Frost Action on Stone

  • Erhard M. Winkler
Part of the Applied Mineralogy / Technische Mineralogie book series (MINERALOGY, volume 4)


Frost damage to stone and concrete in moderate humid and semi-humid climates has long been known as a major disruptive agent which deserves attention. Frost action results from a combination of factors, such as spontaneous volumetric expansion from the water phase to the ice phase, the degree of water saturation of the pore system, the critical pore size and the continuity of the pore system.


Pore System Snow Fence Durability Factor Frost Action Disruptive Force 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erhard M. Winkler
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Science, Department of GeologyUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA

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