Receptor-mediated Effects of Drugs on the Eye

Conference paper


Numerous functions of the eye such as width of pupils, accommodation, possibly also secretion of aqueous humour and the facility of its outflow are regulated almost exclusively via the autonomic nervous system. The dense innervation (for review, see [26]) (for example that of the M. sphincter and M. dilatator pupillae with sympathetic fibers which originate from the ganglion cervicale superius and flow into the muscular effector cells via the Nn. ciliares breves and longi) guarantee a potential release of noradrenaline at the sympathetic nerve endings (Fig. 1). By stimulation of the post-synaptic α 1-adrenoceptors noradrenaline produces a contraction of smooth muscle and, via β-adrenoceptors, a relaxation of smooth muscle.


Intraocular Pressure Muscarine Receptor Ciliary Body Trabecular Meshwork Intracellular Space 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bloom, E., Polansky, J., Zlock, D., Wood, I., Alvarado, J., Zumbrum, A.: Timolol and epinephrine binding to isolated ciliary epithelium and trabecular cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. (A. R. V. O.) 20, 66 (1981).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chiou, G. C. Y.: Recent advances in antiglaucoma drugs. Biochem. Pharmacol. 30, 103–106 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Colosanti, B. K., Trotter, R. R.: Effects of selective beta,- and beta2adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on intraocular pressure in the cat. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 20, 69–76 (1981).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ehinger, B.: A comparative study of the adrenergic nerves to the anterior eye segment of some primates. Z. Zellforsch. 116, 157–177 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. S. Innemee, H. C., van Zwieten, P. A.: The central nervous influence of drugs on intraocular pressure. Rev. Pure and Appl. Pharmacol. Sci. 1, 107–165 (1980).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Innemee, H. C., de Jonge, A., van Meel, J. C. A., Timmermanns, P. B. M. W. M., van Zwieten, P. A.: The effect of selective a, and a2-adrenoceptor stimulation on intraocular pressure in the conscious rabbit. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 316, 294–298 (1981).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Innemee, H. C., van Zwieten, P. A.: The role of ß2-adrenoceptors in the IOP-lowering effect of adrenaline. Graefes Arch. Klin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 218, 297–300 (1982).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jakobs, K. H., Aktories, K., Schultz, G.: Inhibition of adenylate cyclase by hormones and neurotransmitters. Adv. Cycl. Nucl. Res. 14, 173187 (1981).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kern, R.: Die adrenergischen Rezeptoren der intraoculären Muskeln des Menschen. Eine In-vitro-Studie. Graefes Arch. Klin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 180, 231–248 (1970).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Krieglstein, G. K.: Pharmakologische Grundlagen der Therapie mit Miotika. Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 163, 471–476 (1973).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Krieglstein, G. K.: Die Wirkung von Timolol-Augentropfen auf den Augeninnendruck bei Glaukoma simplex. Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilk. 172, 677–685 (1978).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krieglstein, G. K.: Betablockertherapie der Glaukome. In: Medikamentöse Glaukomtherapie (Krieglstein, G. K., Leydhecker, W., eds.), pp. 29–40. München: Bergmann. 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Langer, S. Z.: Presynaptic regulation of the release of catecholamines. Pharmacol. Rev. 32, 337–362 (1981).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lamble, J. W. (ed.): More About Receptors (Current Rev. Biomed., Vol. 2 ). Amsterdam-New York-Oxford: Elsevier Biomedical Press. 1982.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lefkowitz, R. J.: Clinical physiology of adrenergic receptor regulation. Am. J. Physiol. 243, E. 43–47 (1982).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lütjen-Drecoll, E.: Morphologische Grundlagen der Glaukomtherapie. In: Medikamentöse Glaukomtherapie (Krieglstein, G. K., Leydhecker, W., eds.), pp. 3–11. München: Bergmann. 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Motulsky, H. J., Insel, P. A.: Adrenergic receptors in man. Direct identification, physiologic regulation and clinical alterations. New. Engl. J. Med. 307, 18–29 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nathanson, J. A.: Adrenergic regulation of intraocular pressure: Identification of ß2-adrenergic-stimulated adenylate cyclase in ciliary process epithelium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U.S. A.) 77, 7420–7424 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Neufeld, A. H.: Influences of cyclic nucleotides on outflow facility in the vervet monkey. Exp. Eye Res. 27, 387–397 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Neufeld, A. H., Zawistowski, K. A., Page, E. D., Bromberg, B. B.: Influence on the density of ß-adrenergic receptors in the cornea and iris-ciliary body of the rabbit. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 17, 1069–1075 (1978).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Neufeld, A. H., Bartels, S. P.: Receptor mechanisms for epinephrine and timolol. In: Basic Aspects of Glaucoma Research (Lütjen-Drecoll, E., ed.), pp. 113–122. Stuttgart-New York: Schattauer. 1982.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nilsson, J., Linder, J., Bill, A.: Effects of facial nerve stimulation on ocular blood flow and the intraocular pressure (IOP) in the cynomolgus monkey. Acta Physiol. Scand. 109, D 18 (1980).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Philipps, C. I., Howitt, G., Rowland, D. J.: Propranolol as ocular hypotensive agent. Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 51, 222–226 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Potter, D. E.: Adrenergic pharmacology of aqueous humor dynamics. Pharmacol. Rev. 33, 133–153 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Potter, D. E., Rowland, J. M.: Adrenergic drugs and intraocular pressure. Gen. Pharmacol. 12, 1–13 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ruskell, G. L.: Innervation of the anterior segment of the eye. In: Basic Aspects of Glaucoma Research (Lütjen-Drecoll, E., ed.), pp. 4966. Stuttgart-New York: Schattauer. 1982.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sears, M. L.: Perspectives in the medical treatment of glaucoma. In: Medikamentöse Glaukomtherapie (Krieglstein, G. K., Leydhecker, W., eds.), pp. 49–58. München: Bergmann. 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sears, M. L., Neufeld, A. H.: Adrenergic modulation of the outflow of aqueous humor. Invest. Ophthalmol. 14, 83–86 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Starke, K.: Regulation of noradrenaline release by presynaptic receptor systems. Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 77, 1–124 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Starke, K.: Presynaptic receptors. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 21, 7–30 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Thomas, J. V.: Ocular adrenergic receptor sites pertinent to aqueous humor dynamics. Ann. Ophthalmol. 12, 96–98 (1980).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Trendelenburg, U.: Ober-and Unterempfindlichkeit autonom inner-vierter Organe. In: Medikamentöse Glaukomtherapie (Krieglstein, G. K., Leydhecker, W., eds.), pp. 19–28. München: Bergmann. 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Uddman, R., Alumets, J., Ehinger, B., Fläkanson, R., Lorén, I., Sundler, F.: Vasoactive intestinal peptide nerves in ocular and orbital structures of the cat. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. 19, 878–885 (1980).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Palm
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Center of PharmacologyClinic of the Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe UniversityFrankfurt/MainFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Zentrum der PharmakologieKlinikum der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-UniversitätFrankfurt/MainFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations