Biomechanics of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine

  • B. Kummer
Part of the Advances in Neurotraumatology book series (NEUROTRAUMATOL., volume 2)


Normal biomechanics of the spine is characterized by the fact that several joints must be balanced at the same time. Between any two adjacent vertebrae, the equilibrium in the intervertebral disc and the joints of the vertebral arches is to be maintained by muscular forces, a phenomenon which is repeated at the level of every segment of mobility. In the normal upright posture, the gravity centers of the different parts of the body lie in front of the vertebral column, causing forwardly directed torques which must be counteracted by the backwardly directed torques of the dorsal musculature. The total load of any segment of the spine is therefore given by the resultant from (partial) body weight and muscle force.


Lumbar Spine Intervertebral Disc Muscle Force Thoracic Spine Spinous Process 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Kummer
    • 1
  1. 1.Anatomisches InstitutUniversität CologneFederal Republic of Germany

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