Bluetongue Virus

  • P. G. Howell
  • D. W. Verwoerd
Part of the Virology Monographs book series (VIROLOGY, volume 9)


Evenient method for the production of sufficient quantities of virus for purification and investigations into the physical properties of the virus. Similarly, the serumvirus neutralization test in cell cultures led to the identification of several specific immunological groups.


Neutralization Test Infected Sheep Bluetongue Virus Antigenic Type Suckling Mouse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexander, R. A.: The propagation of bluetongue virus in the developing chick embryo with particular reference to the temperature of incubation. Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci. Anim Ind.22, 7–26 (1947).Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, R. A.: Bluetongue as an international problem. Bull. Off. int. Epiz.51, 432–439 (1959).Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, R. A., and D. A. Haig: The use of egg attenuated bluetongue virus in the production of a polyvalent vaccine for sheep. A. Propagation of the virus in sheep. Onderstepoort J. vet. Res.25, 3–15 (1951).Google Scholar
  4. Alexander, R. A., D. A. Haig, and T. F. Adelaar: The attenuation of bluetongue virus by serial passage through fertile eggs. Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci. Anim. Ind.21, 231–241 (1947).Google Scholar
  5. Alexander, R. A., W. O. Neitz, T. F. Adelaar, and D. A. Haig: A review of the bluetongue problem. J. S. Afr. vet. med. Ass.18, 51–58 (1947).Google Scholar
  6. Andrewes, C.: Viruses of Vertebrates. First edition. Baillière, Tindall and Cassell, London (1964).Google Scholar
  7. Andrewes, C., and H. G. Pereira: Viruses of Vertebrates. Second edition. Baillière, Tindall and Cassell, London, 1967.Google Scholar
  8. Bekker, J. G., G. DE Kock, and J. B. Quinlan: The occurrence and identification of bluetongue in cattle: the so-called pseudo foot-and-mouth disease in South Africa. Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci.2, 393–507 (1934).Google Scholar
  9. Bellamy, A. R., L. Shapiro, J. T. August, and W. K. JOxLIx: Studies on reovirus Rna. I. Characterization of reovirus genome Rna. J. molec. Biol.29, 1–17 (1967). Bluetongue World Reference Centre. Report (1967).Google Scholar
  10. Boulanger, P.: Technique of a modified direct complement-fixation test for viral antibodies in heat inactivated cattle serum. Canad. J. comp. Med.24, 262–269 (1960).Google Scholar
  11. Boulanger, P., G. M. Ruckerbauer, G. L. Bannister, D. P. Gray, and A. Girard: Studies on Bluetongue. Iii. Comparison of two complement-fixation methods. Canad. J. comp. Med.31, 166–170 (1967).Google Scholar
  12. Bowne, J. G., and M. M. JocHim: Cytopathologic changes and development of inclusion bodies in cultured cells infected with bluetongue virus. Amer. J. vet. Res.28, 1091–1106 (1967).Google Scholar
  13. Bowne, J. G., and R. H. Jones: Observations on bluetongue virus in the salivary glands of an insect vector, Culieoides variipennis. Virology30, 127–133 (1966).Google Scholar
  14. Bowne, J. G., A. J. Luedke, N. M. Foster, and M. M. Jochim: Current aspects of bluetongue in cattle. J. Amer. vet. med. Ass.148, 1177–1180 (1966).Google Scholar
  15. Bowne, J. G., A. J. Luedre, M. M. Jochim, and N. M. Foster: Current status of bluetongue in sheep. J. Amer. vet. med. Ass.144, 759–764 (1964).Google Scholar
  16. Bwangamoi, O.: Pathology of ovine foetuses in bluetongue virus infection. Diss. Abstr. 27B, 2001 (1966).Google Scholar
  17. Cabasso, V. J., G. I. Roberts, J. M. Douglas, R. Zorzi, M. R. Stebbins, and H. R. Cox: Bluetongue. 1. Propagation of bluetongue virus of sheep in suckling hamsters. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)88, 678–681 (1955).Google Scholar
  18. CampanoLopez, A., and C. SanchezBotija: Bluetongue in Spain. Bull. Off. int. Epiz.50, 67–93 (1958).Google Scholar
  19. Casals, J.: Antigenic classification of arthropod-borne viruses. Proc. 6th Int. Congr. trop. Med. and Malar.5, 34–37 (1959).Google Scholar
  20. Caspar, D. L. D., and A. Klug: Physical principles in the construction of regular viruses. Cold Spr. Harb. Symp. quant. Biol.27, 1–24 (1962).Google Scholar
  21. Clark, R.: Plasma enzymes in bluetongue. J. S. Afr. vet. med. Ass.37, 452 (1966).Google Scholar
  22. Clark, R., and Adriana M. Wagner: Plasma enzymes in bluetongue. J. S. Afr. vet. med. Ass.38, 221–223 (1967).Google Scholar
  23. Cox, H. R.: Bluetongue. Bact. Rev.18, 239–253 (1954).Google Scholar
  24. Curasson, G.: Introduction de la Bluetongue en Afrique Occidentale Française. Bull. Soc. Path. exot.18, 215–218 (1925).Google Scholar
  25. Dafni, I.: Bluetongue in Israel in the years 1964 and 1965. Bull. Off. int. Epiz.66, 319–327 (1966).Google Scholar
  26. DE Kock, G., R. M. DU Toit, and W. O. Neitz: Observations on bluetongue in cattle and sheep. Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci.8, 129–180 (1937).Google Scholar
  27. Dutoit, P. J.: The nature and duration of the immunity against bluetongue in sheep. 15th Ann. Rep. Dir. vet. Services. Union of S. Africa. 69–78 (1929a).Google Scholar
  28. Dutoit, P. J.: Studies on the virus of bluetongue. 15th Ann. rep. Dir. vet. Services. Union of S. Africa. 79–93 (1929b).Google Scholar
  29. Du Toit, R. M.: The transmission of Blue-Tongue and Horse-sickness by Culicoides. Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci. Anim. Ind.19, 7–16 (1944).Google Scholar
  30. Du Toit, R. M.: The role played by bovines in the transmission of bluetongue in sheep. J. S. Afr. vet. med. Ass.33, 483–490 (1962).Google Scholar
  31. Els, H. J., and D. W. Verwoerd: Morphology of the bluetongue virus. Virology38, 213–219 (1969).Google Scholar
  32. Faoloie: Animal Health Year Book. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, 1964.Google Scholar
  33. Fernandes, M. V.: Isolation and propagation of bluetongue virus in tissue culture. Amer. J. vet. Res.20, 398–408 (1959a).Google Scholar
  34. Fernandes, M. V.: Cytopathogenic effects of bluetongue virus on lamb tissues in vitro. Tex. Rep. Biol. Med.17, 94–105 (1959b).Google Scholar
  35. Foster, N. M., R. H. Jones, and B. R. Mccrory: Preliminary investigations on insect transmission of bluetongue virus in sheep. Amer. J. vet. Res.24, 1195–1200 (1963).Google Scholar
  36. Gambles, R. M.: Bluetongue of sheep in Cyprus. J. comp. Path.59, 176–190 (1949).Google Scholar
  37. Girard, A., G. M. Ruckerbauer, D. P. Gray, G. L. Bannister, and P. Boulanger: Studies on Bluetongue. IV. Studies of three strains in primary bovine foetal kidney cell cultures. Canad. J. comp. Med.31, 171–174 (1967).Google Scholar
  38. Goldsmit, Leah, and E. Barzilai: Isolation and propagation of a bluetongue virus strain in embryonating chicken eggs by the intravenous route of inoculation — preliminary report. Refuah vet.22, 285–279 (1965).Google Scholar
  39. GoRxAM, J. R.: A simple technique for the inoculation of the chorio-allantoic membrane of chicken embryos. Amer. J. vet. Res.18, 691–692 (1957).Google Scholar
  40. GouMA, I. S., and A. J. Stevens: An outbreak of suspected bluetongue in sheep in Egypt. J. Arab. vet. med. Ass.24, 21–24 (1964).Google Scholar
  41. Graf, H.: Comparative studies on “laked” and “unlaked” blood filtrates of sheep in health and during “heartwater” (Rickettsia ruminatum) infection and blue-tongue (catarrhal fever). Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci.1, 285–334 (1933).Google Scholar
  42. Gray, D. P., and G. L. Bannister: Studies on bluetongue. I. Infectivity of the virus in the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus (L). Ganad. J. comp. Med.25, 230–232 (1961).Google Scholar
  43. Griner, L. A., and B. R. Mccrory: Bluetongue associated with abnormalities in newborn lambs. J. Amer. vet. med. Ass.145, 1013–1019 (1964).Google Scholar
  44. Haig, D. A.: Bluetongue. Proc. 16th Int. Vet. Congr. Madrid, 215–225 (1959).Google Scholar
  45. Haig, D. A., D. G. Mckercher, and R. A. Alexander: The cytopathogenic action of bluetongue virus on tissue cultures and its application to the detection of antibodies in the serum of sheep. Onderstepoort J. vet. Res.27, 177–177 (1956).Google Scholar
  46. Hardy, W. T., and D. A. Price: Soremuzzle of sheep. J. Amer. vet. med. Ass.120, 23–25 (1952).Google Scholar
  47. Henning, M. W.: Blue-tongue, Bloutong. Animal diseases in South Africa. 2nd ed., Central News Agency, Ltd., South Africa, 1949.Google Scholar
  48. Howell, P. G.: A preliminary antigenic classification of strains of bluetongue virus. Onderstepoort J. vet. Res.28, 357–363 (1960).Google Scholar
  49. Howell, P. G.: Bluetongue. Emerging Disease of Animals. P.A.O. Agricultural Series No.61, 109–153 (1963).Google Scholar
  50. Howell, P. G.: Some aspects of the epizootiology of bluetongue. Bull. Off. int. Epiz.66, 341–352 (1966).Google Scholar
  51. Howell, P. G., N. A. K-MM, and M. J. Botha: The application of improved techniques to the identification of strains of bluetongue virus. Onderstepoort J. vet. Res.37, (1970). (In press.)Google Scholar
  52. Howell, P. G-., D. W. Verwoerd, and R. A. Oellermann: Plaque formation by bluetongue virus. Onderstepoort J. vet. Res.34, 317–332 (1967).Google Scholar
  53. Hutcheon, D.: Fever or epizootic catarrh. Rep. Coll. Vet. Surg. for 1880, 12 (1881).Google Scholar
  54. Hutciieon, D.: Malarial Catarrhal fever of sheep. Vet. Rec.14, 629–633 (1902).Google Scholar
  55. Inaba, Y., S. Ism’, and T. Omori: Bluetongue-like disease in Japan. Bull. Off. int. Epiz.66, 329–340 (1966).Google Scholar
  56. Ishitani, R.: Lesions and the pathological differential diagnosis of a bluetongue-like disease in cattle. J. Jap. vet. med. Ass.20, 219–228 (1967) (J).Google Scholar
  57. JocrnM, M. M., and R. H. Jones: Multiplication of bluetongue virus in Cnlicoides variipennis following artificial infection. Amer. J. Epidem.84, 241–246 (1966).Google Scholar
  58. Jocimi, M. M., A. J. Luedke, and J. G. Bowne: The clinical and immunogenic response of sheep to oral and intradermal administrations of bluetongue virus. Amer. J. vet. Res.26, 1254–1260 (1965).Google Scholar
  59. Jones, R. H., and N. M. Foster: The transmission of bluetongue virus to embryonating chicken eggs by Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) infected by intrathoracic inoculation. Mosquito News26, 184–185 (1966).Google Scholar
  60. Kemeny, L., and L. E. Drehle: The use of tissue culture-propagated bluetongue virus for vaccine production. Amer. J. vet. Res.22, 921–925 (1961).Google Scholar
  61. Kennedy, P. C.: Some aspects of bluetongue in the United States. Aust. vet. J.44, 191–194 (1968).Google Scholar
  62. Km’s, A.: Complement fixation with antigens prepared from bluetongue virus-infected mouse brains. J. Hyg. (Loud.)54, 79–88 (1956).Google Scholar
  63. Kipps, A.: A study of the soluble antigen of the bluetongue viruses. University of Cape Town (Thesis) (1958).Google Scholar
  64. Klontz, G. W., S.-E. Sveiiag, and J. R. Gorham: A study by the agar diffusion technique of precipitating antibody directed against blue tongue virus and its relation to homotypic neutralising antibody. Arch. ges. Virusforsch.12, 259–268 (1962).Google Scholar
  65. KoMarov, A., and Leah GoLdsmit: A disease similar to bluetongue in cattle and sheep in Israel. Refuah vet.8, 96–100 (1951).Google Scholar
  66. KoMarov, A., and D. A. Haig: Identification of a strain of bluetongue virus isolated in Israel. J. S. Afr. vet. med. Ass.23, 153–156 (1952).Google Scholar
  67. Lecatsas, G.: Electron microscopy study of the formation of bluetongue virus. Onderstepoort J. vet. Res.35, 139–149 (1968).Google Scholar
  68. Livingston, C. W., and W. T. Hardy: Isolation of an antigenic variant of bluetongue virus. Amer. J. vet. Res.25, 1598–1600 (1964).Google Scholar
  69. Livingston, C. W., and R. W. Moore: Cytochemical changes of bluetongue virus in tissue culture. Amer. J. vet. Res.23, 701–710 (1962).Google Scholar
  70. Luedke, A. J., J. G. Bowne, M. M. Jochim, and CoraDoyle: Clinical and pathologic features of bluetongue in sheep. Amer. J. vet. Res.25, 963–970 (1964).Google Scholar
  71. Luedke, A. J., M. M. Jochim, and J. G. Bowne: Preliminary bluetongue transmission with the sheep ked Melophagus Ovinus (L). Canad. J. Comp. Med.29, 229–231 (1965).Google Scholar
  72. Luedke, A. J., R. H. Jones, and M. M. Jochim: Transmission of bluetongue between sheep and cattle by Gulicoides variipennis. Amer. J. vet. Res.28, 457–460 (1967).Google Scholar
  73. Manso-Ribeiro, J., and F. M. O. Noronha: Fièvre catarrhale du mouton au Portugal (blue tongue). Bull. Off. int. Epiz.50, 46–64 (1958).Google Scholar
  74. Manoo-Ribeiro, J., J. A. Rosa-Azevedo, F. M. O. Noronha, M. C. Bracoforte, JR., C. Grave-Pereira, and M. Vasco-Fernandes: Bluetongue in Portugal. Bull. Off. int. Epiz.48, 350–367 (1957).Google Scholar
  75. Mason, J. H., J. D. W. A. Coles, and R. A. Alexander: Cultivation of bluetongue virus in fertile eggs produced on a vitamin deficient diet. Nature (Loud.)145, 1022–1023 (1940).Google Scholar
  76. Mason, J. H., and W. O. Neitz: The susceptibility of cattle to the virus of bluetongue. Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci.15, 149–157 (1940).Google Scholar
  77. Mayor, H. D.: Studies on reovirus. Iii. A labile, single stranded ribonucleic acid associated with the late stages of infection. J. nat. Cancer Inst.35, 919–925 (1965).Google Scholar
  78. Mccrory, B. R., N.M. Foster, and R. C. Bay: Virucidal effect of some chemical agents on bluetongue virus. Amer. J. vet. Res.20, 665–669 (1959).Google Scholar
  79. Mcgowan, B.: An epidemic resembling sore muzzle or bluetongue in California sheep. Cornell Vet.43, 213–216 (1953).Google Scholar
  80. McgowAN, B., and D. G. Mckercher: Studies on Bluetongue. II. Field experiences with bluetongue in California. Proc. Book Amer. vet. med. Ass.91, 61–64 (1954).Google Scholar
  81. Mckercher, D. G., B. McgowAN, V. J. Cabasso, G. I. Roberts, and J. K. Saito: Studies on Bluetongue. Iii. The development of a modified live virus vaccine employing American strains of bluetongue virus. Amer. J. vet. Res.18, 310–316 (1957).Google Scholar
  82. Mckercher, D. G., B. McgowAN, and B. R. Mccrory: Studies on bluetongue. V. Distribution of bluetongue in the United States as confirmed by diagnostic tests. J. Amer. vet. med. Ass.130, 86–89 (1957).Google Scholar
  83. Mckercher, D. G., B. McgowAN, and J. K. Saito: Studies on Bluetongue. I. Isolation, identification, and typing of the bluetongue virus and a preliminary report on the serodiagnosis of the disease. Proc. Book Amer. vet. med. Ass.91, 167–177 (1954).Google Scholar
  84. Miyamoto, T., K. Takehara, Y. Nomura, T Samejima, and J. Nakamura: Passages of the virus of bluetongue-like disease of cattle in mice and embryonating chicken eggs. N.I.B.S. Bull. biol. Res. Tokyo7, 1–18 (1962–1963).Google Scholar
  85. Moulton, J. E.: Pathology of bluetongue of sheep in California. J. Amer. vet. med. Ass.138, 493–498 (1961).Google Scholar
  86. Neitz, W. O.: The Blesbuck (Damaliscus albifrons) as a carrier of heartwater and bluetongue. J. S. Mr. vet. med. Ass.4, 24–26 (1933).Google Scholar
  87. Neitz, W. O.: Immunological studies on bluetongue in sheep. Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci. Anim. Ind.23, 93–136 (1948).Google Scholar
  88. Neitz, W. O., and G. Riemerschmid: The influence of solar radiation on the course of bluetongue. Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci. Anim. Ind.20, 29–56 (1944).Google Scholar
  89. Nieschulz, O., G. A. H. Bedford, and R. M. DU Toit: Investigations into the transmission of bluetongue in sheep during the season 1931/1932. Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci. Anim Ind.2, 509–562 (1934).Google Scholar
  90. Omori, T.: Bluetongue-like disease in Japan. Bull. Off. in Epiz.55, 1109–1117 (1961).Google Scholar
  91. Owen, N. C.: Investigation into the pH stability of bluetongue virus and its survival in mutton and beef. Onderstepoort J. vet. Res.31, 109–118 (1964).Google Scholar
  92. Owen, N. C., and E. K. Mum: Observations on a strain of bluetongue virus by electron microscopy. Onderstepoort J. vet. Res.33, 9–14 (1966).Google Scholar
  93. Owen, N. C., R. M. DU Toit, and P. G. Howell: Bluetongue in cattle: Typing of viruses isolated from cattle exposed to natural infections. Onderstepoort J. vet. Res.32, 3–6 (1965).Google Scholar
  94. Pini, A., W. Coackley, and H. Order: The adverse effect of some calf sera on the isolation and propagation of bluetongue virus in tissue culture. Arch. ges. Virusforsch.18, 88–95 (1966a).Google Scholar
  95. Pini, A., W. Coackley, and H. Ohder: Concentration of bluetongue virus in experimentally infected sheep and virus identification by immune fluorescence technique. Arch. ges. Virusforsch.18, 385–390 (1966b).Google Scholar
  96. Plotkin, S. A., B. J. Cohen, and H. KoProwsKI: Intratypic serodifferentiation of polioviruses. Virology15, 473–485 (1961).Google Scholar
  97. Polson, A.: The particle size of the bluetongue virus as determined by ultra-filtration and ultra-centrifugation. Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci. Anim Ind.23, 137–148 (1948).Google Scholar
  98. Polson, A., and H. M. V. VanRegenmortel: A new method for determination of sedimentation constants of viruses. Virology15, 397–403 (1961).Google Scholar
  99. Prevec, L., and A. F. Graham: Reovirus-specific polyribosomes in infected L-cells. Science154, 522–523 (1966).Google Scholar
  100. Price, D. A.: The problem of bluetongue control in range sheep. Proc. U.S. Livestock Sanit. Ass. 58th Ann Meeting, Nov., 256–259 (1954).Google Scholar
  101. Price, D. A., and W. T. Hardy: Isolation of the bluetongue virus from Texas sheep — Culicoides shown to be a vector. J. Amer. vet. med. Ass.124, 255–258 (1954).Google Scholar
  102. Richards, W. P. C., and D. R. Coedy: Bluetongue virus infection: pathologic responses of nervous systems in sheep and mice. Science156, 530–531 (1967).Google Scholar
  103. Robertson, A., M. Appel, G. L. Bannister, G. M. Ruckerbauer, and P. Boulanger: Studies on bluetongue. II. Complement-fixation activity of ovine and bovine sera. Canadian J. comp. Med.29, 113–117 (1965).Google Scholar
  104. Robinson, R. M., T. L. Hailey, C. W. Livingston, and J. W. Thomas: Bluetongue in the desert bighorn sheep. J. Wildl. Mgmt.31, 165–168 (1967).Google Scholar
  105. Robinson, R. M., C. L. Stair, and L. P. Jones: Bluetongue in deer. Bull. Wildl. Dis. Ass.3, 91 (1967).Google Scholar
  106. Ruckerbauer, G. M., D. P. Gray, A. Girard, G. L. Bannister, and P. Boulanger: Studies on Bluetongue. V. Detection of the virus infected materials by immunofluorescence. Canad. J. comp. Med.31, 175–181 (1967).Google Scholar
  107. Sapre, S. N.: An outbreak of bluetongue in goats and sheep in Maharashtra State, India. Vet. Rev.15, 69–71 (1964).Google Scholar
  108. Sarwar, M. M.: A note on bluetongue in sheep in West Pakistan. Pakist. J. Anim. Sci.1, 1–2 (1962).Google Scholar
  109. Schultz, G., and P. D. Delay: Losses in newborn lambs associated with bluetongue vaccination of pregnant ewes. J. Amer. vet. med. Ass.127, 224–226 (1955).Google Scholar
  110. Shatkin, A. J., and B. Rada: Reovirus-directed Rna synthesis in infected L-cells. J. Virol.1, 24–35 (1967).Google Scholar
  111. Shatkin, A. J., and J. D. Sipe: Single stranded, adenine-rich Rna from purified reoviruses. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)59, 246–253 (1968).Google Scholar
  112. Shone, D. K., D. A. Haig, and D. G. Mckercher: The use of tissue culture propagated bluetongue virus for complement fixation studies on sheep sera. Onderstepoort J. vet. Res.27, 179–182 (1956).Google Scholar
  113. Silva, F. S.: Lingua azol au febre cattal des ovines (blue tongue). Rev. Cienc. vet. (Lisboa)51, 191–231 (1956).Google Scholar
  114. Spreull, J.: Report from veterinary surgeon Spreull on the result of his experiments with the malarial catarrhal fever of sheep. Agric. J. C. G. H.20, 469 (1902).Google Scholar
  115. Spreull, J.: Malarial catarrhal fever (Bluetongue) of sheep in South Africa. J. comp. Path.18, 321–337 (1905).Google Scholar
  116. Studdert, M. J.: Sensitivity of bluetongue virus to ether and sodium deoxycholate. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.)118, 1006–1009 (1965).Google Scholar
  117. Studdert, M. J., J. Pangborn, and R. B. Addison: Bluetongue virus structure. Virology29, 509–511 (1966).Google Scholar
  118. Svehag, S.-E.: Quantitative studies of blue tongue virus in mice. Arch. ges. Virusforsch.12, 363–386 (1962).Google Scholar
  119. Svehag, S.-E.: Effect of different “Contact conditions” on the bluetongue virus-antibody reaction and on the validity of the “Percentage Law”. Arch. ges. Virusforsch.12, 678— 693 (1963a).Google Scholar
  120. Svehag, S.-E.: Thermal inactivation of bluetongue virus. Arch. ges. Virusforsch.13, 499–510 (1963b).Google Scholar
  121. Svehag, S.-E.: Quantal and graded dose-responses of bluetongue virus: a comparison of their sensitivity as assay methods for neutralising antibody. J. Hyg. (Lond.)64, 231–244 (1966).Google Scholar
  122. Svehag, S.-E., and J. R. Gorham: Passive transfer of immunity to bluetongue virus from vaccinated maternal mice to their offspring. Res. vet. Sci.4, 109–113 (1963).Google Scholar
  123. Svehag, S.-E., L. Leendertsen, and J. R. Gorham Sensitivity of bluetongue virus to lipid solvents, trypsin and pH changes and its serological relationship to arboviruses. J. Hyg. (Lond.)64, 339–346 (1966).Google Scholar
  124. Tamer, R.: Bluetongue of sheep in Hatay (Turkey) and losses over five years. Turk. vet. Hekim. derv. Derg.19, 542–548 (1949).Google Scholar
  125. Theiler, A.: Bluetongue in sheep. Ann. Rep. Dir. Agric. Transvaal for 1904–1905, 110–121 (1906).Google Scholar
  126. Theiler, A.: The inoculation of sheep against bluetongue and the results in practice. Vet. J.64, 600–607 (1908).Google Scholar
  127. Thomas, A. D., and W. O. Neitz: Further observations on the pathology of blue-tongue in sheep. Onderstepoort J. vet. Sci. Anim Ind.22, 27–40 (1947).Google Scholar
  128. VanDenEnde, M., AnneLinder, and V. R. Kaschula: Experiments with the Cyprus strain of bluetongue virus: Multiplication in the central nervous system of mice and complement fixation. J. Hyg. (Lond.)52, 155–164 (1954).Google Scholar
  129. VanRooyen, P. J., and K. E. Weiss: The stab-method for inoculation of fertile eggs. Bull. epiz. Dis. Afr.7, 75–78 (1959).Google Scholar
  130. Verwoerd, D. W.: Purification and characterization of bluetongue Virus. Virology38, 203–212 (1969).Google Scholar
  131. Verwoerd, D. W.: Proc. 1stint. Congr. Virology, Helsinki, 1968, pp. 204–207. Int. Virology I (J. L. Melnick, ed.) Karger, Basel, München, New York, 1970.Google Scholar
  132. Vosdingh, R. A., D. O. Trainer, and B. C. Easterday: Experimental bluetongue disease in white-tailed deer. Canad. J. comp. Med.32, 382–387 (1968).Google Scholar
  133. Wells, E. A.: A disease resembling bluetongue occurring in topi (Damaliscus korrigum ugandae) in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Vet. Rec.74, 1372–1373 (1962).Google Scholar
  134. Young, S., and D. R. Cordy: An ovine foetal encephalopathy caused by bluetongue vaccine virus. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol.23, 635–659 (1964).Google Scholar
  135. Zari, A. H. H.: Suspected bluetongue cases in Uar. Bull. Off. int. Epiz.64, 667— 670 (1965).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. G. Howell
    • 1
  • D. W. Verwoerd
    • 1
  1. 1.Sections of Virology and Molecular BiologyVeterinary Research InstituteOnderstepoortRepublic of South Africa

Personalised recommendations