Advertisement

Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Autoimmune Skin Disorders

  • Sybille Thoma-Uszynski
  • Michael Hertl

Abstract

The medical management of autoimmune skin disorders is complex. Up to present, the mainstay of therapy of most of the previously characterized autoimmune skin diseases is based on mid- to long-term administration of immunosuppressive drugs. Although iatrogen immunosuppression took away the fatality of many autoimmune skin disorders, there are several pitfalls associated with longterm immunosuppression. Under this light, there is an urgent need to incorporate new efficient therapeutic applications which harbor fewer side effects in the medical management of autoimmune skin diseases.

Keywords

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Pyoderma Gangrenosum Bullous Pemphigoid Altered Peptide Ligand Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adair JR, Athwal DS, Bodmer MW, Bright SM, Collins AM, Pulito VL, Rao PE, Reedman R, Rothermel AL, Xu D (1994) Humanization of the murine anti-human CD3 monoclonal antibody OKT3. Hum Antibodies Hybridomas 5: 41–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amagai M, Hashimoto T, Shimizu N, Nishikawa T (1994) Absorption of pathogenic auto-antibodies by the extracellular domain of pemphigus vulgaris antigen (Dsg3) produced by baculovirus. J Clin Invest 94: 59–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amagai M, Hashimoto T, Green KJ, Shimizu N, Nishikawa T (1995) Antigen-specific immunoadsorption of pathogenic autoantibodies in pemphigus foliaceus. J Invest Dermatol 104: 895–901PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andreu G, Leon A, Heshmati F, Tod M, Menkes CJ, Baudelot J, Laroche L (1994) Extracorporeal photochemotherapy: evaluation of two techniques and use in connective tissue disorders. Transfus Sci 15: 443–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Araga S, Blalock JE (1994) Use of complementary peptides and their antibodies in B-cellmediated autoimmune disease: prevention of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis with a peptide vaccine. Immunomethods 5: 130–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Araga S, Galin FS, Kishimoto M, Adachi A, Blalock JB (1996) Prevention of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis by a monoclonal antibody to a complementary peptide for the main immunogenic region of the acetylcholine receptors. J Immunol 157: 386–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Araga S, Kishimoto M, Doi S, Nakashima K (1999) A complementa y peptide vaccine that induces T cell anergy and prevents experimental allergic neuritis in Lewis rats. J Immunol 163: 476–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Araga S, Xu L, Nakashima K, Villain M, Blalock JE (2000) A peptide vaccine that prevents experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis by specifically blocking T cell help. FASEB J 14: 185–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Asadullah K, Sterry W, Stephanek K, Jasulaitis D, Leupold M, Audring H, Volk HD, Docke WD (1998) IL-10 is a key cytokine in psoriasis. Proof of principle by IL-10 therapy: a new therapeutic approach. J Clin Invest 101: 783–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Asadullah K, Docke WD, Ebeling M, Friedrich M, Belbe G, Audring H, Volk HD, Sterry W (1999) Interleukin 10 treatment of psoriasis: clinical results of a phase 2 trial. Arch Dermatol 135: 187–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Assmann T, Homey B, Ruzicka T (2000) Applications of tarlimns for the treatment of skin disorders. Immunopharmacology 47: 203–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bathon JM, Martin RW, Fleischmann RM, Tesser JR, Schiff MH, Keystone EC, Genovese MC, Wasko MC, Moreland LW, Weaver AL, Markenson J, Finck BK (2000) A Comparison of etanercept and methotrexate in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med 343: 1586–1593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Becher E, Mahnke K, Brzoska T, Kalden DH, Grabbe S, Luger TA (1999) Human peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells express functional melanocortin receptor MC-1R. Ann N Y Acad Sci 885: 188–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bennington JL, Dau PC (1981) Patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis who undergo plasmapheresis therapy. Pathologic findings. Arch Neurol 38: 553–560Google Scholar
  15. Berger TG, Hoffman C, Thieberg MD (1995) Prurigo nodularis and photosensitivity in AIDS: treatment with thalidomide. J Am Acad Dermatol 33: 837–838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bielekova B, Goodwin B, Richert N, Cortese I, Kondo T, Afshar G, Gran B, Eaton J, Antel J, Frank JA, McFarland HF, Martin R (2000) Encephalitogenic potential of the myelin basic protein peptide (amino acids 83–99) in multiple sclerosis: results of a phase II clinical trial with an altered peptide ligand. Nat Med 6: 1167–1175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bisaccia E, Gonzalez J, Palangio M, Schwartz J, Klainer AS (2000) Extracorporeal photo-chemotherapy alone or with adjuvant therapy in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: a 9-year retrospective study at a single institution. J Am Acad Dermatol 43: 263–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Blalock JE (1990) Complementarity of peptides specified by ‘sense’ and ‘antisense’ strands of DNA. Trends Biotechnol 8: 140–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bohm M, Beissert S, Schwarz T, Metze D, Luger T (1997) Bullous pemphigoid treated with mycophenolate mofetil [letter]. Lancet 349: 541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brandt J, Haibel H, Comely D, Golder W, Gonzalez J, Reddig J, Thriene W, Sieper J, Braun J (2000) Successful treatment of active ankylosing spondylitis with the anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody infliximab. Arthritis Rheum 43: 1346–1352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Braun N, Erley C, Klein R, Kotter I, Saal J, Risler T (2000) Immunoadsorption onto protein A induces remission in severe systemic lupus erythematosus [In Process Citation]. Nephrol Dial Transplant 15: 1367–1372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bresnihan B, Alvaro-Gracia JM, Cobby M, Doherty M, Domljan Z, Emery P, Nuki G, Pavelka K, Rau R, Rozman B, Watt I, Williams B, Aitchison R, McCabe D, Musikic P (1998) Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Arthritis Rheum 41: 2196–2204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brink I, Thiele B, Burmester GR, Trebeljahr G, Emmrich F, Hiepe F (1999) Effects of antiCD4 antibodies on the release of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in whole blood samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 8: 723–730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brodthagen H (1985) Significant response of oral aphthosis to thalidomide treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol 13: 509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Burt RK, Traynor AE, Cohen B, Karlin KH, Davis FA, Stefoski D, Terry C, Lobeck L, Russell EJ, Goolsby C, Rosen S, Gordon LI, Keever-Taylor C, Brush M, Fishman M, Burns WH (1998) T cell-depleted autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple sclerosis: report on the first three patients. Bone Marrow Transplant 21: 537–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Burt RK, Traynor A, Burns W (1999a) Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Cancer Treat Res 101: 157–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Burt RK, Traynor AE (1999b) Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a new therapy for autoimmune disease. Stem Cells 17: 366–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Burt RK, Marmont A, Schroeder J, Rosa R, Traynor AE (2000) Intense immune suppression for systemic lupus–the role of hematopoietic stem cells. J Clin Immunol 20: 31–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Calabrese L, Fleischer AB (2000) Thalidomide: current and potential clinical applications. Am J Med 108: 487–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Campion GV, Lebsack ME, Lookabaugh J, Gordon G, Catalano M (1996) Dose-range and dose-frequency study of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The IL-1Ra Arthritis Study Group. Arthritis Rheum 39: 1092–1101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Casadevall A (1999) Passive antibody therapies: progress and continuing challenges. Clin Immunol 93: 5–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chen Y, Kuchroo VK, Inobe J, Hafler DA, Weiner HL (1994) Regulatory T cell clones induced by oral tolerance: suppression of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Science 265: 1237–1240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chong AS, Huang W, Liu W, Luo J, Shen J, Xu W, Ma L, Blinder L, Xiao F, Xu X, Clardy C, Foster P, Williams JA (1999) In vivo activity of leflunomide: pharmacokinetic analyses and mechanism of immunosuppression. Transplantation 68: 100–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Costes V, Magen V, Legouffe E, Durand L, Baldet P, Rossi JF, Klein B, Brochier J (1999) The Mi15 monoclonal antibody (anti-syndecan-1) is a reliable marker for quantifying plasma cells in paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsy specimens. Hum Pathol 30: 1405–1411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dalakas MC (1998) Controlled studies with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of dermatomyositis, inclusion body myositis, and polymyositis. Neurology 51: S37 - S45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dall’Amico R, Rossetti F, Zulian F, Montini G, Murer L, Andreetta B, Messina C, Baraldi E, Montesco MC, Dini G, Locatelli F, Argiolu F, Zacchello G (1997) Photopheresis in paediatric patients with drug-resistant chronic graft-versus-host disease. Br J Haematol 97: 848–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Daly BM, Shuster S (2000) Antipruritic action of thalidomide. Acta Derm Venereol 80: 24–25 Dau PC (1994) Immunomodulation during treatment of polymyositis with plasmapheresis and immunosuppressive drugs. J Clin Apheresis 9: 21–25Google Scholar
  38. Dau PC, Callahan JP (1994) Immune modulation during treatment of systemic sclerosis with plasmapheresis and immunosuppressive drugs. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 70: 159–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dirschka T, Kastner U, Behrens S, Altmeyer P (1998) Successful treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum with intravenous human immunoglobulin. J Am Acad Dermatol 39: 789–790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Drakesmith H, Chain B, Beverley P (2000) How can dendritic cells cause autoimmune disease? Immunol Today 21: 214–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Duda PW, Schmied MC, Cook SL, Krieger JI, Hafler DA (2000) Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) induces degenerate, Th2-polarized immune responses in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Clin Invest 105: 967–976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Egan CA, Meadows KP, Zone JJ (2000) Plasmapheresis as a steroid saving procedure in bullous pemphigoid. Int J Dermatol 39: 230–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Elliott MJ, Maini RN, Feldmann M, Long-Fox A, Charles P, Bijl H, Woody JN (1994a) Repeated therapy with monoclonal antibody to tumour necrosis factor alpha (cA2) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 344: 1125–1127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Elliott MJ, Maini RN, Feldmann M, Kalden JR, Antoni C, Smolen JS, Leeb B, Breedveld FC, Macfarlane JD, Bijl H (1994b) Randomised double-blind comparison of chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumour necrosis factor alpha (cA2) versus placebo in rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 344: 1105–1110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Emery P, Breedveld FC, Lemmel EM, Kaltwasser JP, Dawes PT, Gomor B, Van den BF, Nordstrom D, Bjorneboe O, Dahl R, Horslev-Petersen K, Rodriguez DLS, Molloy M, Tikly M, Oed C, Rosenburg R, Loew-Friedrich I (2000) A comparison of the efficacy and safety of leflunomide and methotrexate for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 39: 655–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Enk AH, Knop J (1999) Mycophenolate is effective in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris [see comments]. Arch Dermatol 135: 54–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Enk AH, Knop J (2000) [Successful management of systemic lupus erythematosus with IgM enriched immunoglobulins]. Hautarzt 51: 416–418Google Scholar
  48. Faria AM, Weiner HL (1999) Oral tolerance: mechanisms and therapeutic applications. Adv Immunol 73: 153–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fassas A, Anagnostopoulos A, Kazis A, Kapinas K, Sakellari I, Kimiskidis V, Smias C, Eieltheriadis N, Tsimouttou V (2000) Autologous stem cell transplantation in progressive multiple sclerosis–an interim analysis of efficacy. J Clin Immunol 20: 24–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Federman GL, Federman DG (2000) Recalcitrant pyoderma gangrenosum treated with thalidomide. Mayo Clin Proc 75: 842–844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Foster CS, Ahmed AR (1999) Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for ocular cicatricial pemphigoid: a preliminary study. Ophthalmology 106: 2136–2143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gaubitz M, Seidel M, Kummer S, Schotte H, Perniok A, Domschke W, Schneider M (1998) Prospective randomized trial of two different immunoadsorbers in severe systemic lupus erythematosus. J Autoimmun 11: 495–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Geyer AS, Anhalt GJ, Nousari HC (2000) Effectiveness of infliximab in the treatment of refractory perineal cutaneous Crohn disease. Arch Dermatol 136: 459–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ghate JV, Jorizzo JL (1999) Behcet’s disease and complex aphthosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 40: 1–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ghetie V, Ward ES (1997) FcRn: the MHC class I-related receptor that is more than an IgG transporter. Immunol Today 18: 592–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gordon KB, Chan LS, Woodley DT (1997) Treatment of refractory epidermolysis bullosa acquisita with extracorporeal photochemotherapy. Br J Dermatol 136: 415–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gottlieb AB, Lebwohl M, Shirin S, Sherr A, Gilleaudeau P, Singer G, Solodkina G, Grossman R, Gisoldi E, Phillips S, Neisler HM, Krueger JG (2000) Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis vulgaris: results of a pilot, multicenter, multiple-dose, placebo-controlled study. J Am Acad Dermatol 43: 595–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Grassberger M, Baumruker T, Enz A, Hiestand P, Hultsch T, Kalthoff F, Schuler W, Schulz M, Werner FJ, Winiski A, Wolff B, Zenke G (1999) A novel anti-inflammatory drug, SDZ ASM 981, for the treatment of skin diseases: in vitro pharmacology. Br J Dermatol 141: 264–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Grinspan D (1985) Significant response of oral aphthosis to thalidomide treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol 12: 85–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Grundmann-Kollmann M, Korting HC, Behrens S, Kaskel P, Leiter U, Krahn G, Kerscher M, Peter RU (1999) Mycophenolate mofetil: a new therapeutic option in the treatment of blistering autoimmune diseases. J Am Acad Dermatol 40: 957–960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Harman KE, Black MM (1999) High-dose intravenous immune globulin for the treatment of autoimmune blistering diseases: an evaluation of its use in 14 cases [see comments]. Br J Dermatol 140: 865–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Herranz P, Pizarro A, De Lucas R, Arribas JR, Garcia-Tobaruela A, Pena JM, Casado M (1998) Treatment of AIDS-associated prurigo nodularis with thalidomide. Clin Exp Dermatol 23: 233–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Herrmann ML, Schleyerbach R, Kirschbaum BJ (2000) Leflunomide: an immunomodulatory drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Immunopharmacology 47: 273–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hiepe F, Volk HD, Apostoloff E, von Baehr R, Emmrich F (1991) Treatment of severe sys- temic lupus erythematosus with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. Lancet 338: 1529–1530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Homey B, Assmann T, Vohr HW, Ulrich P, Lauerma AI, Ruzicka T, Lehmann P, Schuppe HC (1998) Topical FK506 suppresses cytokine and costimulatory molecule expression in epidermal and local draining lymph node cells during primary skin immune responses. J Immunol 160: 5331–5340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Huang FP, Platt N, Wykes M, Major JR, Powell TJ, Jenkins CD, MacPherson GG (2000) A discrete subpopulation of dendritic cells transports apoptotic intestinal epithelial cells to T cell areas of mesenteric lymph nodes. J Exp Med 191: 435–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hundt M, Manger K, Dorner T, Grimbacher B, Kalden P, Rascu A, Weber D, Burmester GR, Peter HH, Kalden JR, Schmidt RE (2000) Treatment of acute exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin Rheumatology (Oxford) 39: 1301–1302Google Scholar
  68. Ikonomov V, Samtleben W, Schmidt B, Blumenstein M, Gurland HJ (1992) Adsorption profile of commercially available adsorbents: an in vitro evaluation. Int J Artif Organs 15: 312–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Isaacs JD, Burrows N, Wing M, Keogan MT, Rebello PR, Watts RA, Pye RJ, Norris P, Hazelman BL, Hale G, Waldmann H (1997) Humanized anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody therapy of autoimmune and inflammatory disease. Clin Exp Immunol 110: 158–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Iyer CG, Languillon J, Ramanujam K, Tarabini-Castellani G, las Aguas JT, Bechelli LM, Uemura K, Martinez D, V, Sundaresan T (1971) WHO co-ordinated short-term double-blind trial with thalidomide in the treatment of acute lepra reactions in male lepromatous patients. Bull World Health Organ 45: 719–732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Jayne DR, Chapel H, Adu D, Misbah S, O’Donoghue D, Scott D, Lockwood CM (2000) Intravenous immunoglobulin for ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis with persistent disease activity. QJM 93: 433–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jiang Y, Genant HK, Watt I, Cobby M, Bresnihan B, Aitchison R, McCabe D (2000) A multicenter, double-blind, dose-ranging, randomized, placebo-controlled study of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: radiologic progression and correlation of Genant and Larsen scores. Arthritis Rheum 43: 1001–1009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Johnson KP, Brooks BR, Ford CC, Goodman A, Guarnaccia J, Lisak RP, Myers LW, Panitch HS, Pruitt A, Rose JW, Kachuck N, Wolinsky JS (2000) Sustained clinical benefits of glatiramer acetate in relapsing multiple sclerosis patients observed for 6 years. Copolymer 1 Multiple Sclerosis Study Group. Mult Scier 6: 255–266Google Scholar
  74. Kappos L, Comi G, Panitch H, Oger J, Antel J, Conlon P, Steinman L, et al. (2000) Induction of a non-encephalitogenic type 2 T helper-cell autoimmune response in multiple sclerosis after administration of an altered peptide ligand in a placebo-controlled, randomized phase II trial. Nat Med 6: 1176–1182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kersh GJ, Allen PM (1996a) Structural basis for T cell recognition of altered peptide ligands: a single T cell receptor can productively recognize a large continuum of related ligands. J Exp Med 184: 1259–1268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kersh GJ, Allen PM (1996b) Essential flexibility in the T-cell recognition of antigen. Nature 380: 495–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Khamashta MA, Ruiz-Irastorza G, Hughes GR (2000) Therapy of systemic lupus erythematosus: new agents and new evidence. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 9: 1581–1593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Knobler RM (1994) Extracorporeal photochemotherapy for the treatment of lupus erythematosus: preliminary observations. Springer Semin Immunopathol 16: 323–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kofler H, Wambacher-Gasser B, Topar G, Weinlich G, Schuler G, Hintner H, Romani N, Fritsch P (1997) Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in therapy-resistant epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. J Am Acad Dermatol 36: 331–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Krasagakis K, Dippel E, Ramaker J, Owsianowski M, Orfanos CE (1998) Management of severe scleroderma with long-term extracorporeal photopheresis. Dermatology 196: 309–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kuchroo VK, Greer JM, Kaul D, Ishioka G, Franco A, Sette A, Sobel RA, Lees MB (1994) A single TCR antagonist peptide inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis mediated by a diverse T cell repertoire. J Immunol 153: 3326–3336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kurtz ES, Bailey SC, Arshad F, Lee AA, Przekop PA (1995) Leflunomide: an active anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative agent in models of dermatologic disease. Inflamm Res 44 Suppl 2: S187 - S188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kutsuki H, Takata S, Yamamoto K, Tani N (1998) Therapeutic selective adsorption of anti-DNA antibody using dextran sulfate cellulose column ( Selesorb) for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. Ther Apher 2: 18–24Google Scholar
  84. Kyriakis KP, Kontochristopoulos GJ, Panteleos DN (2000) Experience with low-dose tha- lidomide therapy in chronic discoid lupus erythematosus. Int J Dermatol 39: 218–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Letko E, Bhol K, Foster CS, Ahmed AR (2000) Linear IgA bullous disease limited to the eye: a diagnostic dilemma: response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Ophthalmology 107: 1524–1528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Levy Y, Sherer Y, Langevitz P, Lorber M, Rotman P, Fabrizzi F, Shoenfeld Y (2000) Skin score decrease in systemic sclerosis patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin–a preliminary report. Clin Rheumatol 19: 207–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Liblau R, Tisch R, Bercovici N, McDevitt HO (1997) Systemic antigen in the treatment of Tcell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Immunol Today 18: 599–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Link H, Huang YM, Xiao BG (1999) Dendritic cells in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol 100: 102–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lipsky JJ (1996) Mycophenolate mofetil. Lancet 348: 1357–1359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lovell DJ, Giannini EH, Reiff A, Cawkwell GD, Silverman ED, Nocton JJ, Stein LD, Gedalia A, Ilowite NT, Wallace CA, Whitmore J, Finck BK (2000) Etanercept in children with polyarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Pediatric Rheumatology Collaborative Study Group. N Engl J Med 342: 763–769Google Scholar
  91. Ludewig B, Odermatt B, Landmann S, Hengartner H, Zinkernagel RM (1998) Dendritic cells induce autoimmune diabetes and maintain disease via de novo formation of local lymphoid tissue. J Exp Med 188: 1493–1501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ludewig B, Odermatt B, Ochsenbein AF, Zinkernagel RM, Hengartner H (1999) Role of dendritic cells in the induction and maintenance of autoimmune diseases Immunol Rev 169: 45–54Google Scholar
  93. Lutz MB, Suri RM, Niimi M, Ogilvie AL, Kukutsch NA, Rossner S, Schuler G, Austyn JM (2000) Immature dendritic cells generated with low doses of GM-CSF in the absence of IL-4 are maturation resistant and prolong allograft survival in vivo. Eur J Immunol 30: 1813–1822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Maini R, St Clair EW, Breedveld F, Furst D, Kalden J, Weisman M, Smolen J, Emery P, Harriman G, Feldmann M, Lipsky P (1999) Infliximab (chimeric anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody) versus placebo in rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving concomitant methotrexate: a randomised phase III trial. ATTRACT Study Group. Lancet 354: 1932–1939Google Scholar
  95. Manna SK, Mukhopadhyay A, Aggarwal BB (2000) Leflunomide suppresses TNF-induced cellular responses: effects on NF- kappaB, activator protein-1, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase, and apoptosis. J Immunol 165: 5962–5969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Marmont AM (2000) New horizons in the treatment of autoimmune diseases• immunoablation and stem cell transplantation. Annu Rev Med 51: 115–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Moraes MO, Sarno EN, Teles RM, Almeida AS, Saraiva BC, Nery JA, Sampaio EP (2000) Anti-inflammatory drugs block cytokine mRNA accumulation in the skin and improve the clinical condition of reactional leprosy patients. J Invest Dermatol 115: 935–941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Moreau T, Coles A, Wing M, Thorpe J, Miller D, Moseley I, Issacs J, Hale G, Clayton D, Scolding N, Waldmann H, Compston A (1996) CAMPATH-IH in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 1: 357–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Morel P, Revillard JP, Nicolas JF, Wijdenes J, Rizova H, Thivolet J (1992) Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody therapy in severe psoriasis. J Autoimmun 5: 465–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Morton SJ, Powell RJ (2000) Cyclosporin and tacrolimus: their use in a routine clinical setting for scleroderma. Rheumatology (Oxford) 39: 865–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Nicholson LB, Greer JM, Sobel RA, Lees MB, Kuchroo VK (1995) An altered peptide ligand mediates immune deviation and prevents autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Immunity 3: 397–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nie Z, Garrod DR, Chan LS, Hashimoto T (1999) Complementary peptides against the major epitope in the NC16A domain of BP180 show no specificity as vaccines to bullous pemphigoid. J Dermatol Sci 21: 157–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nousari HC, Anhalt GJ (2000) Bullous pemphigoid treated with leflunomide: A novel immunomodulatory agent. Arch Dermatol 136: 1204–1205Google Scholar
  104. O’Donnell BF, Barr RM, Black AK, Francis DM, Kermani F, Niimi N, Barlow RJ, Winkelmann RK, Greaves MW (1998) Intravenous immunoglobulin in autoimmune chronic urticaria. Br J Dermatol 138: 101–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ogilvie ALJ, Antoni CH, Dechant C et al. (2001) Treatment of psoriatic arthritis with antiTNF-alpha antibody clears skin lesions of psoriasis resistant to treatment with methotrexate. Br J Dermatol 144: 587–589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Oh CJ, Das KM, Gottlieb AB (2000) Treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha ( TNFalpha) monoclonal antibody dramatically decreases the clinical activity of psoriasis lesions. J Am Acad Dermatol 42: 829–830Google Scholar
  107. Ong CS, Benson EM (2000) Successful treatment of chronic leucocytoclastic vasculitis and persistent ulceration with intravenous immunoglobulin. Br J Dermatol 143: 447–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ordi-Ros J, Cortes F, Cucurull E, Mauri M, Bujan S, Vilardell M (2000) Thalidomide in the treatment of cutaneous lupus refractory to conventional therapy. J Rheumatol 27: 1429–1433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Owsianowski M, Garbe C, Ramaker J, Orfanos CE, Gollnick H (1996) [Therapeutic experiences with extracorporeal photopheresis. Technical procedure, follow-up and clinical outcome in 31 skin diseases]. Hautarzt 47: 114–123Google Scholar
  110. Passweg J, Gratwohl A, Tyndall A (1999) Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for autoimmune disorders. Curr Opin Hematol 6: 400–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Patrick CC (1990) Organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Immunol Ser 50: 435–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Pavletic ZS (1997) Treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Ann Intern Med 127: 572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Perotti C, Torretta L, Viarengo G, Roveda L, Bernuzzi S, Carbone S, Del Fante C, La Torre R, Locatelli F, Bonetti F, Gabba P, Bellosta M, Salvaneschi L (1999) Feasibility and safety of a new technique of extracorporeal photochemotherapy: experience of 240 procedures. Haematologica 84: 237–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Prakash A, Jarvis B (1999) Leflunomide: a review of its use in active rheumatoid arthritis. Drugs 58: 1137–1164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Pulito VL, Roberts VA, Adair JR, Rothermel AL, Collins AM, Varga SS, Martocello C, Bodmer M, Jolliffe LK, Zivin RA (1996) Humanization and molecular modeling of the anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody, OKT4A J Immunol 156: 2840–2850Google Scholar
  116. Qi Y, Berg R, Singleton MA, Debrick JE, Staerz UD (1996) Hybrid antibody mediated veto of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. J Exp Med 183: 1973–1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Qi Y, Staerz UD (1998) Specific inhibition of CD4+ T lymphocytes by a hybrid antibody. Nat Biotechnol 16: 271–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Quaratino S, Duddy LP, Londei M (2000) Fully competent dendritic cells as inducers of T cell anergy in autoimmunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 10911–10916PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Richter HI, Krutmann J, Goerz G (1998) [Extracorporeal photopheresis in therapy-refractory disseminated discoid lupus erythematosus]. Hautarzt 49: 487–491Google Scholar
  120. Rook AH, Suchin KR, Kao DM, Yoo EK, Macey WH, DeNardo BJ, Bromely PG, Geng Y, Junkins-Hopkins JM, Lessin SR (1999) Photopheresis: clinical applications and mechanism of action. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 4: 85–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Rostami AM, Sater RA, Bird SJ, Galetta S, Farber RE, Kamoun M, Silberberg DH, Grossman RI, Pfohl D (1999) A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of extracorporeal photopheresis in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 5: 198–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Saleh MN, Gutheil J, Moore M, Bunch PW, Butler J, Kunkel L, Grillo-Lopez AJ, LoBuglio AF (2000) A pilot study of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in patients with refractory immune thrombocytopenia. Semin Oncol 27: 99–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Salvaneschi L, Perotti C, Torretta L (2000) Adverse effects associated with extracorporeal photochemotherapy. Transfusion 40: 121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sands BE, Bank S, Sninsky CA, Robinson M, Katz S, Singleton JW, Miner PB, Safdi MA, Galandiuk S, Hanauer SB, Varilek GW, Buchman AL, Rodgers VD, Salzberg B, Cai B, Loewy J, DeBruin MF, Rogge H, Shapiro M, Schwertschlag US (1999) Preliminary evaluation of safety and activity of recombinant human interleukin 11 in patients with active Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology 117: 58–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sauter B, Albert ML, Francisco L, Larsson M, Somersan S, Bhardwaj N (2000) Consequences of cell death: exposure to necrotic tumor cells, but not primary tissue cells or apoptotic cells, induces the maturation of immunostimulatory dendritic cells. J Exp Med 191: 423–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sawada S, Suzuki G, Kawase Y, Takaku F (1987) Novel immunosuppressive agent, FK506. In vitro effects on the cloned T cell activation. J Immunol 139: 1797–1803Google Scholar
  127. Schneider M (1996) [Pl. Z Rheumatol 55: 90–104Google Scholar
  128. Schulze-Koops H, Davis LS, Haverty TP, Wacholtz MC, Lipsky PE (1998) Reduction of Thl cell activity in the peripheral circulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis after treatment with a non-depleting humanized monoclonal antibody to CD4. J Rheumatol 25: 2065–2076PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Schwartz J, Gonzalez J, Palangio M, Klainer AS, Bisaccia E (1997) Extracorporeal photo-chemotherapy in progressive systemic sclerosis: a follow-up study. Int J Dermatol 36: 380–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sibaud V, Beylot-Barry M, Doutre MS, Beylot C (2000) [Successful treatment of corticoid-resistant pemphigus with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins]. Ann Dermatol Venereol 127: 408–410Google Scholar
  131. Skoda RC, Tichelli A, Tyndall A, Hoffmann T, Gillessen S, Gratwohl A (1997) Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in a patient with chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenia. Br J Haematol 99: 56–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Smith LR, Bost KL, Blalock JE (1987) Generation of idiotypic and anti-idiotypic antibodies by immunization with peptides encoded by complementary RNA: a possible molecular basis for the network theory. J Immunol 138: 7–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Snowden JA, Biggs JC, Milliken ST, Fuller A, Brooks PM (1999) A phase I/II dose escalation study of intensified cyclophosphamide and autologous blood stem cell rescue in severe, active rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 42: 2286–2292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sondergaard K, Carstens J, Jorgensen J, Zachariae H (1995) The steroid-sparing effect of long-term plasmapheresis in pemphigus. Acta Derm Venereol 75: 150–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Sondergaard K, Carstens J, Zachariae H (1997) The steroid-sparing effect of long-term plasmapheresis in pemphigus: an update. Ther Apher 1: 155–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Staerz UD, Qi Y (1999) Treatment of an autoimmune disease with “classical” T cell veto: a proposal. J Clin Immunol 19: 195–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Staerz UD, Lee DS, Qi Y (2000) Induction of specific immune tolerance with hybrid antibodies Immunol Today 21: 172–176Google Scholar
  138. Stanley JR (1989) Pemphigus and pemphigoid as paradigms of organ-specific, auto-antibody-mediated diseases. J Clin Invest 83: 1443–1448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Steinbrink K, Wolfl M, Jonuleit H, Knop J, Enk AH (1997) Induction of tolerance by IL-10treated dendritic cells. J Immunol 159: 4772–4780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Steinbrink K, Jonuleit H, Muller G, Schuler G, Knop J, Enk AH (1999) Interleukin-l0treated human dendritic cells induce a melanoma-antigen-specific anergy in CD8(+) T cells resulting in a failure to lyse tumor cells. Blood 93: 1634–1642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Targan SR, Hanauer SB, van Deventer SJ, Mayer L, Present DH, Braakman T, DeWoody KL, Schaible TF, Rutgeerts PJ (1997) A short-term study of chimeric monoclonal antibody cA2 to tumor necrosis factor alpha for Crohn’s disease. Crohn’s Disease cA2 Study Group. N Engl J Med 337: 1029–1035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Treon SP, Raje N, Anderson KC (2000) Immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of plasma cell malignancies. Semin Oncol 27: 598–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Turner MS, Sutton D, Sauder DN (2000) The use of plasmapheresis and immunosuppression in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol 43: 1058–1064PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. van den Bosch F, Kruithof E, De Vos M, De Keyser F, Mielants H (2000a) Crohn’s disease associated with spondyloarthropathy: effect of TNF- alpha blockade with infliximab on articular symptoms. Lancet 356: 1821–1822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. van den Bosch F, Kruithof E, Baeten D, De Keyser F, Mielants H, Veys EM (2000b) Effects of a loading dose regimen of three infusions of chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumour necrosis factor alpha (infliximab) in spondyloarthropathy: an open pilot study. Ann Rheum Dis 59: 428–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. van Oosten BW, Lai M, Barkhof F, Miller DH, Moseley IF, Thompson AJ, Hodgkinson S, Polman CH (1996) A phase II trial of anti-CD4 antibodies in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 1: 339–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. van Oosten BW, Lai M, Hodgkinson S, Barkhof F, Miller DH, Moseley IF, Thompson AJ, Rudge P, McDougall A, McLeod JG, Ader HJ, Polman CH (1997) Treatment of multiple sclerosis with the monoclonal anti-CD4 antibody cM-T412: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, MR- monitored phase II trial. Neurology 49: 351–357Google Scholar
  148. Viard I, Wehrli P, Bullani R, Schneider P, Holler N, Salomon D, Hunziker T, Saurat JH, Tschopp J, French LE (1998) Inhibition of toxic epidermal necrolysis by blockade of CD95 with human intravenous immunoglobulin. Science 282: 490–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Viertel A, Weidmann E, Wigand R, Geiger H, Mondorf OF (2000) Treatment of severe systemic lupus erythematosus with immunoadsorption and intravenous immunoglobulins. Intensive Care Med 26: 823–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Voigtländer C, Lüftl M, Schuler G, Hertl M (2001) Infliximab (anti-TNF-alpha antibody), a novel highly effective treatment of recalcitrant subcorneal pustular dermatosis (Sneddon-Wilkinson). Arch Dermatol (in press)Google Scholar
  151. Wallace DJ (1999) Apheresis for lupus erythematosus. Lupus 8: 174–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Warren KJ, Nopper AJ, Crosby DL (1998) Thalidomide for recalcitrant discoid lesions in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Am Acad Dermatol 39: 293–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Weinblatt ME, Kremer JM, Bankhurst AD, Bulpitt KJ, Fleischmann RM, Fox RI, Jackson CG, Lange M, Burge DJ (1999) A trial of etanercept, a recombinant tumor necrosis factor receptor: Fc fusion protein, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving methotrexate. N Engl J Med 340: 253–259Google Scholar
  154. Weinblatt ME, Dixon JA, Falchuk KR (2000) Serious liver disease in a patient receiving methotrexate and leflunomide. Arthritis Rheum 43: 2609–2611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Wendling D, Racadot E, Wijdenes J (1993) Treatment of severe rheumatoid arthritis by antiinterleukin 6 monoclonal antibody. J Rheumatol 20: 259–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Wendling D, Racadot E, Toussirot E, Wijdenes J (1996) Combination therapy of anti-CD4 and anti-IL6 monoclonal antibodies in a case of severe spondylarthropathy. Br J Rheumatol 35: 1330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wendling D, Racadot E, Wijdenes J, Sibilia J, Flipo RM, Cantagrel A, Miossec P, Eschard JP, Macro M, Bertin P, Liote F, Debiais F, Juvin R, Le Goff P, Masson C (1998) A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled multicenter trial of murine anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 25: 1457–1461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Wolkenstein P, Latarjet J, Roujeau JC, Duguet C, Boudeau S, Vaillant L, Maignan M, Schuhmacher MH, Milpied B, Pilorget A, Bocquet H, Brun-Buisson C, Revuz J (1998) Randomised comparison of thalidomide versus placebo in toxic epidermal necrolysis. Lancet 352: 1586–1589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Wollina U, Looks A, Schneider R, Maak B (1998) Disabling morphoea of childhood-beneficial effect of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Clin Exp Dermatol 23: 292–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Wollina U, Lange D, Looks A (1999) Short-time extracorporeal photochemotherapy in the treatment of drug-resistant autoimmune bullous diseases. Dermatology 198: 140–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Yamada H, Yaguchi H, Takamori K, Ogawa H (1997) Plasmapheresis for the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid. Ther Apher 1: 178–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Yocum DE, Solinger AM, Tesser J, Gluck O, Cornett M, O’Sullivan F, Nordensson K, Dallaire B, Shen CD, Lipani J (1998) Clinical and immunologic effects of a PRIMATIZED anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody in active rheumatoid arthritis: results of a phase I, single dose, dose escalating trial. J Rheumatol 25: 1257–1262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Yoshizaki K, Nishimoto N, Mihara M, Kishimoto T (1998) Therapy of rheumatoid arthritis by blocking IL-6 signal transduction with a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody. Springer Semin Immunopathol 20: 247–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Yu Z, Lennon VA (1999) Mechanism of intravenous immune globulin therapy in antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases. N Engl J Med 340: 227–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sybille Thoma-Uszynski
  • Michael Hertl

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations