A Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) Study of the Re-Endothelialization of the Carotid End-To-Side Anastomosis in the Rat

  • P. W. Gelderman
Conference paper
Part of the Acta Neurochirurgica book series (NEUROCHIRURGICA, volume 28)


A carotid end-to-side anastomosis was made on 25 male Wistar rats (mean weight 197.8 g). At different time intervals, from 0 to 21 days after the operation, the animals were sacrified. The anastomosis was exposed, the aorta was cannulated, and the animals were perfused at a constant pressure of 80 mm Hg with a 2 1/2% glutaraldehyde solution. The anastomoses were taken out for further SEM and light microscopic (LM) study. The SEM results indicate that after the acute platelet-fibrin reaction in the first 48 hours the suture line itself becomes reendothelialized after 4 days. On the stitches, however (EthilonR 11 × 0, 2871 G, BV 7 needle) after two days a cellular population was seen, consisting of leucocytes transforming into flattened cells. The morphology of these cells and their role in the regeneration of endothelium is discussed. This study gives evidence to the possibility of a blood-borne genesis of endothelial cells in vivo.


Smooth Muscle Cell Vascular Wall Suture Line Platelet Reaction Scan Electron Microscopic Result 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baumgartner, H. R., Tranzer, J. P., Studer, A., An electron microscopic study of platelet thrombus formation in the rabbit with particular regard to 5 HT release. Thromb. Diath. Haemorrh. 18 (1967), 592–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baumgartner, H. R., Spaet, T. H., Endothelial replacement in rabbit arteries. Fed. Proceedings 29 (1970), 710 (Abstract 2627).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Björkerud, S., Reaction of the aortic wall of the rabbit after superficial, longitudinal, mechanical trauma. Virchows Archiv, Abteilung A, Pathologische Anatomie (Berlin) 347 (1969),197–210.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Björkerud, S., Panel discussion following the survey of prof. Shimamoto. Angiology 25 (1974), 712–714.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buck, R. C., Intimal thickening after ligature of arteries. An electron microscopic study. Circ. Res. 9 (1961), 418–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clark, J. M., Glasgov, S., Luminal surface of distended arteries by scanning electron microscopy: eliminating configurational and technical artifacts. Brit. J. Exp. Pathol. 57 (1976), 129–135.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Davies, M. J., Woolf, N., Bradley, J. P. W., Endothelialisation of experimentally produced mural thrombi in the pig aorta. J. Pathol. 97 (1969), 589–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davies, P. F., Bowyer, D. E., Scanning electron microscopy: arterial endothelial integrety after fixation at physiological pressure. Atherosclerosis 21 (1975), 463–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Flaherty, J. T., Pierce, J. E., Feerans, V. J., et al.,Endothelial nuclear patterns in the canine arterial tree with particular reference to hemaodynamic events. Circ. Res. 30 (1972), 23–33.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Florey, H. W., Greer, S. J., et al.,The pseudo-intima lining fabric grafts of the aorta. Brit. J. Exp. Pathol. 42 (1961), 236.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fishman, J. A., Ryan, G. B., Karnovski, M. J., Endothelial regeneration in the rat carotid artery and the significance of endothelial denudation on the pathogenesis of myointimal thickening. Laboratory Investigations 32 (1975), 339–351.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gertz, S. D., Rennels, M. L., Forbes, M. S., et al.,Preparation of vascular endothelium for scanning electron microscopy: a comparison of the effects of perfusion and immersion fixation. J. Microsc. (Oxford) 105 (1975), 309–313.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ghani, A. R., Tibbs, D. J., Role of blood borne cells in organisation of mural thrombi. Brit. Med. J. 1 (1962), 1244 1247.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gregorius, F. K., Rand, R. W., Scanning electronic observations of common carotid artery endothelium in the rat. Surg. Neurol. 4 (1975), 252 257.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Maximow, A. A., Bloom, W., A textbook of histology. Philadelphia and London: W. B. Saunders Comp. 1957.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moseley, H. S., Connel, R. S., Krippaehne, W. W., Healing of canine aorta after endarterectomy: a scanning electron microscopic study. Ann. Surg. 180 (1974), 329–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nomura, Y., The ultra structure of the pseudo-intima lining synthetic arterial grafts in the canine aorta with special reference to the origin of the endothelial cell. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 11 (1970),282–291.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    O’Brien, B. McC., Microvascular reconstructive surgery. EdinburghLondon-New York: Churchill Livingstone. 1977.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    O’Neal, R. M., Jordan, G. L., Rabin, E. R., et al.,Cells grown on isolated Dacron Hub for electron microscopic study. Exp. Mol. Path. 3 (1964), 403–412.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Poole, J. C. F., Sanders, A. G., Florey, H. W., The regeneration of aortic endothelium. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 75 (1958), 133–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Poole, J. C. F., Cromwell, S. B., Bendit, E. P., Behavior of smooth muscle cells and formation of extracellular structures. Amer. J. Pathol. 62 (1971),391Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pugatch, E. M. J., The growth of endothelium and pseudo-endothelium of the healing surface of rabbit ear chambers. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. B 160 (1964), 412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rhoden, J. A. G., Ultrastructure of mammalian arterioles and precapillary sphincters. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 18 (1967),181.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rosenbaum, T. J., Sundt, T. M., Jr., Thrombus formation and endothelial alterations on microarterial anastomoses. J. Neurosurg. 47 (1977), 430–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shimamoto, T., Yamashita, Y., Sunaga, T., Scanning electron microscopic observation of endothelial surface of heart and blood vessels. Proc. Jap. Academy 45 (1969), 507–511.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Spaet, T. H., Erichson, R. B., The vascular wall in the pathogenesis of thrombosis. Thromb. Diath. Haemorrh. (Suppl. 21 ) (1966), 67–86.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Spaet, T. H., Gaynor, E., Vascular endothelial damage and thrombosis. Adv. in Cardiology 4 (1970), 47–66.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Spaet, T. H., Stemermann, M. B., et al.,The role of smooth muscle cells in repopulation of rabbit aortic endothelium following balloon injury. Fed. Proc. 32 (1973), 219 (Abstr.).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stchelkounoff, I., l’ Intima des petits artères et des veines et le mesenchyme vasculaire. Archives d’Anatomie Microscopique 32 (1936), 139–194. A Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) 249Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Still, W. J. S., Dennison, S. M., Reaction of arterial intima of the rabbit to trauma and hyperlipemia. Exper. Mol. Pathol. 6 (1967), 245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stump, M. M., Jordan, G. L., Jr., DeBakey, M. E., et al.,Endothelium growth from circulating blood on isolated intravascular dacron hub. Amer. J. Pathol. 43 (1963), 361 368.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thurston, J. B., Bunke, H. J., Chater, N. L., Weinstein, P. R., A scanning electron microscopic study of microarterial damage and repair. Plast. and Reconstr. Surg. 57 (1976), 197–203.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ts’ao, C., Myo-intimal cells as a possible source of replacement for endothelial cells in the rabbit. Circ. Res. 23 (1968), 671–682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ts’ao, C., Topographical and ultrastructural alterations of smooth muscle cells lining damaged rabbit aorta. Brit. J. Exp. Pathol. 56 (1975), 291.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Whissler, R. W., The arterial medial cell: smooth muscle cell or multifunctional mesenchyme? Circulation 36 (1967),1.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. W. Gelderman
    • 1
  1. 1.Sophia HospitalZwolleThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations