Experimental Mechanics Applied to the Accelerated Characterization of Polymer Based Composite Materials

  • H. F. Brinson
Part of the CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences book series (CISM, volume 264)


Composite materials have been used as structural materials almost since the beginning of recorded civilization. Examples from the mud bricks with straw used by the early Inca and Egyptian societies to the concrete and plywood used by modern societies are well known to all. However, the purpose here is to discuss a new breed of resin matrix composite materials. The two types which will be considered herein are continuous fiber graphite/epoxy (G/E) resin laminated composites, often referred to as advanced composite materials, and a chopped fiberglass/polyester resin composite, often referred to as sheet molding compound (SMC).


Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanic Master Curve Shift Factor Creep Rupture Master Curf 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Holister, G. S. and Thomas C., Fibre Reinforced Materials, Elsevier, NY, 1966.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Calcote, L. R., The Analysis of Laminated Composite Structures, Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY, 1969.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tsai, S. W., Halpin, J. C. and Pagano, N. J., Composite Materials Workshop, Technomic, 1968.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ashton, J. E. and Whitney, J. M., Theory of Laminated Plates -Progress in Materials Science, Vol. 4, Technomic, Stanford, CT, 1970.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Broutman, L. J. and Krock, R. H., (eds.), Composite Materials, Vols. 1–8, Academic Press, NY, 1974.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jones, R. M., Mechanics of Composite Materials, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1975.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tsai, S. W. and Hahn, H. T., Introduction to Composite Materials, Technomic, Westport, 1980.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lekhnitskii, G. S., Theory of Elasticity of an Anisotropic Elastic Body, Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1963.MATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brinson, H. F., Morris, D. H., and Yeow, Y. T., “A New Experimental Method for the Accelerated Characterization and Prediction of the Failure of Polymer-Based Composite Laminates,” 6th International Conference for Experimental Stress Analysis, Munich, West Germany, Sept. 1978. Also, VPI-E-78–3, Feb. 1978.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yeow, Y. T. and Brinson, H. F., “A Comparison of Simple Shear Characterization Method for Composite Laminates,” Composites, Jan. 1978, pp. 49–55.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sandhu, R. S., “A Survey of Failure Theories of Isotropic and Anisotropic Materials,” Tech. Rep. AFFDL-TR-72–71, Air Force Flight Dynamics Lab., Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bert, C. W., “Static Testing Techniques for Filament-wound Composite Materials,” Composites, January, 1974.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chamis, C. C. and Sinclair, J. H., “Ten-Degree Off-Axis Test for Shear Properties of Fiber Composites,” Experimental Mechanics, Sept. 1977, pp. 354–358.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Daniels, B. K., Harakas, H. K., and Jackson, R. C., “Short Beam Shear Tests of Graphite Fiber Composites,” Fiber Science Technology, March, 1971.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cooper, G. A. and Kelly, A., “Tensile Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Materials: Fracture Mechanics,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, Vol. 15, 1967, pp. 279–297.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Durchlaub, E. C. and Freeman, R. B., “Design Data for Composite Structure Safe-life Predictions,” AFML-TR-73–225, March 1974.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pagano, N. J. and Halpin, J. C., “Influence of End Constraints in the Testing of Anisotropic Bodies,” J. Composite Materials, Vol. 2, January 1968, pp. 18–31.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Petit, P. H., “A Simplified Method of Determining the In-plane Shear Stress-Strain Response of Unidirectional Composites,” ASTM STP 460, 1969, pp. 83–93.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rosen, B. W., “A Simple Procedure for Experimental Determination of the Longitudinal Shear Modulus of Unidirectional Composites,” J. Composite Materials, Vol. 6, October 1972, pp. 552–554.ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sims, D. F., “In-Plane Shear Stress-Strain Response of Unidirectional Composite Materials,” J. Composite Materials, Vol. 7, January 1973, pp. 124–128.ADSCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Whitney, J. M., Stansbarger, D. L., and Howell, H. B., “Analysis of the Rail Shear Test—Applications and Limitations,” J. Composite Materials, Vol. 5, January, 1971, pp. 24–34.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cole, B. W. and Pipes, R. B., “Filamentary Composite Laminates Subjected to Biaxial Stress Fields,” Technical Report AFFDL-TR-73–115, Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, June 1974.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ashton, J. E. and Love, T. S., “Shear Stability of Laminated Anisotropic Plates,” Testing and Design, ASTM STP 460, 1969, pp. 352–361.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Browning, C. E., Husman, G. E., and Whitney, J. M., “Moisture Effects in Epoxy Resin Matrix Composites,” ASTM-STP 617, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1977, pp. 481–496.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Griffith, W. I., “The Accelerated Characterization of Viscoelastic Composite Materials,” Ph.D. Thesis, May 1979. Also, VPI-E-80–15, April 1980.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yeow, Y. T., “The Time-Temperature Behavior of Graphite/Epoxy Laminates,” Ph.D. Thesis, VPI&SU, May 1978.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ashkenazi, E. K., “Problems of the Anisotropy of Strength,” Mekhanika Polimerov, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1965.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hill, R., “A Theory of the Yielding and Plastic Flow of Anisotropic Metals,” Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series A, Vol. 193, 1948.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Puppo, A. H. and Evensen, H. A., “Strength of Anisotropic Materials Under Combined Stresses,” AIAA/ASME 12th Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, Anaheim, California, April 19–21.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tsai, Stephen W., “Strength Theories of Filamentary Structures,” in R. T. Schwartz and H. S. Schwartz (eds.), Fundamental Aspects of Fiber Reinforced Plastic Composites, Wiley Interscience, New York, 1968, pp. 3–11.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tsai, S. W. and Hahn, H. T., “Failure Analysis of Composite Materials,” Inelastic Behavior of Composite Materials, (C. T. Herakovich, ed.), ASME, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Petit, P. H., and Waddoups, E. M., “A Method of Predicting the Nonlinear Behavior of Laminated Composites,” Journal of Composite Materials, January 1969.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sandhu, R. S., “Ultimate Strength Analysis of Symmetric Laminates,” Technical Report AFFDL-TR-73–137, Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yeow, Y. T. and Brinson, H. F., “An Experimental Investigation on the Tensile Moduli and Strengths of Graphite/Epoxy Laminates,” Experimental Mechanics, Nov. 1977, pp. 401–408.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dillard, D. A., “Creep and Creep Rupture of Laminated Graphite/ Epoxy Composites,” Ph.D. Thesis, March 1981. Also, VPI-E-81–3.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Waddoups, M. E., Eisenmann, J. R., and Kaminski, B. E., “Macroscopic Fracture Mechanics of Advanced Composite Materials,” J. Comp. Mat., Vol. 5, 1971, pp. 446–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    McClintock, F. A. and Irwin, G. R., “Plasticity Aspects of Fracture Mechanics,” ASTM-STP 381, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1965, pp. 84–113.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nuismer, R. J. and Whitney, J. M., “Uniaxial Failure of Composite Laminates Containing Stress Concentrations,” ASTM-STP 593, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1975, pp. 117–142.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zweben, C., “Fracture Mechanics and Composite Materials: A Critical Analysis,” ASTM-STP 521, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1973, pp. 65–97.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rosen, B. W., Kulkarni, S. V. and McLaughlin, P. V., Jr., “Failure and Fatigue Mechanisms in Composite Materials,” in Inelastic Behavior of Composite Materials, AMD — Vol. 13, ASME, 1975, pp. 17–72.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kanninen, M. F. Rybicki, and Griffith, W. I., “Preliminary Development of a Fundamental Analysis Model for Crack Growth in a Fiber Reinforced Composite Material,” ASTM-STP 617, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1977, pp. 53–69.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cruse, T. A., “Tensile Strength of Notched Composites,” J. Comp. Mat., Vol. 7, 1973, pp. 218–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Snyder, M. D. and Cruse, T. A., “Boundary-Integral Equation Analysis of Cracked Anisotropic Plates,” Int. J. Fracture, Vol. 11, 1975, pp. 315–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yeow, Y. T., Morris, D. H., and Brinson, H. F., “The Fracture Behavior of Graphite/Epoxy Laminates,” Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan. 1979, pp. 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yeow, Y. T., Morris, D. H., and Brinson, H. F., “A Correlative Study Between Analysis and Experiment on the Fracture Behavior of Graphite/Epoxy Laminates,” J. of Testing & Eval., Vol. 7, No. 2, 1979.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kanninen, M., F. Rybicki, and Brinson, H. F., “A Critical Look at Current Applications of Fracture Mechanics to the Failure of Fiber-Reinforced Composites,” Composites, Jan. 1977, pp. 17–27.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Morris, D. H. and Hahn, H. T., “Mixed-Mode Fracture of Graphite/ Epoxy Composites: Fracture Strength,” J. Comp. Mat., Vol. 11, 1977, pp. 124–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dally, J. W. and Alfirevich, I., “Application of Biréfringent Coatings to Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Plastics,” Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 9, March 1969.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schapery, R. A., “Stress Analysis of Viscoelastic Composite Materials,” in Composite Materials Workshop, S. W. Tsai, J. C. Halpin and N. J. Pagano, eds., Technomic Publishing Co., 1968.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Morris, D. H., Brinson, H. F., and Yeow, Y. T., “The Viscoelastic Behavior of the Principal Compliance Matrix of a Unidirectional Graphite/Epoxy Composite,” Polymer Composites, Sept. 1980, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 32–36. Also, VPI-E-79–9, Feb. 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yeow, Y. T., Morris, D. H., and Brinson, H. F., “The Time-Temperature Behavior of a Unidirectional Graphite/Epoxy Laminate,” Composite Materials: Testing and Design (5th Conference), STP 674, ASTM, Phil., 1979, pp. 263–281. Also, VPI-E-78–4, Feb. 1978.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Brinson, H. F., Griffith, W. I., and Morris, D. H., “Creep Rupture of Polymer-Matrix Composites,” Proceedings, Fourth International Congress on Experimental Stress Analysis, and Experimental Mechanics, in press. Also, VPI-E-80–18, July 1980.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ferry, J. D., Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers, John Wiley & Sons, NY, 1970.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lohr, J. J., “Yield Master Curves for Various Polymers Below Their Glass Transition Temperature,” Transactions of the Society of Rheology, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1965.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Markovitz, H., “Superposition in Rheology,” J. Polymer Science, Symposium No. 50, 1975.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Christensen, R. M., Theory of Viscoelasticity, Academic Press, N.Y., 1971.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    McCrum, N. G. and Pogany, G. A., “Time-Temperature Superposition in the Alpha Region of an Epoxy Resin,” J. Macromolecular Science—Phys., B4(l), 1970.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Daugste, C. L., “Joint Application of Time-Temperature and Time-Stress Analogies to Constructing Unified Curves,” Polymer Mechanics, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1974, pp. 359–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Crossman, F. W. and Flaggs, D. L., LMSC-D33086, Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, November 1978.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Griffith, W. I., Morris, D. H., and Brinson, H. F., “The Accelerated Characterization of Viscoelastic Composite Materials,” VPI-E-80–15, April 1980.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Griffith, W. I., Morris, D. H., and Brinson, H. F., “Accelerated Characterization of Graphite/Epoxy Composites,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Composite Materials, Palais des Congrès, Paris, France, Aug. 25–30, 1980, in press. Also, VPI-E-80–27, Sept. 1980.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schapery, R. A., “On the Characterization of Non-Linear Viscoelastic Materials,” Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1969.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lou, Y. C. and R. A. Schapery, “Viscoelastic Characterization of a Nonlinear Fiber-Reinforced Plastic,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 5, 1971.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Beckwith, S. W., “Viscoelastic Characterization of a Nonlinear, Glass-Epoxy Composite Using Micromechanics Theory,” presented at Annual Meeting of Jannaf, San Francisco, Feb. 1975.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cartner, J. S., W. I. Griffith, and H. F. Brinson, “The Viscoelastic Behavior of Composite Materials for Automotive Applications,” Composite Materials in the Automobile Industry, ASME, 1978.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cartner, J. S. and H. F. Brinson, “The Non-Linear Viscoelastic Behavior of Adhesives and Chopped Fiber Composites,” VPI-E-78–21, 1978. (Also, VPI&SU M.S. Thesis of J. S. Cartner.)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Crochet, M. J., “Symmetric Deformations of Viscoelastic-Plastic Cylinders,” Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 33, 1966, pp. 327–334.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Nagdi, P. M. and Murch, S. A., “On the Mechanical Behavior of Viscoelastic-Plastic Solids,” Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 30, 1963, p. 321.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Brinson, H. F., “The Viscoelastic-Plastic Characterization of a Ductile Polymer,” Deformation and Fracture of High Polymers, H. Kausch, et al., eds., Plenum Press, New York, 1974.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Heimbach, R. A. and Sanders, B. A., “Mechanical properties of automotive chopped fiber reinforced plastics,” Composite Materials in the Automobile Industry, ASME, 1978.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Conway, J. B., Stress-Rupture Parameters: Origin Calculation and Use, Gordon and Breach, N.Y., 1969.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Landel, R. F. and Fedors, R. F., “Rupture of Amorphous Unfilled Polymers,” Fracture Processes in Polymeric Solids, B. Rosen, ed. Interscience Publishers, N.Y., 1964.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rowlands, R. E., “Flow and Failure of Biaxially Loaded Composites: Experimental Theoretical Correlation,” Inelastic Behavior of Composite Materials, ASME, 1975.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Briiller, O. S., “On the Damage Energy of Polymers in Creep,” Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1979.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Morris, D. H., Brinson, H. F., Griffith, W. I., and Yeow, Y. T., “The Viscoelastic Behavior of a Composite in a Thermal Environment,” in Severe Environments (D. P. H. Hasselman and R. A. Heller, eds.), Plenum Press, NY, 1980, pp. 693–707. Also, VPI-E-79–40, Sept. 1979.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Dillard, D. A., Morris, D. H., and Brinson, H. F., “Predicting Viscoelastic Response and Delayed Failures in General Laminated Composites,” 6th Conference on Composite Materials Testing and Design, Phoenix, AZ, May 12–13, 1981.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. F. Brinson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Engineering Science and MechanicsVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations