Stone pp 102-136 | Cite as

Moisture and Salts in Stone

  • Erhard M. Winkler
Part of the Applied Mineralogy book series (MINERALOGY, volume 4)


Moisture and salts are the most damaging factors in stone decay. The very complex capillary system of stone and the often strange paths of moisture in buildings and monuments complicate the understanding of the mechanisms, such as solution, salt migration, salt crystallization, salt hydration, the thermal expansion of entrapped salts, frost weathering, and the expansion of pure water substance in rock pores. Many field data have been compiled both from deserts and from structures in urban humid and semi-humid climate; some theoretical considerations had to substitute for observations and experiments where processes are limited to areas located in narrow capillary systems within the stone. The following topics will be discussed: sources of moisture, moisture transfer mechanism in capillary systems of stone and masonry walls, and origin and behaviour of salts in capillaries.


Masonry Wall Stone Wall Mojave Desert Stone Surface Salt Crystallization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erhard M. Winkler
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Science, Department of GeologyUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA

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