Stone pp 176-181 | Cite as

Frost Action on Stone

  • Erhard M. Winkler
Part of the Applied Mineralogy book series (MINERALOGY, volume 4)


Frost damage to stone and concrete in moderate humid and semi-humid climates has long been known as a major disruptive agent which deserves attention. Frost action results from a combination of factors, such as spontaneous volumetric expansion from the water phase to the ice phase, the degree of water saturation of the pore system, the critical pore size and the continuity of the pore system.


Pore System Frost Damage Unfrozen Water Snow Fence Durability Factor 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erhard M. Winkler
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Science, Department of GeologyUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA

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