• Manfred Wick
  • Paul Lehmann
  • Wulf Pinggera
Conference paper


Iron Deficiency Serum Ferritin Iron Metabolism Transferrin Receptor Recombinant Human Erythropoietin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aisen P (1998) Transferrin, the transferrin receptor, and the uptake of iron by cells. In: Siegel S, Siegel H. (eds). Metal ions in biological systems; Vol 35. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York: 585–631.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Albertini A, Arosio P, Chiancone E, Drysdale J (eds) (1984) Ferritins and isoferritins as biochemical markers. Elsevier,AmsterdamNewYork OxfordGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alford CE, King TTE, Campell PA (1991) Role of transferrin, transferrin receptors and iron in macrophage listericidal activity. J Med 174; 45: 9–466Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andrews NC (1999) Disorders of iron metabolism. N Engl J Med 341: 1986–1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arnett FC, Edworthy SM, Bloch DA, et al. (1988) The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum, 31: 315–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arosio P, Levi S, Gabri E, et al (1984) Heterogeneity of ferritin II: immunological aspects. In: Albertini A, Arosio P, Chiancone E, Drysdale J (eds) Ferritins and isoferritins as biochemical markers. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York Oxford, 33–47Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Giovanucci E, Willet WC, Stampfer MJ (2001) Blood donation and risk of coronary heart disease. CIRCULATION: 103: 52–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ascherio A, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Giovanucci E, Stampfer MJ (1994) Diatory iron intake and risk of coronary disease among men. CIRCULATION: 89: 969–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baker EN, Lindley PF (1992) New perspectives on the structure and function of transferrin. J Inorg Biochem 47: 147–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baynes RD (1994) Iron Deficiency in Iron Metabolism in Health and Disease (eds. Brock JH, Halliday JW, Pippard MJ, Powell LW) W.B. Saunders Co., 189–198Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baynes RD, Skikne BS, Cook JD (1994) Circulating transferrin receptors and assessment of iron status. J Nutr Biochem 5: 322–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baynes RD (1996) Assessment of iron status. Clin Biochem 29: 209 — 215Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Begemann H, Rastetter J (1993) Klinische Hämatologie, 4. Aufl. Thieme, Stuttgart New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beguin Y (1998) Prediction of response to treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin in anemia associated with cancer. Med Oncol 15 (Suppl. 1): 38–46.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Beguin Y (1992) The soluble transferrin receptor: biological aspects and clinical usefulness as quantitative measure of erythropoiesis. Haematologica 77: 1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Beguin Y et al (1993) Quantitative asessment of erythropoiesis and functional classification of anemia based on measurement of serum transferrin receptor and Erythropoietin. Blood 81: 1067PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Beguin Y (1992) The soluble transferrin receptor: biological aspects and clinical usefulness as quantitative measure of erythropoiesis. Hematologica 77: 1–10Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Besarab A, et al. (1998) The effect of normal as compared with low hematocrit values in patients with cardiac disease who are receiving hemodialysis and Erythropoietin. N Engl J Med 339: 584–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Beutler E (1997) Genetic irony beyond haemochromatosis: clinical effects of HLA-H mutations. Lancet 349: 296–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bobbio-Pallavicini F, et al. (1989) Body iron status in critically ill patients: significance of serum ferritin. Int Care Med 15: 171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Boelaert JR, Weinberg GA, Weinberg ED (1996) Altered iron metabolism in HIV infection: Mechanisms, possible consequences and proposals for management. Inf Dis Agents 5: 36–46Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bothwell TH, et al. (1989) Nutritional iron requirements and food iron absorption. J Intern Med 226: 357–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brock JH (1994) Iron in infection, immunity, inflamation and neoplasia in Iron Metabolism in Health and Disease; ed Brock JH, Halliday JW, Pippard MJ, Powell LW London, W.B. Saunders, pp 353–389Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brouwer DAJ, Welten HTME, et al. (1998) Plasma folic acid cutoff value, derived from its relationship with homocyst(e)ine. Clin Chem 44 /7: 1545–1550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brugnara C (2000) Reticulocyte Cellular Indices: A New Approach in the Diagnosis of Anemias and Monitoring of Erythropoietic Function. Critical Reviews in Clin Lab Sciences; 37 (2): 93–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bunn HF (1991) Anemia associated with chronic disorders. In: Harrison’s principles of internal medicine, 12th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1529–1531Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Burns DL, Pomposelli JJ (1999) Toxicity of parenteral iron dextran therapy. Kid Int 55 (SuppI 69): 119–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Carr H, Rodak BF (1999) Clinical hematology atlas. W. B. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Carmel R (1997) Cobalamin, the stomach and aging. Am J Clin Nutr 66: 750–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cazzola M, Mercuriali F, Brugnara C, et al. (1997) Use of recombinant human Erythropoietin outside the setting of uraemia. Blood. 89: 4248–4267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cazzola M, (1996) Defective iron supply for erythropoiesis and adequate endogenous Erythropoietin production in anemia associated with systemic onset invenile chronic arthritis. Blood 87: 4824 — 4830Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cazzola M, Ponchio L, Pedrotti C, et al. (1996) Prediction to response of recombinant human Erythropoietin (rh-EPO) in anaemia of malignancy. Haematologica. 81: 434–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cheung W, Minton N, Gunawardena K, et al. (2000) The pharmacokinetics and pharmadynamics of Epoietin Alfa once weekly versus Epoietin Alfa 3 times weekly. Am Soc Haematol; posterpresentation Dec. 4th.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chiancone E, Stefanini F (1984) Heterogeneity of ferritin I structural and functional aspects. In: Albertini A, Arosio P, Chiancone E, Drysdale J (eds) Ferritins and isoferritins as biochemical markers. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York Oxford, pp 23–31Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cook JD, et al. (1993) Serum transferrin receptor. Ann Rev Med 44: 63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cook JD, Skikne BS, Baynes RD (1986) Serum transferrin receptor. Blood 687: 726–731Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cook JD, Skikne BS (1989) Iron deficiency: Definition and diagnosis. J Intern Med 226: 349–355.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cook JD (1982) Clinical evaluation of iron deficiency. Semin Hematol 19: 6–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Corti MC, Gaziano M, Hennekeus CH (1997) Iron status and risk of cardiovascular disease. Ann Epidemiol 7: 62–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Covell AM, Worwood M (1984) Isoferritins in plasma. In: Albertini A, Arosio P, Chiancone E, Drysdale J (eds) Ferritins and isoferritins as biochemical markers. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York Oxford, pp 49–65Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Danielson BG, Salmonson T, Derendorf H, Geisser P (1996) Pharmacokinetics of iron(III)-hydroxide sucrose complex after a single intravenous dose in healthy volunteers. Arzneimittelforschung/Drug Res 46 (I) 6Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    De Jong G, von Dijk IP, van Eijk HG (1990) The biology of transfer-rin. Clin Chim Acta 190: 1–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    De Sousa M, Reimao R, Porto G, et al. (1992) Iron and Lymphocytes: Reciprocal regulatory interactions.Google Scholar
  44. Curr Stud Hematol Blood Transf 58: 171–177Google Scholar
  45. 44.
    Deinhard AS, List A, Lindgren B, Hunt JV, Chang PN (1986) Cognitive deficits in iron-deficient and iron-deficient anaemic children. J Paediatr 108: 681–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    Deutsch E, Geyer G, Wenger R (1992) Folsäure-Resorptionstest. In: Laboratoriumsdiagnostik. Wissenschaftliche Buchreihe, Schering, 91–93Google Scholar
  47. 46.
    Dietzfelbinger H (1993) Korpuskuläre hämolytische Anämien. In: Begemann H, Rastetter J (Hrsg) Klinische Hämatologie, 4. Aufl. Thieme, Stuttgart New York, 248–252Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    Dinant JC, de Kock CA, van Wersch JWJ (1995) Diagnostic value of C-reactive protein measurement does not justify replacement of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in daily general practice. Eur J Clin Invest 25; 353–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Doss M (1998) Porphyrie. In: Thomas L (Hrsg) Labor and Diagnose. TH-Books, Frankfurt/Main 458–470Google Scholar
  50. 49.
    Drysdale JW (1977) Ferritin phenotypes: structure and metabolism. In: Jacobs A (ed) Iron metabolism. Ciba Foundation Symposium 51 (excerpta medica). Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 41–57Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    Elliot MJ, Maini RN (1994) Repeated therapy with monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor alpha (cA2) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 344: 1125–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Egrie JC, Dwyer E, Lykos M, et al. (1997) Novel erythropoiesis stimulting protein (NESP) has a longer serum half-life and greater in viro biological activity compared to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHU EPO). Blood 90: 56 A (abstr.)Google Scholar
  53. 52.
    Egrie JC, Grant JR, Gillias DK, Aoki KH, et al. (1993) The Role of Carbohydrate on the Biological Activity of Erythropoietin. Glycoconjugate Journal; 10: S 7. 7 (abstr.)Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    Eschbach JW, Haley NR, Adamson JW (1990) The anemia of chronic renal failure: pathophysiology and effects of recombinant Erythropoietin. Contrib Nephrol 78: 24–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    Feelders RA, Kuiper-Kramer EPA, van Eijk HG (1999) Structure, function and clinical significance of transferrin receptors. Clin Chem Lab Med 37: 1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    Ferguson BJ, Skikne BS, Simpson KM, Baynes RD, Cook JD (1992) Serum transferrin receptor distinguishes the anemia of chronic disease from iron deficiency anemia. J Lab Clin Med 19: 385–390Google Scholar
  57. 56.
    Finlayson NDC (1990) Hereditary (primary) hemochromatosis. BMJ 301: 350–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Flowers CH, Skikne BS, Covell AM, Cook JD (1989) The clinical measurement of serum transferrin receptor. J Lab Clin Med 114: 368–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Folkman J (1997) Addressing tumor blood vessels. Nat Biotechnol; 15: 110–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Franco RS (1987) Ferritin. In: Pesce AJ, Kaplan LA (eds) Methods in clinical chemistry. CV Mosby Company, St. Louis Washington Toronto, pp 1240–1242Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    Frishman WH (1998) Biologic Markers as Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease. Am J Med; 104: 18s - 27sPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Gabrilove JL, et al. (1999) Once weekly dosing of Epoietin Alfa is similar to three times weekly dosing in increasing Hemoglobin and quality of life. Proc ASCO; Vol. 18: 2216 (abstr)Google Scholar
  63. 62.
    Gargano G, Polignano G, De Lena M, et al. (1999) The utility of a growth factor: rHU-EPO as a treatment for pre-operative autologous blood donation in gynaecological tumor surgery. Int J Oncol; Vol. 4 (1): 157–160.Google Scholar
  64. 63.
    Garry PJ (1984) Ferritin. In: Hicks JM, Parker KM (eds) Selected analytes in clinical chemistry. American Association for Clincal Chemistry Press, Washington, pp 149–153Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    Goldberg MA, Dunning SP, Bunn HF (1988) Regulation of the Erythropoietin gene: evidence, that the oxygen sensor is a hemo protein. Science 24w: 1412–1415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Graf H, Lacombe JL, Braun J, et al. (2000) Novel Erythropoiesis stimulating Protein (NESP) for maintains Hemoglobin (Hgb) at a reduced dose frequency compared to recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) in ESRD patients. Abstr. EDTA 2000Google Scholar
  67. 66.
    Graf H, Lacombe JL, Braun J, Gomes da Costa AA and the European/Australian NESP 980140/194 Study Group (2000) Am Soc Nephr; 33rd Annual Meeting, Toronto (abstr.)Google Scholar
  68. 67.
    Graziadei I, Gaggl S, Kaserbacher R, Braunsteiner H, Vogl W (1994) The acute phase protein alpha-1 antitrypsin inhibits growth and proliferation on human early erythroid progenitor cells and of human erythroleucemic cells by interfering with transferrin iron uptake. Blood 83: 260–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Greendyke RM, Sharma K, Gifford FR (1994) Serum levels of erythropoietin and selected cytokines in patients with anemia of chronic disease. Am Clin Path 101: 338–341Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    Grützmacher P, Ehmer B, Messinger D, et al. (1991) Therapy with recombinant human Erythropoietin (rEPO) in hemodialysis patients with transfusion dependent anemia. Report of a European multicenter trial. Nephrologia 11: 58–65Google Scholar
  71. 70.
    Gunshin H, Mackenzie B, Berger UV, et al. (1997) Cloning and characterization of a mammalian proton-coupled metal-ion transporter. Nature 388: 482 488Google Scholar
  72. 71.
    Hastka J, Lasserre JJ, et al. (1992) Washing erythrocyte to remove interferents in measurements of zinc protoporphyrin by front-face hematofluorometry. Clin Chem 11: 2184–2189Google Scholar
  73. 72.
    Haupt H, Baudner S (1990) Chemie und klinische Bedeutung der Human Plasma Proteine. Behring Institut Mitteilungen 86: 1–66Google Scholar
  74. 73.
    Haverkate F, Thompson SG, et al. (1997) Production of C-reactive protein and risk of coronary events in stable and unstable angina. Lancet 349: 462–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Heidelberger M, Kendall FE (1935) The precipitin reaction between type III pneumococcus polysaccharide and homologous antibody III. A quantitative study and theory of the reaction mechanism. J Exp Med 61: 563–591Google Scholar
  76. 75.
    Heil W, Koberstein R, Zawta B (2000) Referenzbereiche für Kinder und Erwachsene, Präanalytik. Roche Diagnostics GmbH, MannheimGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Heinrich HC (1986) Bioverfügbarkeit und therapeutische Wirksamkeit oraler Eisen (3)- und (3) Präparate. Schweiz. Apotheker-Zeitung 22: 1231–1256Google Scholar
  78. 77.
    Heinrich HC (1980) Diagnostischer Wert des Serumferritins für die Beurteilung der Gesamtkörper-Eisenreserven. In: Kaltwasser JP, Werner E (Hrsg) Serumferritin. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, S 58–95Google Scholar
  79. 78.
    Henke M, Guttenberger R, Barke A, et al. (1999) Erythropoietin for patients undergoing radiotherapy: a pilot study. Radiother Oncol; Vol 50 (2): 185–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Henry DH, Abels RI (1994) Recombinant human Erythropoietin in the treatment of cancer and chemotherapy-induced anemia: results of double-blind and open label follow-up studies. Semin Oncol 21 [2 Suppl 31: 21–28Google Scholar
  81. 80.
    Herrmann W, Schorr H, Purschwitz K, Rassoul F, Richter V (2001) Total Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, and Total Antioxidant Status in Vegetarians. Clin Chem 47: 6 1094–1101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Hermann W, et al. (1997) The Importance of Hyperhomocysteinemia in High Age People. Clin Lab; 43: 1005–1009Google Scholar
  83. 82.
    Hershko CH, Konijin AM (1981) Serum ferritin in hematologic disorders. In: Albertini A, Arosio P, Chiancone E, Drysdale J (eds) Ferritins and isoferritins as biochemical markers. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York Oxford, pp 143–158Google Scholar
  84. 83.
    Haman RS, Finch CA (1985) Red Cell Manual. 5th Ed., Davis, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Hörl WH, Cavill I, et al. (1995) How to get the best out of r-HuEPO? Nephrol Dial Transplant 10 (Suppl 2): 92–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Hörl WH, Cavill I, Macdougall IC, Schaefer RM, Sunder-Plassmann G (1996) How to diagnose and correct iron deficiency during rhEPO therapy, a consensus report. Nephrol Dial Transplant 11: 246–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Hörl WH (2001), Persönliche MitteilungGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Huebers HA, Beguin Y, Pootrakne P, Einspahr D, Finch CA (1990) Intact transferrin receptors in human plasma and their relation to erythropoiesis. Blood 75: 102–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    International Committee for Standardisation in Haematology (1988) Recommendations for measurement of serum iron in blood. Int J Hematol 6: 107–111Google Scholar
  90. 89.
    Jacobs A, Hodgetts J, Hoy TG (1984) Functional aspects of isoferritins. In: Albertini A, Arosio P, Chiancone E, Drysdale J (eds) Ferritins and isoferritins as biochemical markers. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York Oxford, pp 113–127Google Scholar
  91. 90.
    Jacobs A, Worwood M (1975) Ferritin in serum. N Engl J Med 292: 951–956PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Jazwinska EC, et al. (1996) Haemochromatosis and HLAH. Nature Genet 14: 249–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 92.
    Johannsen H, Gross AJ, Jelkmann W (1989) Erythropoietin production in malignancy. In: Jelkmann W, Gross AJ (eds) Erythropoietin. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 80–91Google Scholar
  94. 93.
    Johnson AM (1996) Ceruloplasmin. In: Ritchie RF, Navolotskaia O. Serum proteins in clinical medicine. Scarborough: Foundation for Blood Research, 13.01–1–8Google Scholar
  95. 94.
    Jouanolle AM, et al. (1996) Haemochromatosis and HLA-H. Nature Genet 14: 251–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Kaltwasser IP, Werner E (Hrsg) (1980) Serumferritin: Methodische und klinische Aspekte. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Kaltwasser JP, Hörl WH, Cavill J, Thomas L (1999) Anaemia, novel concepts in renal and rheumatoid disease, IFCC-Worldlab-Abstracts, FlorenceGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    Kaltwasser JP,Werner E (1980) Serumferritin als Kontrollparameter bei der Therapie des Eisenmangels. In: Kaltwasser JP, Werner E (Hrsg) Serumferritin: Methodische und klinische Aspekte. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, S 137–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Kaltwasser JP, Kessler U, Gottschalk R, Stucki G, Möller B (2001) Effect of rHU-Erythropoietin and i.v. Iron on Anaemia and Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Rheumatol 28: 2430–2437Google Scholar
  100. 99.
    Kessler U, Gottschalk R, Stucki G, Kaltwasser JP (1998) Benefit in clinical outcome and disease activity of treatment of anaemia of chronic diseases in rheumatoid arthritis with recombinant human Erythropoietin. J Rheumatol 41: 210Google Scholar
  101. 100.
    Kiechl S, Willeit J, et al. (1997) Body iron stores and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis: Prospective results from the Bruneck Study. Circulation 96: 3300–3307Google Scholar
  102. 101.
    Knekt P, Revanen A, et al. (1994) Body iron stores and the risk of cancer. Int J Cancer 56: 379–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Köhler G, Milstein C (1975) Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256: 495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Kolbe-Busch S, Lotz J, Hafner G, Blanckaert J, Claeys G, Togni G, Carlsen J, Röddiger R, Thomas L (2002) Multicenter Evaluation of a Fully Mechanized Soluble Transferrin Receptor Assay on the Hitachi and LOBAS INTEGRA Analyzers and Determination of Reference Ranges. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. (acceptet 2002 )Google Scholar
  105. 104.
    Krainer M, Fritz E, Kotzmann H, (1990) Erythropoietin modulates lipid metabolism. Blut 61: Abstr No 81Google Scholar
  106. 105.
    Kubota K, Tamura J, et al. (1993) Evaluation of increased serum ferritin levels in patients with hyperthyroidism. Clin.Invest 72: 26–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Leedma PJ, Stein AR, et al. (1996) Thyroid hormone modulates the interaction between iron regulatory proteins and the ferritin mRNA iron responsive element. J Biol. Chem. 271: 12017–12023Google Scholar
  108. 107.
    Lejeune FJ, Ruegg C, Lienard D (1998) Clinical applications on TNF-alpha in cancer. Curr Opin Immunol 10: 573–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    Leon P, Jimence M, Barona P, Sierrasesumaga L (1998) Recombinant human erythropoietin for the treatment of anemia in children with solid malignant tumors. Med Pediatr Oncol; Vol. 30 (2): 110–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Liebelt EI (1998) in: Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. WB Saunders 757–766Google Scholar
  111. 110.
    Lindenbaum J (1988) Neuropsychiatric disorders caused by cobalamin deficiency in the absence of anemia or macrocytosis. N Engl J Med 318: 1720–1728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    Linke R, Köppers R (1989) Nicht-isotopische Immunoassays–Ein Überblick. In: Borsdorf R, Fresenius W, Günzler H, et al. (Hrsg) Analytiker-Taschenbuch, Bd 8. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, S 127–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Linkesch W (1986) Ferritin bei malignen Erkrankungen. Springer, Wien New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Linker CH (2000) Blood in Current Diagnosis and Treatment. 39th Ed.: 505–507Google Scholar
  115. 114.
    Lipschitz DA, Cook JD, Finch CA (1974) A clinical evaluation of serum ferritin as an index of iron stores. N Engl J Med 290: 12131218Google Scholar
  116. 115.
    Littlewood TJ, Bajetta E, Nortier JW, Vercammen E, Rapoport B (2001) Epoetin Alfa Study Group: Effects of epoetin alfa on hematologic parameters and quality of life in cancer patients receiving nonplatinum chemotherapy: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol; 19 (11): 2865–2874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 116.
    Liuzzo G, Biasucci LM, Gallimore JR, et al. (1994) The prognostic value of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein in severe unstable angina. N Engl J Med, 331: 417–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 117.
    Ludwig H, Chott A, Fritz E (1995) Increase of bone-marrow cellurarity during Erythropoietin treatment in myeloma. Stem Cells (Dayton) 13: [Supp12] 77–87Google Scholar
  119. 118.
    Ludwig H, Fritz E, Leitgeb C, Pecherstorfer M, et al. (1994) Prediction of response to Erythropoietin treatment in chronic anemia of cancer. Blood 84: 1056–1063PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 119.
    Ludwig H, Leitgeb C, Pecherstorfer M, (1994) Recombinant human Erythropoietin for the correction of anemia in various cancers. Br J Haematol 87 [Suppl 11: 158 Abstr No 615Google Scholar
  121. 120.
    MacDougall IC, Gray SJ, Elston O, et al. (1999) Pharmacokinetics of novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein compared with erythropoietin alfa in dialysis patients. I Am Soc Nephrol 10: 2392–2395Google Scholar
  122. 121.
    Mac Dougall IC, Roberts DE, Neubert P, et al. (1989) Pharmacokinetics of intravenous, intraperitoneal and subcutanous recombinant erythropoietin in patients on CAPD-A rationale for treatment. Contrib Nephrol 76: 112–121Google Scholar
  123. 122.
    Maini RN, Breedveld FC, Kalden JR, et al. (1998) Therapeutic efficacy of multiple intravenous infusions of anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody combined with low-dose weekly methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 41: 1552–1563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 123.
    Mangold C (1998) The causes and prognostic significance of low hemoglobin levels in tumor patients. Strahlenther Onkol; Vol 174 (Suppl. 4): 17–19Google Scholar
  125. 124.
    Mantovani G, Ghiani M, Curreli L, et al. (1999) Assessment of the efficacy of two dosages and schedules of human recombinant erythropoietin in prevention and correction of cis-platin induced anemia in cancer patients. Oncol Rep Vol. 6 (2): 421–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 125.
    Massey AC (1992) Microcytic anemia. Differential diagnosis and management of iron deficient anemia. Med Clin North Am 76: 549 — 566Google Scholar
  127. 126.
    Mast AE, Blinder MA, et al. (1998) Clinical utility of the soluble transferrin receptor and comparison with serum ferritin in several populations. Clin Chem 44: 45–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 127.
    Means Jr RT, Krantz SB (1992) Progress in understanding the pathogenesis of anemia of chronic disease. Blood 80: 1639–1647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 128.
    Means RT (1995) Pathogenesis of the anemia of chronic disease: A cytokine mediated anemia. Stem. cells (Dayt) 13: 32–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 129.
    Means RT, Krantz SB (1992) Progression in understanding the pathogenesis of the anemia of chronic disease. Blood 7: 1639–1647Google Scholar
  131. 130.
    Menacci A, Cenci E, et al. (1997) Iron overload alters T helper cell responses to Candida albicans in mice. J Infect Dis 175: 1467–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 131.
    Mercuriali F, Gualtieri G, et al. (1994) Use of recombinant human Erythropoietin to assist autologous blood donation by anemic rheumatiod arthritis patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. Transfusion 34: 501–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 132.
    Moldawer LL, Copeland EM (1997) Proinflammatory cytokines, nutritional support, and the cachexia syndrome: interactions and therapeutic options. Cancer 79: 1828–1839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 133.
    Mutane J, Piug-Parellada P, Mitjavila MT (1995) Iron metabolism and oxidative stress during acute and chronic phases of experimental inflammation. Effect of iron dextran and desferoxamine. J Lab Clin Med 126: 435–443Google Scholar
  135. 134.
    Nowrousian MR, et al. (1996) Pathophysiology of cancer-related anemia; in Smyth JF, Boogaerts MA, Ehmer BRM (eds): rhErythropoietin in Cancer Supportive Treatment. New York, Dekker, 1996, pp 13–34Google Scholar
  136. 135.
    Nyman M (1959) Serum haptoglobin methodological and clinical studies. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 11 [Supp139]Google Scholar
  137. 136.
    O’Neil-Cutting MA, Crosby WH (1986) The effect of antacids on the absorption of simultaneously ingested iron. JAMA 255: 14681470Google Scholar
  138. 137.
    Park JE, Lentner MC, Zimmermann RN, (1999) Fibroblast activation protein, a dual specificity serine protease expressed in reactive human tumor stromal fibroblasts. J Biol Chem 274: 3650536512Google Scholar
  139. 138.
    Paruta S, Hörl WH (1999) Iron and infection. Kidney International 55 (69), 125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 139.
    Peeters HRM, et al. (1996) Effect of recombinant human Erythropoietin on anaemia and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and anaemia of chronic disease: a randomised placebo controlled double blind 52 weeks’ clinical trial. Am Rheum Dis 55: 739–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 140.
    Peeters HRM, Jongen-Lavrencic M, Bakker CH (1999) Recombinant human Erythropoetin improves health-related quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and anaemia of chronic disease; utility measures correlate strongly with disease activity measures. Rheumatol Int 18: 201–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 141.
    Pepys MB (1996) The acute phase response and C-reactive protein. In: Weatherall DJ, Kuller LH, Tracy RP, Shaten J, Meilahn EN. Relation of C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease in the MRFIT nested case control study. Am J Epidemiol, 144: 537–547Google Scholar
  143. 142.
    Pincus T, et al. (1990) Multicenter study of recombinant human Erythropoietin in correction of anemia in rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Med 89: 161–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 143.
    Pinggera W (1999) Personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  145. 144.
    Ponka P (1997) Tissue-specific regulation of iron metabolism andGoogle Scholar
  146. heme synthesis: Distinct control mechanisms in erythroid cells. Blood 89: 1–25Google Scholar
  147. 145.
    Ponka P (1999) Cellular iron metabolism. Kidney International, Vol. 55, Suppl. 69, S2 - S11Google Scholar
  148. 146.
    Ponka P, Beaumont C, Richardson R (1998) Function and regulation of transferrin and ferritin. Semin Hematol 35: 35–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 147.
    Punnonen K, et al. (1997) Serum transferrin receptor and its ratio to serum ferritin in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. Blood 89 /3: 1052–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 148.
    Punnonen K, Irjala K, Rajamäki A (1994) Iron deficiency anemia is associated with high concentrations of transferrin receptor in serum. Clin Chem 40: 774–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 149.
    Qvist N, Boesby S, Wolff B, Hansen CP (1999) Recombinant human erythropoietin and hemoglobin concentrations at operation and during the postoperative period. World J Surg; Vol. 23 (1): 30–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 150.
    Rauramaa R, Vaisanen S, Mercuri M, et al. (1994) Association of risk factors and body iron status to carotid atherosclerosis in middle aged eastern Finnish men. Eur Heart J 15: 1020–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 151.
    Refsum AB, Schreiner BBI (1984) Regulation of iron balance by absorption and excretion. Scand J Gastroenterol 19: 867–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 152.
    Richardson DR, Ponka P (1997) The molecular mechanisms of the metabolism and transport of iron in normal and neoplastic cells. Biochem Biophys Acta 1331: 1–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 153.
    Rippmann J, Pfizenmaier K, Mattes R, et al. (2000) Fusion of the tissue factor extracellular domain to a tumour stroma specific single-chain fragment variable antibody results in an antigen-specific coagulation-promoting molecule. Biochem J 349: 1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 154.
    Ritchey AK (1987) Iron deficiency in children. Update of an old problem. Postgrad Med 82: 59–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 155.
    Roberts AG, et al. (1997) Increased frequency of the haemochromatosis Cys 282 Tyr mutation in sporadic prophyria cutanea tarda. Lancet 349: 321–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 156.
    Robinson SH (1990) Degradation of hemoglobin. In: Williams WJ, Beutler W, Erslev AJ, Lichtman MA (eds) Hematology, 4th edn, McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  159. 157.
    Rosenberg IH, Alpers DH (1983) Nutrional deficiencies in gastrointestinal disease. In: Sleisenger MH, Fordtran JS (eds) Gastrointestinal disease, 3`d edn, Saunders, New York, pp 1810–1819Google Scholar
  160. 158.
    Roth D, Smith RD, Schulman G, et al. (1994) Effects of recombinant human Erythropoietin on renal function in chronic renal failure predialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 24: 777–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 159.
    Rowland TW, Kelleher JF (1989) . Insights from high school swimmers. Am J Dis Child 143: 197–200Google Scholar
  162. 160.
    Ruggeri G, Jacobello C, Albertini A, et al. (1984) Studies of human isoferritins in tissues and body fluids. In: Albertini A, Arosio P, Chiancone E, Drysdale J (eds) Ferritins and isoferritins as biochemical markers. Elsevier, Amsterdam New York Oxford, pp 67–78Google Scholar
  163. 161.
    Sandborn WJ, Hanauer SB (1999) Antitumor necrosis factor therapy for inflammatory bowel disease: a review of agents, pharmacology, clinical results and safety. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 5 (2), 119–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 162.
    Sassa S (1990) Synthesis of heme. In: Williams WJ, Beutler E, Erslev AJ, Lichtman MA (eds) Hematology, 4`h edn, McGraw-Hill, New York, 332–335Google Scholar
  165. 163.
    Schilling RE, Williams WJ (1995) Vitamin B12-Deficiency: under-diagnosed, overtreated? Hosp Pract 30: 47Google Scholar
  166. 164.
    Schultz BM, Freedman ML (1987) Iron deficiency in the elderly. Baillieres Clin Haematol 1: 291–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 165.
    Schulze-Osthoff K, Ferrari D, Los M, Wesselborg S, Peter ME (1998) Apoptosis signaling by death receptors. Eur J Biochem 254: 439–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 166.
    Schurek HJ (1992) Oxygen shunt diffusion in renal cortex and its physiological link to Erythropoietin production. In: Pagel H, Weiss C, Jelkmann W (eds) Pathophysiology and pharmacology of Erythropoietin. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 53–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 167.
    Scigalla P, Ehmer B, Woll EM, et al. (1990) Zur individuellen Ansprechbarkeit terminal niereninsuffizienter Patienten auf die RhEPO-Therapie. Nieren-Hochdruckerkrankungen 19: 178–183Google Scholar
  170. 168.
    Scott JM, Weir DG (1980) Drug induced megaloblastic change. Clin Haematol 9: 587–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 169.
    Sears D (1992) Anemia of chronic disease. Med Clin North Am 76: 567 — 579Google Scholar
  172. 170.
    Sempos CT, Looker AC, Gillum RF, McGee DL, Vuong CV, Johnson CL (2000) Serum ferritin and death from all causes and cardiovascular disease: The NHANES II mortality study. AEP 10: 441–448Google Scholar
  173. 171.
    Shapiro HM (1995) Practical flow cytometry 3`a ed. New York, Wiley-LissGoogle Scholar
  174. 172.
    Shinozuka N, Koyama J, Anzai H, et al. (2000) Autologous blood transfusion in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing hepatectomy. Am J Surg; Vol. 179 (1): 42–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 173.
    Steinberg D, Parthasarathy S, Carew TE, et al. (1989) Beyond cholesterol: modifications of low-density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenicity. N Engl J Med. 320: 915–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 174.
    Sullivan JL (1996) Perspectives on the iron and heart disease debate. J Clin Epidermial 49: 1345–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 175.
    Sunder-Plassmann G, Hörl WH (1996) Eisen und Erythropoietin. Clin Lab 42: 269–277Google Scholar
  178. 176.
    Sunder-Plassmann G, Hörl WH, (1999) Erythropoietin and iron. Clin. Nephrol 47: 141–157Google Scholar
  179. 177.
    Suominen P, et al. (1997) Evaluation of new immunoenzymometric assay for measuring soluble transferrin receptor to detect iron deficiency in anaemic patients. Clin Chem 43 /9: 1641–1646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 178.
    Suominen P, Punnonen K, Rajamäki A, Irjala K (1998) Serum transferrin receptor and transferrin receptor-ferritin index identity healthy subjects with subclinical iron deficits. Blood 92: 2934–2939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 179.
    Sweeney PJ, Nicolae D, Ignacio L, et al. (1988) Effect of subcutaneous recombinant human Erythropoietin in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy: final report of randomized open labeled, phase II trial. Brit J Cancer 77 (11): 1996–2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 180.
    Thomas AJ, Bunker VW, et al. (1989) Iron status of hospitalized and housebound elderly people. Q J Med 70: 175–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 181.
    Thomas L (Hrsg.) (1998) Labor und Diagnose, 5. Auflage, TH Books Verlagsgesellschaft, FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  184. 182.
    Thomas L, Nowrousian MR, Hörl WH, Möller B, Wick M, et al. (2000) Expert Meeting: Clinical assessment of soluble Transferrin Receptor. FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  185. 183.
    Thomas L, Heimpel H, Hörl WH, Kirschbaum A, Maier RF, Pinggera W, Schäfer RM, Weisbach V, Weiss G, Wick M, et al. (2001) Expert Meeting: Stufendiagnostik bei Eisenstoffwechselstörungen. FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  186. 184.
    Thomas L, Kaltwasser JP, Kuse R, Pinggera W, Scheuermann EH, Wick M (1997) Konsensus Konferenz: Eisensubstitution bei Dialysepatienten unter Erythropoetintherapie. Frankfurt (unpublished )Google Scholar
  187. 185.
    Thorpe SJ, Walker D, Arosio P, Heath A, Cook JD, Worwood M (19971 International collaborative study to evaluate a recombinantGoogle Scholar
  188. ferritin preparation as an International Standard. Clin Chem 43: 1582–1587Google Scholar
  189. 186.
    Thorstensen K, Romslo I (1993) The transferrin receptor: its diagnostic value and its potential as therapeutic target. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 53 [Suppl 2151: 113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 187.
    van Leeuwen MA, van Rijswijk MH, Sluiter WJ, et al. (1997) Individual relationship between progression of radiological damage and the acute phase response in early rheumatoid arthritis. Towards development of a decision support system. J Rheumatol 24: 20–27Google Scholar
  191. 188.
    Vawenterghem P, Barany P, Mann J, European/Australian NESP 970290 Study Group. Novel Erythropoiesis stimulating Protein (NESP) (1999) Maintains Hemoglobin (Hgb) in ESRD patients when administered once weekly or once every other week. Amer Soc Nephr; 32nd Ann. Meeting A1365Google Scholar
  192. 189.
    Waheed A, Parkkila S, Saarnio J, Fleening RE, et al. (1999) Association of HFE protein with transferrin receptor in crypt enterocytes of human duodenum. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 1579–1584Google Scholar
  193. 190.
    Wajant H, Pfizenmaier K (2001) Vom Tumornekrosefaktor zum TRAIL-AMAIZe: Antitumoral wirksame Zytokine der zweiten Generation. Onkologie 24 (suppl. 1): 6–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 191.
    Walczak H, Miller RE, Ariail K, et al. (1999) Tumoricidal activity of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-indusing ligand in vivo. Nat Med 5: 157–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 192.
    Ware CF, Santee S, Glass E (1998) Tumor necrosis factor-related ligands and receptors. In: Thomson AW (ed): Cytokine Handbook. San Diego, Academic Press, pp. 549–593Google Scholar
  196. 193.
    Weiss G (1999) Iron and anemia of chronic disease. Kidney international 55 (69) 12–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 194.
    Weiss G, Fuchs D, Hausen A, Reibnegger G, Werner ER, WernerFelmayer G, Wachter H (1992) Iron modulates interferon gamma effects in the human myelomonocytic cell line THP-1. Exp Hematol 20: 605–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 195.
    Weiss G, Houston T, Kastner S, Johrer K, Grunewald K, Brock JH (1997) Regulation of cellular iron metabolism by Erythropoietin: Activation of iron-regulatory protein and upregulation of transferrin receptor expression in erythroid cells. Blood 89: 680Google Scholar
  199. 196.
    Weiss G, Wachter H, Fuchs D (1995) Linkage of cell-mediated immunity to iron metabolism. Immunol Today 16: 495–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 210.
    ReferencesGoogle Scholar
  201. 197.
    Weiss G, Werner-Felmayer G, Werner ER, Grunewald K, Wachter H, Hentze MW (1994) Iron regulates nitric oxide synthase activity by controlling nuclear transcription. J Exp Med 180: 969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 198.
    Weiss TL, Kavinsky CJ, Goldwasser E (1982) Characterization of a monoclonal antibody to human Erythropoietin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 5465–5469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 199.
    Wick M, Pinggera W (1994) (personal communication)Google Scholar
  204. 200.
    Williams WJ, Beutler E, Ersler AJ, Lichtman MA (eds) (1990) Hematology, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  205. 201.
    Worwood M (1980) Serum ferritin. In: Cook JD (ed) Methods in hematology. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 55–89Google Scholar
  206. 202.
    Yanagawa S, Hirade K, Ohnota H (1984) Isolation of human Erythropoietin with monoclonal antibodies. J Biol Chem 259: 27072710Google Scholar
  207. 203.
    Yap GS, Stevenson MM (1994) Inhibition of in vitro erythropoiesis by soluble mediators of Plasmodium chalandi AS malaria: lack of a major role of interleukin 1, TNF alpha and gamma-Interferon. Infect Immun 62: 357–362Google Scholar

Recommended Reading

  1. Andrews NC (1999) Disorders of iron metabolism. N Engl J Med 341: 1986–1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Begemann H, Rastetter J (1993) Klinische Hämatologie, 4. Aufl. Thieme, Stuttgart New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Beutler E, Lichtman MA, Coller BS, Kipps TH (1995) William’s Hematology. 5’h ed. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Brostoff J (1997) Taschenatlas der Immunologie: Grundlagen, Labor, Klinik. Thieme, Stuttgart, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Burmester G (1998) Taschenatlas der Immunologie: Grundlagen, Labor, Klinik. Thieme, Stuttgart, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Greiling H, Gressner AM (eds) (1995) Lehrbuch der klinischen Chemie und Pathobiochemie, 3. Aufl. Schattauer, Stuttgart New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Heil W, Koberstein R, Zawta B (2002) Referenzbereiche für Kinder und Erwachsene, Pre-Analytical Considerations. Roche Diagnostics GmbH, MannheimGoogle Scholar
  8. Kaltwasser IP, Werner E (Hrsg) (1980) Serumferritin: Methodische und klinische Aspekte. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Klein J, Horejsi N (1999) Immunology, 2°a edn. Blackwell Science, Oxford Malden CarltonGoogle Scholar
  10. Porstmann B (1993) Retikulozyten — Reifung, Analytik, Klinische Bedeutung. Wachholz, NürnbergGoogle Scholar
  11. Sunder-Plassmann G, Hoerl WH, Guest Editors (1999) Kidney International, Vol 55, Suppl 69Google Scholar
  12. Themel H, Schick HD (1998) Praktische Differentialdiagnostik in Hämatologie und Onkologie. Thieme, Stuttgart, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Thomas L (Hrsg) (1998) Labor und Diagnose, 5. Aufl. TH Books Verlagsgesellschaft, FrankfurtGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manfred Wick
    • 1
  • Paul Lehmann
    • 2
  • Wulf Pinggera
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Clinical Chemistry, Klinikum GrosshadernUniversity of MunichGermany
  2. 2.Roche Diagnostics GmbHMannheimGermany
  3. 3.Medical DepartmentGeneral HospitalAmstettenAustria

Personalised recommendations