sutherland: Vibration Spectra of Hydrocarbon Molecules. I. Frequencies due to Deformation Vibrations of Hydrogen Atoms Attached to a Double Bond. Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), Ser. A 196, 195 (1949).Google Scholar
  418. 406.
    Simpson, W. T.: Resonance Force Theory of Carotenoid Pigments. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 77, 6164 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  419. 407.
    Sly, W. G.: A Preliminary Report on the Crystal-structure Determination of 15,15′-Dehydro-β-carotene. Acta Crystallogr. 8, 115 (1955). — Thesis, California Institute of Technology. 1955.Google Scholar
  420. 408.
    Smakula, A.: Über die photochemische Umwandlung des trans-Stilbens. Z. physik. Chem. B 25, 90 (1934).Google Scholar
  421. 409.
    Stainer, D. W. and T. K. Murray: Isomerization of Vitamin A by Tissue Homogenates. Canad. J. Biochem. Physiol. 38, 1467 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. 410.
    Stainer, D. W., T. K. Murray and J. A. Campbell: Isomerization of 11-cis- Vitamin A in vivo. Canad. J. Biochem. Physiol. 38, 1219 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. 411.
    Starr, M. P. and S. Saperstein: Thiamine and the Carotenoid Pigments of Corynebacterium poinsettiae. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 43, 157 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  424. 412.
    Steenbock, H., M. T. Sell, E. M. Nelson and M. V. Buell: The Fat-soluble Vitamine. J. Biol. Chem. 46, xxxii (1921).Google Scholar
  425. 413.
    Stegemeyer, H.: Die Infrarot-Absorption des cis-Stilbens im Valenzschwingungsgebiet. Naturwiss. 48, 128 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. 414.
    Stitt, F., E. M. Bickoff, G. F. Bailey, C. R. Thompson and S. Friedlander: Spectrophotometry Determination of β-Carotene Stereoisomers in Alfalfa. J. Assoc. Off. Agric. Chemists 34, 460 (1951).Google Scholar
  427. 415.
    Stoermer, R.: Über die Umlagerung stabiler stereoisomerer Äthylenkörper in labile durch ultraviolettes Licht (I). Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 42, 4865 (1909).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. 416.
    Strain, H. H.: Leaf Xanthophylls. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. No. 490. Washington. 1938.Google Scholar
  429. 417.
    Strain, H. H.: Carotene. XI. Isolation and Detection of α-Carotene, and the Carotenes of Carrot Roots and of Butter. J. Biol. Chem. 127, 191 (1939).Google Scholar
  430. 418.
    Strain, H. H.: Isomerizations of Polyene Acids and Carotenoids. Preparation of β-Eleostearic and β-Licanic Acids. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 63, 3448 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  431. 419.
    Strain, H. H.: Chromatographic Adsorption Analysis. New York: Interscience Publ. 1942.Google Scholar
  432. 420.
    Strain, H. H.: Problems in Chromatography and in Colloid Chemistry Illustrated by Leaf Pigments. J. Physic. Chem. 46, 1151 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. 421.
    Strain, H. H.: Chloroplast Pigments. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 13, 591 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. 422.
    Strain, H. H.: Molecular Structure and Adsorption Sequences of Carotenoid Pigments. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 70, 588 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. 423.
    Strain, H. H.: Leaf Xanthophylls: The Action of Acids on Violaxanthin, Violeoxanthin, Taraxanthin and Tareoxanthin. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 48, 458 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. 424.
    Strain, H. H. and W. M. Manning: The Occurrence and Interconversion of Various Fucoxanthins. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 64, 1235 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. 425.
    Strain, H. H. and W. M. Manning: A Unique Polyene Pigment of the Marine Diatom Navicula Torquatum. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 65, 2258 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  438. 426.
    Strain, H. H., W. M. Manning and G. Hardin: Xanthophylls and Carotenes of Diatoms, Brown Algae, Dinoflagellates, and Sea-anemones. Biol. Bull. 86, 169 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. 427.
    Straus, F.: Zur Kenntnis der Acetylenbindung. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 342, 190 (1905).Google Scholar
  440. 428.
    Surmatis, J. D., J. Maricq and A. Ofner: Synthesis of Carotene Homologs. J. Organ. Chem. (USA) 23, 157 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. 429.
    Suzuki, N. and K. Tsukida: Carotenoids of the Flowers of Osmanthus fragrans. Chem. pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 7, 133 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. 430.
    Suzuki, N. and K. Tsukida: On Some cis-Forms of Luteochrome. Chem. pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 7, 878 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. 431.
    Szasz, G. J. and N. Sheppard: An Infra-red Spectroscopic Study of the Configuration of Some Chlorinated Butadienes. Trans. Faraday Soc. 49, 358 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. 432.
    Tappi, G. und P. Karrer: Über die Carotinoide aus den Staubbeuteln von Lilium candidum. Cis-Antheraxanthin. Helv. Chim. Acta 32, 50 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  445. 433.
    Tappi, G. e E. Menziani: Sui pigmenti del polline di Lilium mantchiuricum. Atti Soc. Nat. Mat. Modena 85, 28 (1954).Google Scholar
  446. 434.
    Taylor, T. W. J. and C. E. J. Crawford: Preparation of iso Stilbene. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1934, 1130.Google Scholar
  447. 435.
    Taylor, T. W. J. and A. R. Murray: Isomeric Change in Certain Stilbenes. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1938, 2078.Google Scholar
  448. 436.
    Thomas, J. F. and G. Branch: The Principal Electronic Absorption Bands of the Vinylogous Series Derived from Benzylaldehyde and Benzophenone. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 75, 4793 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. 437.
    Thompson, C. R., E. M. Bickoff and W. D. Maclay: Formation of Stereoisomers of β-Carotene in Alfalfa. Ind. Eng. Chem. 43, 126 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  450. 438.
    Tomes, M. L., F. W. Quackenbush, O. E. Nelson, Jr. and B. North: The Inheritance of Carotenoid Pigment Systems in the Tomato. Genetics 38, 117 (1953).Google Scholar
  451. 439.
    Trombly, H. H. and J. W. Porter: Additional Carotenes and a Colorless Polyene of Lycopersicon Species and Strains. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 43, 443 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  452. 440.
    Tsukida, K. and L. Zechmeister: The Stereoisomerization of β-Carotene Epoxides and the Simultaneous Formation of Furanoid Oxides. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 74, 408 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  453. 441.
    Urushibara, Y. and O. Simamura: The Effect of Oxygen and Reduced Nickel on the Catalytic Action of Hydrogen Bromide in the Isomerization of Isostilbene into Stilbene. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 12, 507 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. 442.
    Urushibara, Y. and O. Simamura: Isomerization of Isostilbene to Stilbene by Hydrogen Bromide in the Presence of Oxygen and of Ferromagnetic Metals. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 13, 566 (1938).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. 443.
    Vallentyne, J. R.: Carotenoids in a 20,000-Year-Old Sediment from Searles Lake, California. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 70, 29 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  456. 444.
    Van’t Hoff, H. J.: Sur les formules de structure dans l’espace. Bull. soc. chim. (Paris) [2] 23, 295 (1875).Google Scholar
  457. 445.
    Van’t Hoff, H. J.: La chimie dans l’espace. Rotterdam: P. M. Bazendijk. 1875.Google Scholar
  458. 446.
    Wagner, R., J. Fine, J. W. Simmons and J. H. Goldstein: Microwave Spectrum, Structure, and Dipole Moment of s-trans Acrolein. J. Chem. Physics 26, 634 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  459. 447.
    Waight, E. S. and R. L. Erskine: Absorption Spectra of Conjugated Carbonyl Compounds. In: G. W. Gray, Steric Effects in Conjugated Systems (Chem. Soc. Symposium), p. 73. London: Butterworths. 1958.Google Scholar
  460. 448.
    Wald, G.: Vitamin A in the Retina. Nature (London) 132, 316 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  461. 449.
    Wald, G.: Carotenoids and the Vitamin A Cycle in Vision. Nature (London) 134, 65 (1934).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. 450.
    Wald, G.: Vitamin A in Eye Tissues. J. Gen. Physiol. 18, 905 (1934).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  463. 451.
    Wald, G.: Carotenoids and the Visual Cycle. J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 351 (1935).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  464. 452.
    Wald, G.: Pigments of the Retina. I. The Bull Frog. J. Gen. Physiol. 19, 781 (1936).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  465. 453.
    Wald, G.: Visual Purple System in Fresh-water Fishes. Nature (London) 139, 1017 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. 454.
    Wald, G.: The Porphyropsin Visual System. J. Gen. Physiol. 22, 775 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  467. 455.
    Wald, G.: The Synthesis from Vitamin Ax of “Retinene1” and of a new 545 MP Chromogen yielding Light-sensitive Products. J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 489 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  468. 456.
    Wald, G.: The Enzymatic Reduction of the Retinenes to the Vitamins A. Science (Washington) 109, 482 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  469. 457.
    Wald, G.: The Biochemistry of Vitamin A. In: R. M. Herriott, Symposium on Nutrition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. 1953.Google Scholar
  470. 458.
    Wald, G.: The Biochemistry of Vision. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 22, 497 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. 459.
    Wald, G.: Photochemical and Stereochemical Properties of Carotenoids at Low Temperatures. 3. Discussion. Nature (London) 184, 620 (1959).Google Scholar
  472. 460.
    Wald, G.: The Visual Function of the Vitamins A. Vitamins and Horm. 18, 417 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  473. 461.
    Wald, G.: The Molecular Organization of Visual Systems. In: Light and Life. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. 1961.Google Scholar
  474. 462.
    Wald, G.: General Discussion of Retinal Structure in Relation to the Visual Process. In: The Structure of the Eye. New York: Academic Press. 1961.Google Scholar
  475. 463.
    Wald, G. and P. K. Brown: The Synthesis of Rhodopsin from Retinene1 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 36, 84 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. 464.
    Wald, G. and P. K. Brown: Synthesis and Bleaching of Rhodopsin. Nature (London) 177, 174 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. 465.
    Wald, G. and P. K. Brown: The Vitamin A of a Euphausiid Crustacean. J. Gen. Physiol. 40, 627 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  478. 466.
    Wald, G. and P. K. Brown: Human Rhodopsin. Science (Washington) 127, 222 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  479. 467.
    Wald, G., P. K. Brown, R. Hubbard and W. Oroshnik: Hindered eis Isomers of Vitamin A and Retinene: The Structure of the neo-b Isomer. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 41, 438 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  480. 468.
    Wald, G., P. K. Brown and P. H. Smith: Cyanopsin, a New Pigment of Cone Vision. Science 118, 505 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  481. 469.
    Wald, G., P. K. Brown and P. H. Smith: Iodopsin. J. Gen. Physiol. 38, 623 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  482. 470.
    Wald, G. and S. P. Burg: Crustacean Vitamin A. Federat. Proc. (Amer. Soc. exp. Biol.) 14, 300 (1955).Google Scholar
  483. 471.
    Wald, G., J. Durell and R. C. C. St. George: The Light Reaction in the Bleaching of Rhodopsin. Science (Washington) 111, 179 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  484. 472.
    Wald, G. and R. Hubbard: Reduction of Retinene1 to Vitamin AT in vitro. J. Gen. Physiol. 32, 367 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  485. 473.
    Wald, G. and R. Hubbard: Enzymic Aspects of the Visual Processes. In: The Enzymes, Vol. 3, p. 369, 2nd Ed. New York: Academic Press, 1960.Google Scholar
  486. 474.
    Wallace, V. and J. W. Porter: Phytofluene. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 36, 468 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. 475.
    Wallcave, L.: Thesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, 1953.Google Scholar
  488. 476.
    Wallcave, L., J. Leemann and L. Zechmeister: Action of Boron Trifluoride Etherate on β-Carotene. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 39, 604 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. 477.
    Wallcave, L. and L. Zechmeister: Conversion of Dehydro-β-carotene, via its Boron Trifluoride Complex, into an Isomer of Cryptoxanthin. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 75, 4495 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  490. 478.
    Warren, C. K. and B. C. L. Weedon: Carotenoids and Related Compounds. VI. Some Conjugated Polyene Diketones, and their Comparison with Capsorubin. J. Chem. Soc. ( London ) 1958, 3972.Google Scholar
  491. 479.
    Wendler, N. L., C. Rosenblum and M. Tishler: The Oxidation of β-Carotene. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 72, 234 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. 480.
    Willstätter, R. und A. Stoll: Untersuchungen über Chlorophyll. Methoden und Ergebnisse. Berlin: Julius Springer. 1913.Google Scholar
  493. 481.
    Winterstein, A. und B. Hegedüs: Über das Vorkommen des Retinens in der Natur. Z. physiol. Chem. (Hoppe-Seyler) 321, 97 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  494. 481a.
    Winterstein, A., A. Studer und R. Rüegg: Neuere Ergebnisse der Carotinoid-forschung. Chem. Ber. 93, 2951 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  495. 482.
    Wiseman, H. G., S. S. Stone, H. L. Savage and L. A. Moore: Action of Celites on Carotene and Lutein. Analyt. Chemistry 24, 681 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  496. 483.
    Wittig, G. und U. Schöllkopf: Über Triphenyl-phosphin-methylene als olefinbildende Reagenzien. I. Mitt. Chem. Ber. 87, 1318 (1954).Google Scholar
  497. 484.
    Wittig, G. und W. Wiemer: Zur Valenz tautomeric ungesättigter Systeme. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 483, 144 (1930).Google Scholar
  498. 485.
    Würsch, J. und U. Schwieter: Synthese von β-Carotin-[6,6′-14C]. Helv. Chim. Acta 39, 1067 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. 486.
    Wyman, G. M.: The cis-trans Isomerization of Conjugated Compounds. Chem. Rev. 55, 625 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  500. 487.
    Yamaguchi, M.: Chemical Constitution of Renieratene. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 30, 979 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  501. 488.
    Yamaguchi, M.: Chemical Constitution of Isorenieratene. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 31, 51 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  502. 489.
    Yamaguchi, M.: Renieratene, a New Carotenoid Containing Benzene Rings, Isolated from a Sea Sponge. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 31, 739 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  503. 490.
    Zalokar, M.: Isolation of an Acidic Pigment in Neurospora. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 70, 568 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  504. 491.
    Zechmeister, L.: Carotinoide. Ein biochemischer Bericht über pflanzliche und tierische Polyenfarbstoffe. Berlin: Julius Springer. 1934.Google Scholar
  505. 492.
    Zechmeister, L.: cis-trans Isomerization and Stereochemistry of Carotenoids and Diphenyl-polyenes. Chem. Rev. 34, 267 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  506. 493.
    Zechmeister, L.: Stereochemistry and Chromatography. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 49, 220 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  507. 494.
    Zechmeister, L.: Adsorption and Some Constitutional and Steric Properties. Discuss. Faraday Soc. 7, 54 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  508. 495.
    Zechmeister, L.: Stereoisomeric Provitamins A. Vitamins and Horm. 7, 57 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  509. 496.
    Zechmeister, L.: Les provitamines A stereoi’someriques. Bull. Soc. chim. biol. (Paris) 31, 956 (1949).Google Scholar
  510. 497.
    Zechmeister, L.: Progress in Chromatography 1938–1947. London: Chapman & Hall; New York: J.Wiley. 1950.Google Scholar
  511. 498.
    Zechmeister, L.: Some Stereochemical Aspects of Polyenes. Experientia 10, 1 (1954)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  512. 499.
    Zechmeister, L.: Some in vitro Conversions of Naturally Occurring Carotenoids. Fortschr. Chem. organ. Naturstoffe 15, 31 (1958).Google Scholar
  513. 500.
    Zechmeister, L.: Bibliography of Papers Published by L. Zechmeister and Co-authors in the Fields of Chemistry and Biochemistry 1913–1958. Wien: Springer-Verlag. 1958.Google Scholar
  514. 501.
    Zechmeister, L. und L. v. Cholnoky: Die chromatographische Adsorptionsmethode. Wien: Julius Springer. 1937.Google Scholar
  515. 502.
    Zechmeister, L. und L. v. Cholnoky: Untersuchungen über den Paprika- Farbstoff. X. Citraurin aus Capsanthin. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 530, 291 (1937).Google Scholar
  516. 503.
    Zechmeister, L. und L. v. Cholnoky: Untersuchungen über den Paprika-Farbstoff. XI. Isomerisierungs-Erscheinungen. Liebigs Ann. Chem. 543, 248 (1940).Google Scholar
  517. 504.
    Zechmeister, L., L. V. Cholnoky und A. Polgär: Über die Isomerisierung des Zeaxanthins und Physaliens. Ber. dtsch. Chem. Ges. 72, 1678 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  518. 505.
    Zechmeister, L., L. V. Cholnoky und A. Polgär: Zur Isomerisierung von Xanthophyllen (Nachtrag). Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 72, 2039 (1939).Google Scholar
  519. 506.
    Zechmeister, L., H. J. Deuel, Jr., H. H. Inhoffen, J. Leemann, S. M. Greenberg and J. Ganguly: Stereochemical Configuration and Provitamin A Activity. X. A Comparison of Synthetic 15,15′-Monoczs-β-carotene (Central Monocis-β-carotene) with All-trans-β-carotene in the Rat and Chick. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 36, 80 (1952).Google Scholar
  520. 507.
    Zechmeister, L. and R. B. Escue: New Stereoisomers of Methylbixin. Science (Washington) 96, 229 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  521. 508.
    Zechmeister, L. and R. B. Escue: Isolation of Prolycopene and Pro-γ-carotene from Evonymus fortunei. J. Biol. Chem. 144, 321 (1942).Google Scholar
  522. 509.
    Zechmeister, L. and R. B. Escue: A Stereochemical Study of Methylbixin. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 66, 322 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  523. 510.
    Zechmeister, L. and G. Karmakar: The Occurrence of Phytofluene in Green Plant Organs. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 47, 160 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  524. 511.
    Zechmeister, L. and B. K. Koe: Stepwise Dehydrogenation of the Colorless Polyenes Phytoene and Phytofluene with N-Bromosuccinimide to Carotenoid Pigments. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 76, 2923 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  525. 512.
    Zechmeister, L. and R. M. Lemmon: Contribution to the Stereochemistry of Cryptoxanthin and Zeaxanthin. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 66, 317 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  526. 573.
    Zechmeister, L. and A. L. Lerosen: Contribution to the Stereochemistry of Diphenylpolyenes. Science (Washington) 95, 587 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  527. 514.
    Zechmeister, L. and A. L. Lerosen: Stereoisomeric Diphenyloctatetraenes. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 64, 2755 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  528. 515.
    Zechmeister, L., A. L. Lerosen, W. A. Schroeder, A. Polgär and L. Pauling: Spectral Characteristics and Configuration of Some Stereoisomeric Carotenoids Including Prolycopene and Pro-γ-carotene. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 65, 1940 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  529. 516.
    Zechmeister, L., A. L. Lerosen, F. W. Went and L. Pauling: Prolycopene, a Naturally Occurring Stereoisomer of Lycopene. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 27, 468 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  530. 517.
    Zechmeister, L. and E. F. Magoon: Spectral Maxima of Stereoisomeric Polyenes. Chem. and Ind. 1957, 431.Google Scholar
  531. 518.
    Zechmeister, L. and W. H. Mcneely: Separation of eis and trans Stilbenes by Application of the Chromatographic Brush Method. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 64, 1919 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  532. 519.
    Zechmeister, L. and F. J. Petracek: Absence of Detectable Poly-cis Forms from Heat-isomerized Lycopene Solutions. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 74, 282 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  533. 520.
    Zechmeister, L. and F. J. Petracek: On the Structure of the Deoxyluteins. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 61, 243 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  534. 521.
    Zechmeister, L. and J. H. Pinckard: Some Polycàs-lycopenes Occurring in the Fruit of Pyracantha. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 69, 1930 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  535. 522.
    Zechmeister, L. and J. H. Pinckard: Stereoisomeric Diphenyloctatetraenes. II. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 76, 4144 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  536. 523.
    Zechmeister, L., J. H. Pinckard, S. M. Greenberg, E. Straub, T. Fukui, and H. J. Deuel, Jr.: Stereochemical Configuration and Provitamin A Activity. VIII. Pro-γ-carotene (a Poly-cis Compound) and its AM-trans Isomer in the Rat. Arch. Biochemistry 23, 242 (1949).Google Scholar
  537. 524.
    Zechmeister, L. and A. Polgär: cis-trans Isomerization and Spectral Characteristics of Carotenoids and Some Related Compounds. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 65, 1522 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  538. 525.
    Zechmeister, L. and A. Polgär: cis-trans Isomerization and cis-Peak Effect in the α-Carotene Set and in Some Other Stereoisomeric Sets. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 66, 137 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  539. 526.
    Zechmeister, L. and A. Polgär: Contributions to the Stereochemistry of γ-Carotene. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 67, 108 (1945).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  540. 527.
    Zechmeister, L. and A. Sandoval: The Occurrence and Estimation of Phytofluene in Plants. Arch. Biochemistry 8, 425 (1945).Google Scholar
  541. 528.
    Zechmeister, L. and W. A. Schroeder: On the Occurrence of Stereoisomeric Carotenoids in Nature. Science (Washington) 94, 609 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  542. 529.
    Zechmeister, L. and W. A. Schroeder: The Pigment of Mimulus longiflorus and the Isolation of its γ-Carotene Component. Arch. Biochemistry 1, 231 (1942).Google Scholar
  543. 530.
    Zechmeister, L. and W. A. Schroeder: The Fruit of Pyracantha angustifolia: a Practical Source of Pro-γ-carotene and Prolycopene. J. Biol. Chem. 144, 315 (1942).Google Scholar
  544. 531.
    Zechmeister, L. and W. A. Schroeder: Pro-γ-carotene. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 64, 1173 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  545. 532.
    Zechmeister, L. and W. A. Schroeder: cis-trans Isomerization and Spectral Characteristics of Gazaniaxanthin. Further Evidence of its Structure. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 65, 1535 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  546. 533.
    Zechmeister, L. und P. Tuzson: Über das Polyen-Pigment der Orange, II. Mitt. Citraurin. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 70, 1966 (1937).Google Scholar
  547. 534.
    Zechmeister, L. und P. Tuzson: Spontaneous Isomerization of Lycopene. Nature (London) 141, 249 (1938).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  548. 535.
    Zechmeister, L. und P. Tuzson: Isomerization of Carotenoids. Biochemic. J. 32, 1305 (1938).Google Scholar
  549. 536.
    Zechmeister, L. und P. Tuzson: Umkehrbare Isomerisierung von Carotinoiden durch Jod-Katalyse. Ber. dtsch. chem. Ges. 72, 1340 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  550. 537.
    Zechmeister, L. and L. Wallcave: A Study of Some cis-trans Isomeric Dehydro-β-carotenes. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 75, 5341 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  551. 538.
    Zechmeister, L. and F. W. Went: Some Stereochemical Aspects in Genetics. Nature (London) 162, 847 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  552. 539.
    Zeller, P., F. Bader, H. Lindlar, M. Montavon, P. Müller, R. Rüegg, G. Ryser, G. Saucy, S. F. Schaeren, U. Schwieter, K. Stricker, R. Tamm, P. Zürcher und O. Isler: Synthesen in der Carotinoid-Reihe. 13. Mitt. Synthese von Canthaxanthin. Helv. Chim. Acta 42, 841 (1959).Google Scholar
  553. 540.
    Ziegler, H. H. v., C. H. Eugster und P. Karrer: Carotinoidsynthesen. XVI. Stereoisomere 1,3,7,12,16,18-Hexaphenyl-octadeca-nonaene. Helv. Chim. Acta 38, 613 (1955).Google Scholar
  554. 541.
    Zscheile, F. P. and B. W. Beadle: Determination of β-Carotene and Neo-β-carotene with the Visual Spectrophotometer. Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 14, 633 (1942).Google Scholar
  555. 542.
    Zscheile, F. P., R. H. Harper and H. A. Nash: Photochemical Reaction of Iodine with Carotenoids. Arch. Biochemistry 5, 211 (1944).Google Scholar
  556. 543.
    Zscheile, F. P. and J. W. Porter: Analytical Methods for Carotenes of Lycopersicon Species and Strains. Ind. Eng. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 19, 47 (1947).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Vienna 1962

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Ƶechmeister
    • 1
  1. 1.California Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations