Stone Decay by Plants and Animals

  • Erhard M. Winkler
Part of the Applied Mineralogy / Technische Mineralogie book series (MINERALOGY, volume 4)


Plants and animals can attack stone to a large extent both by mechanical and by chemical action. While the action of higher plants may be both mechanical and chemical, bacteria, the lowest kind of life, attack by chemical means only. The biotic decay is very complex and this topic has been deplorably neglected in the past.


Carbonate Rock Intertidal Zone Radial Pressure Stone Surface Mortar Joint 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erhard M. Winkler
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Science, Department of GeologyUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA

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