• Mario Campanacci


Rhabdomyosarcomas are the malignant tumors of the rhabdomyoblastic lineage. The rhabdomyoblastic differentiation is the only one displayed by the tumor (rarely, however, a rhabdomyosarcoma presents foci of chondroid or osteoid production).1


Soft Tissue Tumor Multinucleated Giant Cell Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Alveolar Type Round Cell Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1952.
    Pack G.T., Eberhart W.F.: Rhabdomyosarcoma of skeletal muscle. Report of 100 cases. Surgery, 32, 1023–1064.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 1962.
    Dito W.R, Batsakis J.G.: Rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck: appraisal of biologic behavior in 170 cases. Arch. Surg., 84, 582–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 1965.
    Johnson W., Jurand J., Hiramoto R.: Immunohistologic studies of tumors containing myosin. Am. J. Pathol., 47, 1139–1155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 1965.
    Jones I.S., Reese A.B., Krout J.: Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma: an analysis of 62 cases. Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc., 63, 223–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 1965.
    Linscheid R.L., Soule E.H., Henderson E.D.: Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcomata of the extremities and limb girdles. A clinicopathological study. J. Bone Joint Surg., 47-A, 715.Google Scholar
  6. 1965.
    Masson J.K., Soule E.H.: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck. Report of 88 cases. Am. J. Surg., 110, 585–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 1968.
    Keyhani A., Booher R.J.: Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer, 22, 956–967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 1969.
    Enzinger F.M., Shiraki M.: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. An analysis of 110 cases. Cancer, 24, 18–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 1969.
    Soule E.H., Geitz M., Henderson E.D.: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the limbs and limb-girdles. A clinicopathologic study of 61 cases. Cancer, 23, 1336–1346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hilgers R.D., Malkasian G.D. Jr., Soule E.H.: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (botryoid type) of the vagina: a clinicopathologic review. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.,107 484–502.Google Scholar
  11. 1970.
    Horvat B.L., Caines M., Fisher E.R.: The ultrastructure of rhabdomyosarcoma. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 53, 555–564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 1970.
    Sutow W.W., Sullivan M.P., Ried H.I, Tylor H.G., Griffith K.M.: Prognosis in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer, 25, 1384–1390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 1971.
    Ehrlich F.E., Haas J.E., Kiesewetter W.B.: Rhabdomyosarcoma in infants and children. Factors affecting long-term survival. J. Pediatr. Surg., 6, 571–577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 1973.
    Donaldson S.S., Castro J.R., Wilbur J.R., Jesse R.H.Jr.: Rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck in children. Combination treatment by surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy. Cancer, 31, 26–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 1973.
    Ghavimi F., Exelby P.R., D’angio G.J, Whitmore W.F., Lieberman P.H., Lewis J.L. Jr., Mike V., Murphy M.L.: Combination therapy of urogenital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in children. Cancer, 32, 1178–1185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 1973.
    Kilman J.W., Clatworthy H.W. Jr., Newton W.A.Jr., Grosfeld J.L.: Reasonable surgery for rhabdomyosarcoma: a study of 67 cases. Ann. Surg., 178, 346–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 1975.
    Ariel I.M., Briceno M.: Rhabdomyosarcoma of the extremities and trunk. J. Surg. Oncol., 7, 269–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 1975.
    Bale P.M., Reye R.D.: Rhabdomyosarcoma in childhood. Pathology, 7, 101–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 1975.
    Ghavimi F., Exelby P.R., D’angio G.J., Cham W., Lieberman P.H., Tan C., Mike V.: Multidisciplinary treatment of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in children. Cancer, 35, 677–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 1975.
    Johnson D.G.: Trends in surgery for childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer, 35, 916–920.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 1976.
    Weichert K.A., Bove K.C., Aron B.S, Lampkin B.: Rhabdomyosarcoma in children. A clinicopathologic study of 35 patients. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 66, 692–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 1977.
    Lawrence W. Jr., Hays D.M., Moon T.E.: Lymphatic metastasis with childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer, 39, 556–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 1977.
    Maurer H.M., Moon T., Donaldson M., Fernandez C., Gehan E.A., Hammond D., Hays D.M., Lawrence W.Jr., Newton W., Ragab A., Raney B., Soule E.H., Sutow W.W., Tefft M.: The Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study: a preliminary report. Cancer, 40, 2015–2026.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 1977.
    Ransom J.L., Pratt C.B., Shanks E.: Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma of the extremity. Results of combined modality therapy. Cancer, 40, 2810–2816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 1977.
    Teffi M., Fernandez C.H., Moon T.E.: Rhabdomyosarcoma: response with chemotherapy prior to radiation in patients with gross residual disease. Cancer, 39, 665–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 1978.
    Churg A., Ringus J.: Ultrastructural observations on the histogenesis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer, 41, 1355–1361. 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 1978.
    Green D.M., Jaffe N.: Progress and controversy in the treatment of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. Can-cer Treat. Rev., 5, 7–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 1979.
    Dritschilo A., Weichselbaum R., Cassady J.R, Jaffe N., Paed D., Green D., Filler R.M.: The role of radiation therapy in treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of childhood. Cancer, 42, 1192–1203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 1979.
    Mukai K., Rosai J., Hallaway B.E.: Localization of myoglobin in normal and neoplastic human skeletal muscle cells using an immunoperoxidase method. Am. J. Surg. Pathol., 3, 373–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 1980.
    Hays D.M.: Pelvic rhabdomyosarcomas in childhood. Cancer, 45, 1810–1814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 1980.
    Mierau G.W., Favara B.E.: Rhabdomyosarcoma in children. Ultrastructural study of 31 cases. Cancer, 46, 2035–2040.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 1981.
    Corson J.M., Pinkus G.S.: Intracellular myoglobin: a specific marker for skeletal muscle differentiation in soft tissue sarcomas. An immunoperoxidase study. Am. J. Pathol., 103, 384–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 1981.
    Mukai K., Schollmeyer J.V., Rosai J.: Immunohistochemical localization of actin. Applications in surgical pathology. Am. J. Surg. Pathol., 5, 91–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 1984.
    Donaldson S.S., Belli J. A.: A rational clinical staging system for childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. J. Clin. Oncol., 2, 135–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 1984.
    Flamant F., Hill C.: The improvement in survival associated with combined chemotherapy in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. A historical comparison of 345 patients in the same center. Cancer, 53, 2417–2421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 1985.
    Donaldson S.S.: The value of adjuvant chemotherapy in the management of sarcomas in children. Can-cer, 55, 2184–2197.Google Scholar
  37. 1985.
    Saku T., Tsuda N., Anami M., Okabe H.: Smooth and skeletal muscle myosins in spindle cell tumors of soft tissue. An immunohistochemical study. Acta Pathol. Jpn., 35, 125–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 1986.
    Altmannsberger M., Dirk T., Osborn M., Weber K.: Immunohistochemistry of cytoskeletal filaments in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors. Semin. Diagn. Pathol., 3, 306–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 1987.
    De Jong A.S., Van Kessel Van Vark M., Albus Lutter C.E.: Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma in adults: immunohistochemistry as a tool for diagnosis. Hum. Pathol., 18, 298–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 1987.
    Hawkins H.K., Camacho-Velasquez J.V.: Rhabdomyosarcoma in children. Correlation of form and prognosis in one institutions’s experience. Am. J. Surg. Pathol., 11, 531–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 1989.
    Dodd S., Malone M., Mcculloch W.: Rhabdomyosarcoma in children: a histological and immunohistochemical study of 59 cases. J. Pathol., 158, 13–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 1989.
    Ghavimi F., Mandell L.R.., Heller G., Hajdu S.I., Exelby P.: Prognosis in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma of the extremity. Cancer, 64, 2233–2237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 1989.
    Kodet R.: Rhabdomyosarcoma in childhood. An immunohistological analysis with Myoglobin, Desmin and Vimentin. Pathol. Res. Pract., 185, 207–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 1991.
    Kodet R., Newton w.A.Jr., Sachs N., Hamoudi A.B., Raney R.B., Asmar L., Gehan E.A.: Rhabdoid tumors of soft tissues: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases enrolled on the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study. Hum. Pathol., 22, 674–684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 1992.
    Connolly B., Staines A., O’meara A., Bretnack F., Fitzgerald R.J.: The changing role of surgery in the management of rhabdomyosarcoma. Eur. J. Pediatr. Surg., 2, 90–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 1993.
    Gaffney E.F., Dervan P.A., Fletcher C.D.: Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma in adulthood. Analysis of 11 cases with definition of diagnostic criteria. Am. J. Surg. Pathol., 17, 601–609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 1994.
    Kilpatrick S.E., Teot L.A., Geisinger K.R., Martin P.L., Shumate D.K., Zbieranski N., Russel G.B., Fletcher C.D.: Relationship of DNA ploidy to histology and prognosis in rhabdomyosarcoma. Comparison of flow cytometry and image analysis. Cancer, 74, 3227–3233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 1994.
    Lobe T.E., Wiener E.S., Hays D.M., Lawrence W.H., Andrassy R.J., Johnston J., Waram M., Webber B., Ragab A.: Neonatal rhabdomyosarcoma: the IRS experience. J. Pediatr. Surg., 29, 1167–1170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 1994.
    Wijnaendts L.C., Van Der Linden J.C., Van Unnik A.J., Delemarre J.F., Voute P.A., Meijer C.J.: Histopathological classification of childhood rhabdomyosarcomas: relationship with clinical parameters and prognosis. Hum. Pathol., 25, 900–907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 1996.
    Schurch W., Begin L.R., Seemayer T.A., Lagace R., Boivin J.C., Lamoureux C., Bluteau P., Piche J., Gabbiani G.: Pleomorphic soft tissue myogenic sarcomas of adulthood. A rappraisal in the mid-1990s. Am. J. Surg. Pathol., 20, 131–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Campanacci
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of BolognaItaly
  2. 2.Rizzoli Orthopaedic InstituteBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations