Sound Production

  • Donald F. Proctor


Breathing, speech, and song are the subjects of this book. Put in another way, our purpose is to examine the combination of airflow and the function of the larynx for the production of sound. Now that we have some understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system we can turn our attention directly to its involvement in voice production (2, 4, 23, 24, 32, 37, 54, 55). But first let us consider the nature of sound.


Vocal Cord Vocal Fold Tuning Fork Sound Production Intelligible Speech 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ardran, G. M., Kemp, F. H. (1966): Mechanism of the larynx: Movements of arytenoid and cricoid cartilages. Brit. J. Radiol. 39, 641–654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cavagna, G. A., Margaria, R. (1965): An analysis of the mechanics of phonation. J. Appl. Physiol. 20, 301–307.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cavagna, G. A., Margaria, R. (1968): Airflow rates and efficiency changes during phonation. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 155, 152–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cavagna, G. A., Camporesi, E. M. (1974): Glottic Aerodynamics and Phonation. In: Ventilatory and Phonatory Control Systems (Wyke, B., ed.), Chap. 6, 76–87. London: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cooke, J. P. (1964): Communication and sound transmission in helium and various gases at reduced pressures. Aerospace Med. 35, 1050–1053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Faaborg-Andersen, K. (1956): Action potentials from internal laryngeal muscles during phonation. Nature 177, 340–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Faaborg-Andersen, K. (1957): Electromyographic investigation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles in humans. Acta Physiol. Scand. 41, Suppl. 140.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Faaborg-Andersen, K. (1965): Electromyography of Laryngeal Muscles in Human. Basel: S. Karger.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Freedman, L. M. (1955): The role of the cricothyroid muscle in tension of the vocal cords. Arch. Otolaryngol. 62, 347–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gould, W. J., Tanabe, M. (1975): The effect of anesthesia of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve upon phonation. Folia Phoniatr. 27, 337–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Harless, E. (1853): Stimme, Handwörterbuch der Physiologie, Vol. 4, 562. Braunschweig: F. Vieweg.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hast, M. H. (1961): Subglottic air pressure and neural stimulation in phonation. J. Appl. Physiol. 16, 1142–1146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hast, M. H. (1967): Physiologie mechanisms of phonation: Tension of the vocal fold muscle. Acta Otolaryngol. 62, 309–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hirano, M. (1974): Morphological structure of the vocal cord as a vibrator and its variations. Folia Phoniatr. 26, 89–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hirose, H. (1976): Posterior cricoarytenoid as a speech muscle. Ann. Otol. 85 (3 pt. 1), 334–342.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    House, A. S., Stevens, K. N. (1958): Estimation of formant band widths from measurements of transient response of the vocal tract. J. Speech Hearing Res. 1, 309–315.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Isshiki, N. (1964): Regulatory mechanism of voice intensity variation. J. Speech Hearing Res. 7, 17–29.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kay, R. H. (1966): The independence of vocal frequency vibrato from the tuning of the vocal resonators. J. Physiol. 186, 5–6.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Khambata, A. S. (1977): Anatomy and Physiology of Voice Production: The Phenomenal Voice. In: Music and the Brain (Critchley, M., Henson, R. A., eds.), Chap. 5, 59–77. Springfield: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kirchner, J. A., Wyke, B. D. (1965): Articular reflex mechanisms in the larynx. Ann. Otol. 74, 749–768.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Koike, Y., Hirano, M. (1973): Glottal-area time function and subglottal-pressure variation. J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 54, 1618–1627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ladefoged, P. (1960): The regulation of subglottic pressure. Folia Phoniatr. 12, 169–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ladefoged, P. (1962): Elements of Acoustic Phonetics. Univ. Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ladefoged, P. (1974): Respiration, Laryngeal Activity and Linguistics. In: Ventilatory and Phonatory Control Systems (Wyke, B., ed.), Chap. 18, 299–306. London: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lamm, H., Schaffrath, H. (1967): Druckwechselvorgänge in der gesunden menschlichen Kieferhöhle beim Singen und Sprechen. 2. Laryngol. Rhinol. 46, 403–409.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    LeBel, C. J., Dunbar, J. Y. (1951): Ultra speed recording for acoustical measurement. J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 23, 559–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Leden, H. v., Moore, P., Timcke, R. (1960): Laryngeal vibrations: measurements of the glottic wave. Arch. Otolaryngol. 71, 16–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Leden, H. v., Moore, P. (1961): The mechanics of the cricoarytenoid joint. Arch. Otolaryngol. 73, 541–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lieberman, P. (1968): Vocal cord motion in man. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 155, 28–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lind, J. (Ed.) (1965): Newborn Infant Cry. Uppsala: Almqvist and Wiksell.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Malcolm, J. E. (1974): Resonant Cavities, Dipole Resonance and Phonation: a Description of the Upper Respiratory Tract in Engineering Terms. In: Ventilatory and Phonatory Control Systems (Wyke, B., ed.), Chap. 16, 265–270. London: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Margaria, R., Cavagna, G. (1959): Il rendimento meccanico della fonazione. Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper. 35, 2075–2077, 2077-2079.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Martensson, A. (1968): The functional organization of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 155, 91–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    McGlone, R. E., Richmond, W. H., Bosma, J. F. (1966): A physiological model for investigation of the fundamental frequency of phonation. Folia Phoniatr. 18, 109–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    McGlone, R. E. (1967): Air flow during vocal fry phonation. J. Speech Hearing Res. 10, 299–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mead, J., Bouhuys, A., Proctor, D. F. (1968): Mechanisms generating subglottic pressure. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 155, 177–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Negus, V. E., Neil, E., Floyd, W. F. (1957): The mechanism of phonation. Ann. Otol. 66, 817–829.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Perkins, W. H., Koike, Y. (1969): Patterns of subglottal pressure variations during phonation. Folia Phoniatr. 21, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Portmann, G., Robin, J. L., Läget, P., Husson, R. (1956): La myographie des cordes vocales. Acta Otolaryngol. 46, 250–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Proffit, W.R., Fogle, J. L., Heitlinger, L. W., Christiansen, R. L., McGlone, R. E. (1966): Dynamic calibration of lingual pressure transducers. J. Appl. Physiol. 21, 1417–1420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sergeant, R. L. (1968): Voice communication problems in spacecraft and underwater operations. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 155, 342–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Shelton, R. L., Bosma, J. F., Sheets, B. V. (1960): Tongue, hyoid and larynx displacement in swallow and phonation. J. Appl. Physiol. 15, 283–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Siegel, G. M., Pick, H. L., jr. (1974): Auditory feedback in the regulation of voice. J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 56, 1618–1624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sokolowsky, R. R. (1943): Effect of the extrinsic laryngeal muscles on voice production. Arch. Otolaryngol. 38, 355–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sonninen, A. A. (1956): The role of the external laryngeal muscles in length-adjustment of the vocal cords in singing. Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl. 130, 1-102.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stevens, K. N. (1964): Acoustical Aspects of Speech Production. In: Handbook of Physiology, Respiration I (Fenn, W. O., Rahn, H., eds.), Chap. 9, 347–356. Washington: Amer. Physiol. Soc.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Stevens, K. N., Klatt, D.H. (1974): Current Models of Sound Sources for Speech. In: Ventilatory and Phonatory Control Systems (Wyke, B., ed.), Chap. 17, 279–291. London: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Strenger, F. (1960): Methods for direct and indirect determination of the subglottic air pressure. Studia Linguistica 14, 98–112.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tanabe, M., Kitajima, K., Gould, W. J., Lambiase, A. (1975): Analysis of high-speed motion pictures of the vocal folds. Folia Phoniatr. 27, 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Timcke, R., Leden, H. v., Moore, P. (1959): Laryngeal vibrations: measurements of the glottic wave. Arch. Otolaryngol. 69, 438–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Titze, I. R. (1976): On the mechanics of vocal-fold vibration. J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 60, 1366–1380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Van den Berg, J. (1955): Transmission of the vocal cavities. J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 27, 161–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Van den Berg, J. (1956): Direct and indirect determination of the mean subglottic pressure. Folia Phoniatr. 8, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Van den Berg, J. (1956): Physiology and physics of voice production. Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Neerl. 5, 40–55.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Van den Berg, J. (1957): Microphonic effect of the larynx. Nature 179, 625–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Van den Berg, J., Zantema, J. T., Doornenbal, P. (1957): On the air resistance and the Bernoulli effect of the human larynx. J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 29, 626–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Van den Berg, J. (1958): Myoelastic-aerodynamic theory of voice production. J. Speech Hearing Res. 1, 227–244.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wather-Dunn, W., Michaels, S. B. (1968): Some effects of gas density on speech production. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 155, 368–378).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wustrow, F., Wieck, H. H. (1963): Elektromyographische Untersuchungen am menschlichen M. vocalis und ihre Bedeutung für die Theorie über die Entstehung der Stimmlippenschwingung. Z. Laryngol. Rhinol. 42, 118–129.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald F. Proctor
    • 1
  1. 1.The Johns Hopkins Schools of Medicine and Hygiene and Public HealthBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations