Energetic Particles in the Upper Atmosphere
Most processes of the upper atmosphere (dissociation, ionization, heating, circulation, airglow) are caused by the effects of short-wave electromagnetic solar radiation. However, an additional role is played in these processes by energetic corpuscules in the upper atmosphere—rapidly moving neutral and charged particles whose energy exceeds the thermal energy of the atoms and molecules of the atmosphere. Moreover, their role is dominant in many cases. When intense corpuscular streams penetrate to the Earth’s atmosphere to levels of about a hundred kilometers, aurora appear, usually accompanied by disturbances of the ionosphere and the Earths magnetic field. Such phenomena occur most often near the polar regions, mainly at a distance of 23° from the geomagnetic poles. During large geomagnetic disturbances, however, auroras spread to lower latitudes.
KeywordsEnergetic Particle Radiation Belt Interplanetary Space Geomagnetic Disturbance Interplanetary Medium
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