Mineral Matter Transformation in Furnaces

  • O. Božić
  • R. Leithner
  • M. Strelow


Coal is a fossil fuel and differs from one mining region to another. Both the organic and the inorganic (mineral) composition varies in the coals of various coalfields. In principle, these facts also apply to biomass. The fraction of the incombustible mineral components that accumulates as ash lies somewhere between 5 % and 35 % and even more. Ash characteristics have a significant influence on slagging and consequently on the design of combustion chambers, because slagging severely affects heat transfer, endangering the operation of the steam generator—so the reduction or prevention of slagging in combustion chambers is of great economic importance. Even today it is still difficult to predict the amount of slagging which may occur in a new steam generator, or in one designed for one particular type of coal, but which has to be converted to burn a different type of coal. And this still holds true, even though studies have been carried out all over the world for years now in numerous attempts to solve the problems ranging from changes in mineral materials during coal combustion to slagging in combustion chambers—see (Rost and Ney 1956), (Gumz et al. 1958), (Kirsch 1965), (Reichelt and Groß 1966), (Beising et al. 1972), (Förtland 1958), (Wall et al. 1965), (Singer 1981), (Dunken 1981), (Kautz and Zelkowski 1984), (Huffman et al. 1981), (Haynes and Neville 1982), (Brostow and Macip 1983), (Bryers and Walchuk 1984), (Koch and Janke 1984), (Raask 1985), (ten Brink 1987), (ten Brink et al. 1992a), (ten Brink et al. 1992b), (ten Brink et al. 1992c), (ten Brink et al. 1993a), (ten Brink et al. 1993b), (ten Brink et al. 1994), (ten Brink et al. 1997), (Srinivasachar et al. 1989a), (Srinivasachar et al. 1990b), (Srinivasachar et al. 1990a), (Helble et al. 1990), (Frenzel et al. 1988), (Srinivasachar and Boni 1989b), (Winegartner and Rhodes 1975), (Brown 1986), (Koschack 1998), (Altman 1988), (Wilemski et al. 1991), (Nash 1985), (Boni et al. 1989). The results up until now, however, have been generally empirical—and the knowledge about the slagging formation processes—knowledge that would enable us to predict how slagging would occur in changed conditions—is simply not available.


Combustion Chamber Steam Generator Particle Trajectory Brown Coal Coal Particle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Energy and Process Systems EngineeringTechnical University of BraunschweigBraunschweigGermany

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