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Stone pp 164-168 | Cite as

Natural Rust on Stone

  • Erhard M. Winkler
Part of the Applied Mineralogy book series (MINERALOGY, volume 4)

Abstract

The iron content of the earth’s crust averages 5%. At the earth’s surface iron is tied up as green or black ferrous-ferric iron in the ferromagnesian silicates, as the black ferrous-ferric oxide magnetite, as the yellowish ferrous sulphides, pyrite and marcasite; as the grey to dark-brown ferrous carbonate siderite, and as the red or black ferric oxide hematite. The last is not only a common pigment in rock but can also accumulate as our most important iron ore. In humid atmospheres the brown to ochre-brown ferric hydroxide, goethite, is the most important mineral of the common “rust”, alpha-FeOOH. Goethite is usually accompanied by amorphous (not yet crystallized) ferric hydroxide of the same color. Natural rust is summarized as the “mineral” limonite which is not a mineral in the true sense. All the minerals mentioned here tend to adjust to the humid or semi-humid atmospheric surface conditions as they weather to ferric hydroxide or limonite. Metallic iron also changes to rust, mostly amorphous ferric hydroxide with some magnetic brown maghemite, gamma-Fe2O3. Crystallization or aging of the non-crystalline ferric hydroxide leads to the formation of submicroscopic goethite. In some rare instances deep orange gamma-FeOOH, lepidocrocite, can form.

Keywords

Metallic Iron Iron Sulfide Pyrite Surface Acid Mine Water Ferrous Carbonate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erhard M. Winkler
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Science, Department of GeologyUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA

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