Lewis System and the Antigens X and Y

  • Helmut Schenkel-Brunner


The detection of the Le a character is generally attributed to Mourant [191], although Ueyama and Furuhata had described it as the ’T-antigen’ in 1939 (see Race and Sanger [212]). Since then the Le b [5,6], Le c [88], Le d [208], and Le x [7] characters of the blood group Lewis system have also been defined(1).


Blood Group Human Milk Blood Group Antigen Lewis Antigen Human Blood Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abe, K., McKibbin, J.M. & Hakomori, S.I. (1983): The monoclonal antibody directed to difucosylated type 2 chain (Fuca1→2Galβ1–44[Fuca1→3)GIcNAc; Y determinant). J. Biol. Chem. 258, 11793–11797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andersen, J. (1958): Modifying influence of the secretor gene on the development of the ABH substance. A contribution to the conception of the Lewis group system. Vox Sang. 3, 251–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andersen, J. (1960): Serological studies on two Lewis sera (so-called anti-X sera), with a note on the ‘X’ character. Acta Pathol. Microbial. Scand. 48, 374–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ando, B. & Ibayashi, H. (1986): Identification of anti-Lea by platelet complement fixation. Vox Sang. 50, 169–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andresen, P.H.. (1948): Blood group with characteristic phenotypical aspects. Acta Pathol. Microbial. Scand. 24, 616–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Andresen, P.H. (1948): The blood group system L. A new blood group L2. A case of epistasy within the blood groups. Acta Pathol. Microbial. Scand. 25, 728–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andresen, P.H. & Jordal, K. (1949): An incomplete agglutinin related to the L-(Lewis) system. Acta Path. Microbiol. Scand. 26, 636–638.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Andresen, P.H. (1972): Demonstration of Lex substance in the saliva of ABH non-secretors. Vox Sang 23, 262–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Angström, J., Falk, K.E., Karlsson, K.A. & Larson, G. (1982): Chemical fingerprinting of glycosphingolipids in meconium of a human blood group O Le(a-b+) secretor. Blochim. Biophys. Acta 710, 428–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Angström, J., Falk K.E., Hansson, G.J., Holgersson, J., Karlsson, H., Karlsson, K.A., Stromberg, N. & Thurin, J. (1987): The mono-and difucosyl blood group B glycosphingolipids of rat large intestine differ in type of core saccharide. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 926, 79–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Arcilla, M.B. & Sturgeon, P. (1972): Lewis and ABH substances in amniotic fluid obtained by amniocentesis. Pedíat. Res. 6, 853–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arcilla, M.B. & Sturgeon, P. (1973): Studies on the secretion of blood group substances. II. Observations on the red cell phenotype Le(a-b-x-). Vox Sang. 25, 72–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arcilla, M.B. & Sturgeon, P. (1974): Lex, the spurned antigen of the Lewis blood group system. Vox Sang. 26,425–438.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Atkinson, B.F., Ernst, C.S., Herlyn, M., Steplewski, Z., Sears, H.F. & Koprowski, H. (1982): Gastrointestinal cancer-associated antigen in immunoperoxidase assay. Cancer Res. 42, 4820–4823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baeckstrbm, D., Hansson, G.C., Nilsson, O., Johansson, C., Gendler, S.J. & Lindholm, L. (1991): Purification and characterization of a membrane-bound and a secreted mucin-type glycoprotein carrying the carcinoma-associated sialyl-Lea epitope on distinct core proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 21537–21547.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baer, H., Naylor, I., Gibbel, N. & Rosenfield, R.E. (1959): The production of precipitating antibody in chickens to a substance present in the fluids of nonsecretors of blood group A, B and O. J. /mmuno/. 82, 183–185.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ball, G.E., O’Neill, R.A., Schultz, J.E., Lowe, J.B., Weston, B.W., Nagy, J.O., Brown, E.G., Hobbs, C.J. & Bednarski, M.D. (1992): Synthesis and structural analysis using 2-D NMR of sialyl Lewis X (SLe) and Lewis X (Le) oligosaccharides: ligands related to E-selectin (ELAM-1) binding. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 114,5449–5451.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ball, S.P., Tongue, N., Gibaud, A., Le Pendu, J., Mollicone, R., Gérard, G. & Oriol, R. (1991): The human chromosome 19 linkage group FUT1 (H), FUT2 (SE), LE, LU, PEPD, C3, APOC2, D19S7, and D19S9. Ann. Hum. Genet. 55, 225–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bechtel, B., Wand, A.J., Wroblewski, K., Koprowski, H., & Thurin, J. (1990): Conformational analysis of the tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen 19–9 and its Lea blood group antigen component as related to the specificity of monoclonal antibody C019–9..1. Biol. Chem. 265, 2028–2037.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Blaineau, C., Le Pendu, J., Arnaud, D., Connan, F. & Avner, P. (1983): The glycosidic antigen recognized by a novel antibody, 75.12, is developmentally regulated on mouse embryonal carcinoma cells. EMBO J 2, 2217–2222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Blaszczyk, M., Hansson, G.C., Karlsson, K.A., Larson, G., Stromberg, N., Thurin, J., Herlyn, M., Steplewski, Z. & Koprowski, H. (1984): Lewis blood group antigens defined by monoclonal anti-colon carcinoma antibodies. Arch. Biochem. Btophys. 233, 161–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Blaszczyk, M., Pak, K.Y., Herlyn, M., Sears, H.F. & Steplewski, Z. (1985): Characterization of Lewis antigens in normal colon and gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. Proc. Nat/. Acad. Sol. LISA 82, 3552–3556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Blaszczyk-Thurin, M., Thurin, J., Hindsgaul, O., Karlsson, K.A., Steplewski, Z. & Koprowski, H. (1987): Y and blood group B type 2 glycolipid antigens accumulate in a human gastric carcinoma cell line as detected by monoclonal antibody. Isolation and characterization by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. J. Blot Chem. 262, 372–379.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Blaszczyk-Thurin, M., Sarnesto, A., Thurin, J., Hindsgaul, O. & Koprowski, H. (1988): Biosynthetic pathways for the Leb and Y glycolipids in the gastric carcinoma cell line KATO Ill as analyzed by a novel assay. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 151, 100–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Borén, T., Falk, P., Roth, K.A., Larson, G. & Normark, S. (1993): Attachment of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric epithelium mediated by blood group antigens. Science 262, 1892–1895.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bovin, N.V. & Khorlin, A.Y. (1985): Convenient synthon for preparing Le and ABH blood group determinants. Bioorg. Khim. 11, 826–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brandley, B.K., Swiedler, S.J. & Robbins, P.W. (1990). Carbohydrate ligands of the LEC cell adhesion molecules. Cell 63, 861–863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Breimer, M.E., Karlsson, K.A. & Samueisson, B.E. (1982): Characterization of a human intestinal ditucosyl heptaglycosylceramide with a blood group B determinant and a type 1 carbohydrate chain. J. Biot Chem. 257, 1079–1985.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Brendemoen, O.J. (1950): Further studies of agglutination and inhibition in the Lea;-Leb system. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 36, 335–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brendemoen, O.J. (1952): Some factors influencing Rh immunization during pregnancy. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 31, 579–583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brendemoen, O.J. (1961): Development of the Lewis blood group in the newborn. Acta Path. Microbiol Scand. 52, 55–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brockhaus, M., Magnani, J.L., Blaszczyk, M., Steplewski, Z., Koprowski, H., Karlsson, K.A., Larson, G. & Ginsburg, V. (1981): Monoclonal antibodies directed against the human Leb blood group antigen J. Biot. Chem. 256, 13223–13225.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Brockhaus, M., Magnani, J.L., Herlyn, M., Blaszczyk, M., Steplewski Z., Koprowski, H. & Ginsburg, V. (1982): Monoclonal antibodies directed against the sugar sequence of lacto-N-fucopentaose Ill are obtained from mice immunized with human tumors. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 217, 647–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Brown, A., Feizi, T., Gooi, H.C., Embleton, M.J., Picard, J.K. & Baldwin, R.W. (1983): A monoclonal antibody against human colonic adenoma recognizes difucosylated type-2 blood-group chains. Biosci. Rep. 3, 163–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Brown, A., Ellis, I.O., Embleton, M.J., Baldwin, R.W., Turner, D.R. & Hardcastle, J.D. (1984): Immunohistochemical localization of Y hapten and the structurally related H type-2 blood-group antigen on large-bowel tumours and normal adult tissues. Int. J. Cancer 33, 727–736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bruntz, R., Dabrowski, U., Dabrowski, J., Ebersold, A., Peter-Katalinic, J. & Egge, H. (1988): Fucose-containing oligosaccharides from human milk from a donor of blood group O Le a nonsecretor. Biol. Chem. Hoppe Seyler 369,257–273.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gagas, P. & Bush, C.A. (1990): Determination of the conformation of Lewis blood group oligosaccharides by simulation of two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser data. Biopojymers 30, 1123–1138.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Caillard, T., Le Pendu, J., Ventura, M., Mada, M., Rauh, G., Mannoni, P. & Oriol, R. (1988): Failure of expression of alpha-3-L-fucosyltransferase in human serum is coincident with the absence of the X (or Le) antigen in the kidney but not on leucocytes. Exp. Clin. Immunogenet. 5, 15–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Candelier, J.J., Mollicone, R., Mennesson, B., Bergemer, A.M., Henry, S., Coullin, P. & Oriol, R. (1993): α-3-Fucosyltransferases and their glycoconjugate antigen products in the developing human kidney. Lab. Invest. 69, 449–459.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cartron J.P., Mulet, C., Bauvois, B., Rahuel, C. & Salmon, C. (1980): ABH and Lewis glycosyltransferases in human red cells, lymphocytes and platelets. Blood Transf. lmmunohaernatol. 23, 271–282.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ceppellini, R. & Siniscalco, M. (1955): Una nuova ipotesi genetica per il sistema Lewis secretore e suoi riflessi nei riguardi di alcune evidence di linkage con altri loci. Revista dell’Istituto Sieroterapico Italian 30, 431–445.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ceppellini, R., Dunn, L.C. & Innella, F. (1959): Immunogenetica II. Annalisi genetica formale de caratteri Lewis con particolare riguardo alla natura epistatica della specificità serologica Leb. Fol. Hared Path. 8, 261–296.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chester, M.A. & Watkins, W.M. (1969): α-L-Fucosyltransferases in human submaxillary gland and stomach tissues associated with the H, Le and Leb blood-group characters and ABH secretor status. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34, 835–842.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Clausen, H., Levery, S.B., McKibbin, J.M. & Hakomori, S.I. (1985): Blood group A determinants with mono-and difucosyl type 1 chain in human erythrocyte membranes. Biochemistry24, 3578–3586.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Clausen, H., McKibbin, J.M. & Hakomori, S.I. (1985): Monoclonal antibodies defining blood group A variants with difucosyl type 1 chain (ALeb) and difucosyl type 2 chain (ALer). Biochemistry 24, 6190–6194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Coté, R.H. & Valet, J.P. (1976): Isolation, composition and reactivity of the neutral glycoproteins from human meconiums with specificities of the ABO and Lewis systems. Biochem. J. 153, 63–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Couillin, P., Mollicone, R., Grisard, M.C., Gibaud, A. & Oriol, R. (1991): Chromosome 11q localization of one of the three expected genes for the human α-3-fucosyltransferases. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 56, 108–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cowles, J.W., Spitalnik, S.L. & Blumberg, N. (1986): Detection of anti-Le’ in Le(a-b+) individuals by kinetic ELISA. Vox Sang. 50, 164–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Crawley, S.C., Hindsgaul, O., Ratcliffe, R.M., Lamontagne, L.R. & Palcic, M. (1989): A plant fucosyltransferase with human Lewis blood-group specificity. Carbohydr. Res. 193, 249–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Crookston, M.C., Tilley, C.A. & Crookston, J.H. (1970): Human blood chimaera with seeming breakdown of immune tolerance. Lancet 2, 1110–1112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cutbush, M., Giblett, E.R. & Mollison, P.L. (1956): Demonstration of the phenotype Le(a+b+) in infants and adults. Brit. J. Haematol. 2, 210–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dabrowski, J., Hanfland, P., Egge, H. & Dabrowski U. (1981): Immunochemistry of the Lewis blood group system: proton nuclear magnetic resonance study of plasmatic Lewis blood group active glycosphingolipids and related substances. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 210, 405–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    De Vries, T. & van den Eijnden, D.H. (1992): Occurrence and specificities of a3-fucosyltransferases. Histochem. J. 24, 761–770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dorf, M.E., Eguro, S.Y., Cabrera. G., Yunis, E.J., Swanson, J. & Amos, D.B. (1972): Detection of cytotoxic non-HL-A antisera. I. Relationship to anti-Lea. Vox Sang. 22, 447–456.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dunstan, R.A., Simpson, M.B. & Rosse, W.F. (1985): Lea blood group antigen on human platelets. Amer. J. Clin. Pathol. 83, 90–94.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Egge, H. & Hanfland, P. (1981): Immunochemistry of the Lewis blood group system: mass spectrometric analysis of permethylated Lee, Leb and H-type 1 (Le“”) blood group active and related glycosphingolipids from human plasma. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 210, 396–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Egge, H., Dell, A. & von Nicolai, H. (1983): Fucose containing oligosaccharides from human milk. I. Separation and identification of new constituents. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 224, 235–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Eggens, I., Fenderson, B., Toyokuni, T., Dean, B., Stroud, M. & Hakomori, S.I. (1989): Specific interaction between Le’ and Le` determinants. A possible basis for cell recognition in preimplantation embryos and in embryonal carcinoma cells. J. Blot Chem. 264, 9476–9484.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Elmgren, A., Rydberg, L. & Larson, G. (1993): Genotypic heterogeneity among Lewis negative individuals. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 196, 515–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Eppenberger-Castori, S., LBtscher, H. & Finne, J. (1989): Purification of the N-acetylglucosaminide a(1–3/4) fucosyltransferase of human milk. Glycocon. J. 6, 101–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Falk, K.E., Karlsson, K.A. & Samuelsson, B.E. (1979): Proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of anomeric structure of glycosphingolipids. Lewis-active and Lewis-like substances. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 192, 191–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Feizi, T. (1985): Demonstration by monoclonal antibodies that carbohydrate structures of glycoproteins and glycolipids are onco-developmental antigens. Nature 314, 53–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Foster, C.S., Gillies, D.R.B. & Glick, M.C. (1991): Purification and characterization of GDP-L-Fuc-N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminide al-*3 fucosyttransferase from human neuroblastoma cells. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 3526–3531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fox, N., Damjanov, I., Knowles, B.B. & Softer, D. (1983): lmmunohistochemical localization of the mouse stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 in human tissues and tumors. Cancer Res. 43, 669–678.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    François, A., Sansonetti, N., Mollicone, R., Le Pendu, J., Galton, J., Jaulmes, B. & Oriol, R. (1986): Heterogeneity of Lewis antibodies. A comparison of the reaction of human and animal reagents with synthetic oligosaccharides. Vox Sang. 50, 227–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Fraser, R.H., Allan, E.K., Murphy, M.T., Inglis, G. & Mitchell, R. (1990): Monoclonal anti-Lea and anti-Leb: Serological and immunochemical characterization. 2nd lnt. Workshop on Human Red Blood Cell Antigens. Lund, Sweden, Abstract p. 73.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Fredman, P., Richert, N.D., Magnani, J.L., Willingham, M.C., Pastan, I. & Ginsburg, V. (1983): A monoclonal antibody that precipitates the glycoprotein receptor for epidermal growth factor is directed against the human blood group H type 1 antigen. J. Blot Chem. 258, 11206–11210.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fukuda, M., Spooncer, E., Oates, J.E., Dell, A. & Klock, J.C. (1984): Structure of sialylated fucosyl lactosaminoglycan isolated from human granulocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 10925–10935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fukuda. M.N., Dell, A., Oates, J.A., Wu, P., Klock, J.C. & Fukuda, M. (1985): Structures of glycosphingolipids isolated from human granulocytes. The presence of a series of linear poly-N-acetyllactosaminylceramide and its significance in glycolipids of whole blood cells. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 1067–1082.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fukushi, Y., Hakomori, S.I., Nudelman, E. & Cochran, N. (1984): Novel fucolipids accumulating in human adenocarcinoma. II. Selective isolation of hybridoma antibodies that differentially recognize mono-, di-, and trifucosylated type 2 chain. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 4681–4685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fukushi, Y., Nudelman, E., Lavery, S.B., Hakomori, S.I. & Rauvala, H. (1984): Novel fucolipids accumulating in human adenocarcinoma. Ill. A hybridoma antibody (FH6) defining a human cancer-associated dfucoganglioside (Vl3NeuAcV3lll3Fuc2nLc6). J. Biol. Chem. 259, 10511–10517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Fukushi, Y., Hakomori, S.I. & Shepard, T. (1984): Localization and alteration of mono-, di-, and trifucosyl al→3 type 2 chain structures during human embryogenesis and in human cancer. J. Exp. Med. 159, 506–520.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fukushima, K., Hirota, M., Terasaki, P.A., Wakisaka, A., Togashi, H., Chia, D., Suyama, N., Fukushi, Y., Nudelman, E.M. & Hakomori, S.I. (1984): Characterization of sialosylated Lewis x as a new tumor-associated antigen. Cancer Res. 44, 5279–5285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ginsburg, V., McGiniss, M.H. & Zopf, D.A. (1980): Biochemical basis for some bloood groups. In: Immunobiology of the Erythrocyte (S.G. Sandler, J. Nusbacher & M.S. Schanfield, eds.), Alan R. Liss Inc., New York, pp. 45–53.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Goeltz, S.E., Hession, C., Goff, D., Griffiths, B., Tizard, R., Newman, B., Chi-Rosso, G. & Lobb, R. (1990): ELFT: a gene that directs the expression of an ELAM-1 ligand. Cell 63, 1349–1356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Good, A.H., Yau, O., Lamontagne, L.R. & Oriol, R. (1992): Serological and chemical specificities of twelve monoclonal anti-Lea and Leb antibodies. Vox Sang. 62, 180–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gooi, H.C., Feizi. T., Kapadia, A., Knowles, B.B., Softer, D. & Evans, M.J., (1981): Stage-specific embryonic antigen involves a1→3 fucosylated type 2 blood group chains. Nature 292, 156–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gooi, H.C., Picard, J.K., Hounsell, E.F., Gregoriou, M., Rees, A.R. & Feizi, T. (1985): Monoclonal antibody (EGR/G49) reactive with the epidermal growth factor receptor of A431 cells recognizes the blood group ALeb and ALey structures. Mol. lmmunoI, 22, 689–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Graham, H.A., Hirsch, H.F. & Davies, D.M. (1977): Genetics and immunochemical relationships between soluble and cell-bound antigens of the Lewis system. In: Human Blood Groups, Proceedings of the 5th International Convocation on Immunology (J.F. Mohn, R.W. Plunkett, R.K. Cunningham, & R.M. Lambert, eds.), Karger, Basel, pp. 257–267.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Graham, H.A., Sinai, P., Hirsch, H.F. & Jacquinet, J.C. (1978): Inhibition of anti-Lem and Ulex anti-H lectin with oligosaccharides. XVth Congress of the International Society of Blood Transfusion, Paris 1978, Abstract p. 552.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Greenwell, P., Ball, M.G. & Watkins, W.M. (1983): Fucosyftransferase activities in human lymphocytes and granulocytes. Blood group H-gene-specified α-2-L-fucosyltransferase is a discriminatory marker of peripheral blood lymphocytes. FEBS Lett. 164, 314–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Greenwell, P., Johnson, P.H., Edwards, J.M., Reed, R.M., Moores, P.P., Bird, A., Graham, H.A. & Watkins, W.M. (1986): Association of the human Lewis blood-group Le(a-b-c-d-) with the failure of expression of α-3-L-fucosyltransferase. Blood Trans!. lmmunohaematol. 29, 233–249.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Grollman, E.F., Kobata, A. & Ginsburg. V. (1969): An enzymatic basis for Lewis blood types in man. J. Clin Invest. 48, 1489–1494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Grónberg, G., Lipniunas, P., Lundgren, T., Lindh, F. & Nilsson, B. (1992): Structural analysis of five new monosialylated oligosaccharides from human milk. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 296, 597–610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    rubb, R. (1948): Correlation between Lewis blood group and secretor character in man. Nature 162, 933–934.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Grubb, R. (1951): Observations on the human group system Lewis. Acta Path. Microbiol. Scand. 28, 61–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gundolf, F. (1973): Anti-A,Leb in serum of a person of a blood group A1h. Vox Sang. 25, 411–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gunson, H.H. & Lantham, V. (1972): An agglutinin in human serum reacting with cells from Le(a-b-) non-secretor individuals. Vox Sang. 22, 344–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hakomori, S.I., Koscielak, J., Bloch, K.J. & Jeanloz, R.W. (1967): Immunologic relationship between blood group substances and a fucose containing glycolipid of human adenocarcinoma. J. /mmunol. 98, 31–38.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hakomori, S.I. & Andrews, H.D. (1970): Sphingolipids with Leb activity and the copresence of Lea and Leb glycolipids in human tumor tissue. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 202, 225–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hakomori, S.I. & Kobata, A. (1974): Blood Group Antigens. In: The Antigens (M.S. Sela, ed.), Acad. Press, New York, vol. 2, pp. 79–140.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hakomori, S.I., Nudelman, E., Levery, S.B., Softer, D. & Knowles, B.B. (1981): The hapten structure of a developmentally regulated glycolipid antigen (SSEA-1) isolated from human erythrocytes and adenocarcinoma: a preliminary note. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 100, 1578–1586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hakomori, S.I., Nudelman, E., Kannagi, R. & Levery, S.B. (1982): The common structure in fucosyllactosaminolipids accumulating in human adenocarcinomas, and its possible absence in normal tissue. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 109, 36–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hakomori, S.I. & Kannagi, R. (1983): Glycosphingolipids as tumor-associated differentiation markers. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 71, 231–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hakomori, S.I., Nudelman, E., Levery, S.B. & Kannagi, R. (1984): Novel fucolipids accumulating in human adenocarcinoma. I. Glycolipids with di-or trifucosylated type 2 chain. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 4672–4680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hakomori, S.I. (1992): Lex and related structures as adhesion molecules. Histochem. J. 24, 771–776.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hammar, L., Mansson, S., Rohr, T., Chester, M.A., Ginsburg, V., Lundblad, A. & Zopf, D. (1981): Lewis phenotype of erythrocytes and Leb-active glycolipid in serum of pregnant women. Vox Sang. 40, 27–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hanfland, P. (1978): Isolation and purification of Lewis blood group active glycosphingolipids from the plasma of human OLeb individuals. Eur. J. Biochem. 87, 161–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hanfland, P., Kladetzky, R.G. & Egli, G. (1978): Isolation and purification of Lea blood group active and related glycosphingolipids from human plasma of blood group ALea individuals. Chem. Phys. Lipids 22, 141–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hanfland, P. & Graham, H.A. (1981): Immunochemistry of the Lewis blood group system: Partial characterization of Lea, Leb and H-type 1 (Lem) blood group active glycosphingolipids from human plasma. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 210, 383–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hanfland, P., Graham, H.A., Crawford, R.J. & Schenkel-Brunner, H. (1982): Immunochemistry of the Lewis blood group system. Investigations on the Le` antigen. FEES Lett. 142, 77–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hanfland, P., Kordowicz, M., Peter-Katalinic, J., Pfannschmidt, G., Crawford, R.J., Graham, H.A. & Egge, H. (1986): Immunochemistry of the Lewis blood-group system: isolation and structures of Lewis-c active and related glycosphingolipids from the plasma of blood-groúp O Le(a-b-) nonsecretors. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 246, 655–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hanisch, F.G., Uhlenbruck, G. & Dienst, C. (1984): Structure of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen Ca 19–9 on human seminal-plasma glycoproteins from healthy donors. Eut. J. Biochem. 144, 467–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hanisch, F.G., Egge, H., Peter-Katalinic, J., Uhlenbruck, G., Dienst, C. & Fangmann, R. (1985): Primary structures and Lewis blood-group-dependent expression of major sialylated saccharides from mucus glycoproteins of human seminal plasma. Eur. J. Biochem. 152, 343–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hanisch, F.G., Egge, H., Peter-Katalinic, J. & Uhlenbruck, G. (1986): Primary structure of a major sialyl-saccharide alditol from human amniotic mucins expressing the tumor-associated sialyl-X antigenic determinant. FEBS Lett. 200, 42–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hanisch, F.G., Mitsakos, A., Schroten, H. & Uhlenbruck, G. (1988): Biosynthesis of cancer-associated sialyl-X antigen by a (1→3)-α-L-fucosyltransferase of human amniotic fluid. Carbohydr. Res. 178, 23–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hansson, G.C., Karlsson, K.A., Larson, G., McKibbin, J.M., Blaszczyk, M., Herlyn, M., Steplewski, Z. & Koprowski, H. (1983): Mouse monoclonal antibodies against human cancer cell lines with specificities for blood group and related antigens. J. Blot Chem. 258, 4091–4097.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hansson, G.C. & Zopf, D. (1985): Biosynthesis of the cancer-associated sialyl Lea antigen. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 9388–9392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Henry, S.M., Benny, A.G. & Woodfield, D.G. (1990): Investigation of Lewis phenotypes on Polynesians: Evidence of a weak secretor phenotype. Vox Sang. 58, 61–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Henry, S.M., Woodfield, D.G., Samuelsson, B.E. & Oriol, R. (1993): Plasma and red-cell glycolipid patterns of Le(a+b+) and Le(a+b-) Polynesians as further evidence of the weak secretor gene Sew. Vox Sang. 65, 62–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Herlyn, M., Sears, H.F., Steplewski, Z. & Koprowski, H. (1982): Monoclonal antibody detection of a circulating tumor-associated antigen. I. Presence of antigen in sera of patients with colorectal, gastric, and pancreatic carcinoma. J. Clin. lmmunol. 2, 135–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hindsgaul, O., Norberg, T., Le Pendu, J. & Lemieux, R.U. (1982): Synthesis of type 2 human blood group antigenic determinants. The H, X and Y haptens and variations of the H type 2 determinants as probes for the combining site of the lectin I of Ulex europaeus. Carbohydr. Res. 109, 109–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hirsch, H.F. & Graham, H.A. (1980): Adsorption of Lee and Led from plasma onto red cells. Transfusion 20, 474–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Holburn, A.M. (1974): IgG Anti-Lee. Brit. J. Haematol. 27, 489–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Holmes, E.H., Ostrander, G.K. & Hakomori, S.I. (1985): Enzymatic basis for the accumulation of glycolipids with X and dimeric X determinants in human lung cancer cells (NCI-H69). J. B/of. Chem. 260, 7619–7627.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Holmes, E.H., Ostrander, G.K. & Hakomori, S.I. (1986): Biosynthesis of the sialyl-Le’ determinant carried by type 2 chain glycosphingolipids (IV3NeuAc1113FucnLc„ V13NeuAcV3FucnLce, and VI3NeuAc1113V3Fuc2nLc8) in human lung carcinoma PC9 cells. J. Blot Chem. 261, 3737–3743.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Holmes, E.H., Ostrander, G.K., Clausen, H. & Graem, N. (1987): Oncofetal expression of Le’ carbohydrate antigens in human colonic adenocarcinomas. Regulation through type 2 core chain synthesis rather than fucosylation. J. Biol. Chem. 262, 11331–11338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Holmes, E.H. & Levery, S.B. (1989): Biosynthesis of fucose containing lacto-series glycolipids in human colonic adenocarcinoma Colo 205 cells. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 274, 633–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Huang, L.C., Brockhaus, M., Magnani, J.L., Cuttitta, F., Rosen, S., Minna, J.D. & Ginsburg, V. (1983): Many monoclonal antibodies with an apparent specificity for certain lung cancers are directed against a sugar sequence found in lacto-N-fucopentaose Ill. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 220, 318–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Iseki, S., Masaki, S. & Shibasaki, K, (1957): Studies on Lewis blood group system. I. Led blood group factor. Proc. Imp. Acad. Japan 33, 492–497.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Issitt, P.D. (1985): The Lewis system. In: Applied Blood Group Serology, Montgomery Scientific Publications, Miami, Florida, USA, 3rd edn., pp. 169–191.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Iwaki, Y., Kasai, M., Terasaki, P.I., Bernoko, D., Park, M.S., Cicciarelli, J., Heintz,R., Saxton, R.E, Burk, M.W. & Morton, D.L, (1982): Monoclonal antibody against Al Lewis d antigen produced by the hybridoma immunized with a pulmonary carcinoma. Cancer Res. 42, 409–411.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Jacquinet, J.C. & SinaSina. P. (1977): Synthesis of blood-group substances. 6. Synthesis of O-α-Lf ucopyranosyl-(1–2)-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1–4)-O-(α-L-fucopyranosyl-(1–3))-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-gl ucopyranoside, the postulated Lewis d antigenic determinant. J. Org. Chem. 42, 720–724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Jarkowski, Z., Marcus, D.M & Groliman, A.P. (1970): Fucosyltransferase found in human milk. Product of the Lewis blood group gene. Biochemistry 9, 1123–1128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Jeannet, M., Schapira, M. & Magnin, C. (1974): Mise en évidence d’anticorps lymphocytotoxiques dirigés contre les antigènes A et B et contre des antigènes d’histocompatibilité non HL-A. Schw. Med. Wschr. 104, 152.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Johnson, P.H., Yates, A.D. & Watkins, W.M. (1981): Human salivary fucosyltransferases: evidence for two distinct α-3-L-fucosyltransferase activities one of which is associated with the Lewis blood group Le gene. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 100, 1611–1618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Johnson, P.H., Watkins, W.M. & Donald, A.S.R. (1987): Further purification of the Le gene associated α-L-f ucosyltransferase from human milk. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Glycoconjugates, Lille 1987, E107.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Johnson, P.H. & Watkins, W.M. (1992): Purification of the Lewis blood-group gene associated α-3/4-f ucosyltransferase from human milk: an enzyme transferring fucose primarily to type 1 and lactose-based de chains. Glycoconj J. 9, 241–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Johnson, P.H., Donald, A.S.R., Feeney, J. & Watkins, W.M. (1992): Reassessment of the acceptor specificity and general properties of the Lewis blood-group gene associated α-3/4-fucosyltransferase purified from human milk. Glycoconj J. 9, 251–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Johnson, P.H., Donald, A.S.R. & Watkins, W.M. (1993): Purification and properties of the α-3/4-L-fucosyltransferase released into the culture medium during the growth of the human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line. Glycoconj J. 10, 152–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Jordal, K. (1956): The Lewis blood groups in children. Acta Path. Microbiol. Scand. 39, 399–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Judd, W.J., Steiner, E.A., Friedman, B.A. & Oberman, H.A. (1978): Anti-Lea as an autoantibody in the serum of a Le(a-b+) individual. Transfusion 18, 436–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kaizu, T., Levery, S.B., Nudelman, E., Stenkamp, R.E. & Hakomori, S.I. (1986): Novel fucolipids of human adenocarcinoma: monoclonal antibody specific for trifucosyl LeY (1113FucV3FucV12FucnLc8) and a possible three-dimensional epitope structure. J. Biot Chem. 261, 11254–11258.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kaladas, P.M., Kabat, E.A., Shibata, S. & Goldstein, I.J. (1983): Immunochemical studies on the binding specificity of the blood group Leb specific lectin Griffonia simplicifolia IV. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 223, 309–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kameyama, A., Ishida, H., Kiso, M. & Hasegawa, A. (1991): Synthetic studies on sialoglycoconjugates 22: Total synthesis of tumor-associated ganglioside, sialyl Lewis X. J. Carbohydr. Chem. 10, 549–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Kannagi, R., Nudelman, E., Levery, S.B. & Hakomori, S.I. (1982): A series of human erythrocyte glycosphingolipids reacting to the monoclonal antibody directed to a developmentally regulated antigen, SSEA-1. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 14865–14874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Kannagi, R., Levery, S.B. & Hakomori, S.I. (1985): Lee-active heptaglycosylceramide, a hybrid of type 1 and type 2 chain, and the pattern of glycolipids with Lea, Leb, X (Lex), and Y(LeY) determinants in human blood cell membranes (ghosts). Evidence that type 2 chain can elongate repetively but type 1 chain cannot. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 6410–6415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Karlsson, K.A. & Larson, G. (1981): Molecular characterization of cell surface antigens of fetal tissue. Detailed analysis of glycosphingolipids of the meconium of a human O Le(a-b+) secretor. J. Biol. Chem. 256, 3512–3524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Kerde, C., Brunk, R., F infhausen, G. & Prokop, O. (1960): Über die Herstellung von Anti-Lewis-Seren an Capra hircus L. Z. Immun.-Forsch. 119, 462–468.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Kerr, M.A. & Stocks, S.C. (1992): The role of CD15-(Le“)-related carbohydrates in neutrolphil adhesion. Histochem. J. 24, 811–826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Kitagawa, H., Nakada, H., Kurosaka, A., Hiraiwa, N., Numata, Y., Fukui, S., Funakoshi, I., Kawasaki, T., Yamashina, I., Shimada, I. & Inagaki, F. (1989): Three novel oligosaccharides with the sialyl-Lea structure in human milk: isolation by immunoaffinity chromatography. Biochemistry28, 8891–8897.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Kitagawa, H., Nakada, H., Fukui, S., Funakoshi, I., Kawasaki, T., Yamashina, L, Tate, S. & Inagaki, F. (1991): Novel oligosaccharides with the sialyl-Lea structure in human milk. Biochemistry 30, 2869–2876.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Kitagawa, H., Nakada, H., Fukui, S., Kawasaki, T. & Yamashina, I., (1991): Characterization of mucin-type oligosaccharides with the sialyl-Lea structure from human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Biochem. Biophys, Res. Commun. 178, 1429–1436.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Klug, T.L., Ledonne, N.C., Greber, T.F. & Zurawski, V.R. (1988): Purification and composition of a novel gastrointestinal tumor-associated glycoprotein expressing sialylated lacto-N-fucopentaose-II (CA 19–9). Cancer Res. 48, 1505–1511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Ko, A.I., Dräger, U.C. & Ham, D.A. (1990): A Schistosoma mansoni epitope recognized by a protective monoclonal antibody is identical to the stage-specific embryonic antigen 1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 4159–4163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kobata, A. & Ginsburg, V. (1970): Uridine diphosphate N-acetyl-D-galactosamine: D-galactose α-3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase, a product of the gene that determines blood group A in man. J. Biot Chem. 245, 1484–1490.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Kobata, A. (1977): Milk glycoproteins and oligosaccharides. In: The Glycoconjugates (M.J. Horowitz & W. Pigman, eds.), Academic Press Inc, NY, Vol. 1, pp 423–440.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Koprowski, H., Steplewski, Z., Mitchell, K., Herlyn, M., Herlyn, D. & Fuhrer, J.P. (1979): Colorectal carcinoma antigens detected by hybidoma antibodies. Somat. Cell Genet 5, 957–972.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Koprowski, H., Herlyn, M., Steplewski, Z. & Sears H.F. (1981): Specific antigen in serum of patients with colon carcinoma. Science 212, 53–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Kornstad, I. (1969): Anti-Leb in the serum of Le(a+b-) and Le(a-b-) persons: Absorption studies with erythrocytes of different ABO and Lewis phenotypes. Vox Sang. 16, 124–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Koda, Y., Kimura, H. & Mekada, E. (1993): Analysis of Lewis fucosyltransferase genes from the human gastric mucosa of Lewis-positive and Lewis-negative individuals. Blood 82, 2915–2919.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Koszdin, K.L. & Bowen, B.R. (1992): The cloning and expression of a human α-1,3 fucosyltransferase capable of forming the E-selectin ligand. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 187, 152–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Kukowska-Latallo, J.F., Larsen, R.D., Nair, R.P. & Lowe, J.B. (1990): A cloned human cDNA determines expression of a mouse stage-specific embryonic antigen and the Lewis blood group α(1,311,4) fucosyltransferase. Genes and Development 4, 1288–1303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Kumar, R., Potvin, B., Muller, W.A. & Stanley, P. (1991): Cloning of a human α(1,3)-fucosyltransferase gene that encodes ELFT but does not confer ELAM-1 recognition on Chinese hamster ovary cell transfectants. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 21777–21783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Lamblin, G., Biersman, A., Klein, A., Roussel, P., Van Halbeek, H. & Vliegenthart, J.F.G. (1984): Primary structure determination of five sialylated oligosaccharides derived from bronchial mucus glycoproteins of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. The occurrence of the NeuAcα(2→3)Galβ(1→4)-(Fucα(1→3)]GIcNAcβ(1→*) structural element revealed by 500 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 9051–9058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Lawler, S.D. & Marshall, R. (1961): Lewis and secretor characters in infancy. Vox Sang. 6, 541–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Lemieux, R.U. & Driguez, H.J. (1975): The chemical synthesis of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-4-O-α-L-fucopyranosyl)-3-O-(β-D-galactopyranosyl)-D-glucose. The Lewis a blood group antigenic determinant. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 4063–4068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lemieux, R.U., Bundle, D.R. & Baker, D.A. (1975): The properties of a “synthetic” antigen related to the human blood group Lewis a. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 4076–4083.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Lemieux, R.U. (1978): Human blood groups and carbohydrate chemistry. Chem. Soc. Rev. 7, 324–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Lemieux, R.U., Baker, D.A., Weinstein, W.M. & Switzer, C.M. (1981): Artificial antigens. Antibody preparations for the localization of Lewis determinants in tissues. Biochemistry 20, 199–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Lemieux, R.U., Hindsgaul, O., Bird, P., Narasimhan, S. & Young, W.W. (1988): The binding of the Lewis-a human blood group determinant by two hybridoma monoclonal anti-Lee antibodies. Carbohydr. Res. 178, 293–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Le Pendu, J., Lemieux, R.U. & Oriol, R. (1982): Purification of anti-Lea antibodies with specificity for 3DGal(1-+3)13DGIcNAcO- using a synthetic immunoadsorbent. Vox Sang 43, 188–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Le Pendu, J., Lemieux, R.U., Dalix, A.M., Lambert, F. & Oriol, R. (1983): Competition between ABO and Le gene specified enzymes I. A Lewis related difference in the amount of A antigen in saliva of Al and A2 secretors. Vox Sang. 45, 349–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Le Pendu, J., Oriol, R., Lambert, F., Dalix, A.M. & Lemieux, R.U. (1983): Competition between ABO and Le gene specified enzymes. II. Quantitative analysis of A and B antigens in saliva of ABH nonsecretors. Vox Sang. 45, 421–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Le Pendu, J., Fredman, P., Richter, N.D., Magnani, J.L., Willingham, M.C., Pastan, I., Oriol, R. & Ginsburg, V. (1985): Monoclonal antibody 101 that precipitates the glycoprotein receptor for epidermal growth factor is directed against the Y antigen, not the H type 1 antigen. Carbohydr. Res. 141, 347–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Levery, S.B., Nudelman, E.D., Andersen, N.H. & Hakomori, S.I. (1986): 1H-N.M.R. analysis of glycolipids possessing mono-and multi-meric X and Y haptens: characterization of two novel extended Y structures from human adenocarcinoma. Carbohydr. Res. 151, 311–328.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Levine, P. & Celano, M. (1960): The antigenicity of Lewis (Le) substance in saliva coated on to tanned red cells. Vox Sang. 5, 53–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Lindstrom, K., Breimer, M.E., Jovall, P.A., Lanne, B., Pimlott, W. & Samuelsson, B.E. (1992): Non-acid glycosphingolipid expression in plasma of an A, Le(a-b+) secretor human individual: identification of an ALeb heptaglycosylceramide as major blood group component. J. Biochem. 111, 337–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Lloyd, K.O. & Kabat, E.A. (1968): Immunochemical studies on blood groups. XLI. Proposed structures for the carbohydrate portions of blood group A, B, H, Lewisa and Lewisb specificities. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 61, 1470–1477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Lloyd, K.O., Larson, G., Stromberg, N., Thurin, J. & Karlsson, K.A. (1983): Mouse monoclonal antibody F-3 recognizes the ditucosyl type-2 blood group structure. lmmunogenetics 17, 537–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Lodge, T.W., Andersen, J. & Gold, E.R. (1965): Observations on antibodies reacting with adult and cord Le(a-b-) cells, with Oh Le(a-b-) cells and a soluble antigen present in certain salivas. Vox Sang. 10, 73–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Lowe, J.B., Stoolman, L.M., Nair, R.P., Larsen, R.D., Berhend, T.L. & Marks, R.M. (1990): ELAM-1-dependent cell adhesion to vascular endothelium determined by a transfected human fucosyltransferase cDNA. Cell 63, 475–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Lowe, J.B., Kukowska-Latallo, J.F., Nair, R.P., Larsen, R.D., Marks, R.M., Macher, B.A., Kelly, R.J. & Ernst, L.K. (1991): Molecular cloning of a human fucosyltransferase gene that determines expression of the Lewis x and VIM-2 epitopes but not ELAM-1-dependent cell adhesion. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 17467–17477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Lundblad, A. (1977): Urinary glycoproteins, glycopeptides and oligosaccharides. In: The Glycoconjugates (M.J. Horowitz & W. Pigman, eds.), Academic Press, Inc, NY, Vol. 1, pp. 441–458.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Magnani, J.L., Nilsson, B., Brockhaus, M., Zopf, D., Steplewski, Z., Koprowski, H. & Ginsburg, V. (1982): A monoclonal antibody-defined antigen associated with the gastrointestinal cancer is a ganglioside containing sialylated lacto-N-fucopentaose II. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 14365–14369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Magnani, J.L., Steplewski, Z., Koprowski, H. & Ginsburg, V. (1983): The gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer-associated antigen is detected by monoclonal antibody 19–9 in the sera of patients is a mucin. Cancer Res. 43, 5489–5492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Makelà, O. & Màkelà, P. (1956): Le“ antigen. Studies on its occurrence in red cells, plasma and saliva. Ann. Med. Exp. Biol. Fenn. 34, 157–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Marcus, D.M. & Grollman, A.P. (1966): Studies of blood group substances. I. Caprine precipitating antisera to human Lea and Lab blood group substances. J. tmmunol. 97, 867–875.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Marcus, D.M., Bastani, A.M., Rosenfield, & Grollman, A.P. (1967): Studies of blood group substances. II. Hemagglutinating properties of caprine antisera to human Lea and Leb blood group substances. Transfusion 7, 277–280.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Marcus, D.M. & Cass, L.E. (1969): Glycosphingolipids with Lewis blood group activity: uptake by human erythrocytes. Science 164, 553–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Marcus, D.M., Gilbert, S., Sekine, M. & Suzuki, A. (1988): Monoclonal antibodies that bind to galactosylgloboside (SSEA-3 antigen). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 262, 620–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Mayr, W.R. & Mayr, D. (1974): A lymphocytotoxic antibody associated with ABO blood group and ABH secretor status. J. Immunogenet. 1, 43–46.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    McKibbin, J.M., Spencer, W.A., Smith, E.L., Mansson, J.E., Karlsson, K.A., Samuelsson, B.E., Li, Y.T. & Li, S.C. (1982): Lewis blood group fucolipids and their isomers from human and canine intestine. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 755–760.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Messeter, L., Brodin, T., Chester, M.A., Karlsson, K.A., Zopf, D. & Lundblad, A. (1984): Immunochemical characterization of a monoclonal anti-Le’ blood grouping reagent. Vox Sang. 46, 66–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Mitsakos, A., Hanisch, F.G. & Uhlenbruck, G. (1988): Biosynthesis of the cancer-associated sialyl-Le’ determinant in human amniotic fluid. Biol. Chem. Hoppe Sey/er369, 661–665.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Mitsakos, A. & Hanisch, F.G. (1989): One-step purification of an a(1–3)-L-fucosyltransferase from human amniotic fluid by fetuin-agarose affinity chromatography. Biol. Chem. Hoppe Seyler 370, 239–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Mollicone, R., Gibaud, A., François, A., Ratcliffe, M. & Oriol, R. (1990): Acceptor specificity and tissue distribution of three human α-3-fucosyltransferases. Eur. J. Biochem. 191, 169–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Mollicone, R., Candelier, J.J., Menneson, B., Couillin, P., Venot, A.P. & Oriol, R. (1992): Five specificity patterns of (1→3)-α-L-fucosytransferase activity defined by use of synthetic oligosaccharide acceptors. Differential expression of the enzymes during human embryonic development and in adult tissues. Carbohydr. Res. 228, 265–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Mollicone, R., Reguigne, I., Kelly, R.J., Fletcher, A., Watt, J., Chatfield, S., Aziz, A., Cameron, H.S., Weston, B.W., Lowe, J.B. & Oriol, R. (1994): Molecular basis for Lewis a(1,3/1,4)-fucosyltransferase gene deficiency (FUT3) found in Lewis-negative Indonesian Pedigrees. J. BibL Chem. 269, 20987–20994.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Moor-Jankowski, J., Wiener, A.S. & Rogers, C.M. (1964): Human blood group factors in non-human primates. Nature 202, 663–665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Mourant, A.E. (1946): A ‘new’ human blood group antigen of frequent occurrence. Nature 158, 237–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Munro, J.R. & Schachter, H. (1973): The presence of two GDP-L-fucose:glycoprotein fucosyl transferases in human serum. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 156, 534–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Muramatsu, H., Kamada, Y. & Muramatsu, T. (1986): Purification and properties of N-acetylglucosaminide a1—+3 fucosyltransferase from embryonal carcinoma cells. Eur. J. Biochem. 157, 71–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Nicholas, J.W., Jenkins, W.J. & Marsh, W.L. (1957): Human blood chimeras: a study of surviving twins. Brit. Med. J. 1, 1458–1460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Nielsen, L.S., Eiberg, H. & Mohr, J. (1983): Another case of a lymphoytotoxic antibody with blood group A1 Leb and ALed associated specificity. Tissue Antigens 21, 177–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Nilsson, M. & Norberg, T. (1987): Synthesis of a dimeric Lewis-x hexasaccharide as a p-trifluoroacetamidophenylethyl p-glycoside. Glycocon. J. 4, 219–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Nilsson, M. & Norberg, T. (1988): Synthesis of a dimeric Lewis X hexasaccharide derivative corresponding to a tumor-associated glycolipid. Carbohydr. Res. 183, 71–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Nishihara, S., Nakazato, M., Kudo, T., Kimura, H., Ando, T. & Narimatsu, H. (1993): Human α-1,3 fucosyltransferase (FucT-VI) gene is located at only 13 Kb 3’ to the Lewis type fucosyltransferase (FucT-III) gene on chromosome-19. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 190, 42–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Nishihara, S., Yazawa, S., Iwasaki, H., Nakazato, M., Kudo, T., Ando, T. & Narimatsu, H. (1993): α(1,3/1,4) fucosyltransferase (FucT-III) gene is inactivated by a single amino acid substitution in Lewis histo-blood type negative individuals. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 196, 624–631.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Nudelman, E., Fukushi, Y., Levery, S.B., Higuchi, T. & Hakomori, S.I. (1986): Novel fucolipids of human adenocarcinoma: disialosyl Lea antigen (IIIaFucl118NeuaAclV3NeuAcLc4) of human colonic adenocarcinoma and the monoclonal antibody (FH7) defining this structure. J. Biol. Chem. 261, 5487–5495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Nudelman, E., Levery, S.B., Kaizu, T. & Hakomori, S.I. (1986): Novel fucolipids of human adenocarcinoma: characterization of the major LeY antigen of human adenocarcinoma as trifucosylnonaosyl LeY glycolipid (lll3FucV3FucVl2FucnLc6). J. Biol. Chem. 261, 11247–11253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Oriol, R., Cartron, J.P., Cartron, J. & Mulet, C. (1980): Biosynthesis of ABH and Lewis antigens in normal and transplanted kidneys. Transplantation 29, 184–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Oriol, R., Danilovs, J., Lemieux, R.U., Terasaki, P.I. & Bernoco, D. (1980): Lymphocytotoxic definition of combined ABH and Lewis antigens and their transfer from sera to lymphocytes. Hum. tmmunol. 1, 195–205.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Oriol, R., Le Pendu, J. & Mollicone, R. (1986): Genetics of ABO, H, Lewis, X and related antigens. Vox Sang. 51, 161–171.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Orntoft, T.F., Holmes, E.H., Johnson, P., Hakomori, S.I. & Clausen, H. (1991): Differential tissue expression of the Lewis blood group antigens: enzymatic and immunohistologic evidence for Lewis a and b antigen expression on Le(a-b-) individuals. Blood 77, 1389–1396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Pacuska, T. & Koscielak, J. (1974): α-1,2 Fucosyltransferase of human bone marrow. FEBS Lett. 41, 348–351.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Park, M.S., Oriol, R., Nakata, S., Terasaki, P.I., Ford, R. & Bernoco, D. (1979): ABH and Lewis antigens on lymphocytes: screening of pregnant women’s sera with the B-cell cytotoxicity test. Transplant. Proc. 11, 1947–1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Potapov, M.I. (1970): Detection of the antigen of the Lewis system, characteristic of the erythrocytes of the secretory group Le(a-b-). Probt. Haematol. (Moskau) 11, 45. 49.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Potapov, M.I. (1976): Production of immune-anti-Lewis sera in goats. Vox Sang. 30, 211–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Prieels, J.P., Monnom, D., Dolmans, M., Beyer, T.A. & Hill, R.L. (1981): Co-purification of the Lewis blood group N-acetylglucosaminide α1→4 fucosyltransferase and an N-acetylglucosaminide α1→3 fucosyltransferase from human milk. J. Blot. Chem. 256, 10456–10463.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Prohaska, R., Schenkel-Brunner, H. & Tuppy, H. (1978): Enzymatic synthesis of blood-group Lewis-specific glycolipids. Eur. J. Biochem. 84, 161–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Race, R.R. & Sanger, R. (1975): The Lewis Groups. In: Blood Groups in Man (Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford), 6th edn., pp. 323–349.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Rana, S.S. & Matta, K.L. (1983): A facile synthesis of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-4-O-α-L-fucopyranosyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-glucopyranose, the Lewis a blood-group antigenic determinant, and related compounds. Carbohydr. Res. 117, 101–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Rauvala, H. (1976): The fucoganglioside of human kidney. FEBS Lett. 62, 161–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Rohr, T.E., Smith, D.F., Zopf, D.A. & Ginsburg, V. (1980): Leb-active glycolipid in human plasma: measurement by radioimmunoassay. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 199, 265–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Sakamoto, J., Yin, B.W.T. & Lloyd, K.O. (1984): Analysis of the expression of H, Lewis, X, Y and precursor blood group determinants in saliva and red cells using a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies. Molec. lmmunot. 21, 1093–1098.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Sakamoto, J., Watanabe, T., Tokumaru, T., Takagi, H., Nakazato, H. & Lloyd, K.O. (1989): Expression of Lewis a, Lewis b, Lewis x, Lewis y, sialyl-Lewis a, and sialyl-Lewisx blood group antigens in human gastric carcinoma and in normal gastric tissue. Cancer Res. 49, 745–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Sarnesto, A., Köhlin, T., Hindsgaul, O., Vogele, K., Blaszczyk-Thurin, M. & Thurin, J. (1992): Purification of the β-N-acetylglucosaminide al→3-fucosyltransferase from human serum. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 2745–2752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Sato, S., Ito, Y. & Ogawa, T. (1986): Stereo-and regio-controlled, total synthesis of the Leb antigen, III4FucIV2FucLcOse4Cer. Carbohydr. Res. 155, C1–05.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Sato, S., Ito, Y., Nukada, T., Nakahara, Y. & Ogawa, T. (1987): Total synthesis of X hapten, lll3Fucα-nLc4Cer. Carbohydr. Res. 167, 197–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Schenkel-Brunner, H., Chester, M.A. & Watkins, W.M. (1972): α-L-Fucosyltransferases in human serum from donors of different ABO, secretor and Lewis blood group phenotypes. Eur. J. Biochem. 30, 269–277.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Schenkel-Brunner, H. & Hanfland, P. (1981): Immunochemistry of the Lewis blood group system. Ill. Studies on the molecular basis of the Lex property. Vox Sang. 40, 358–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Seaman, M.J., Chalmers, D.G. & Franks, D. (1968): Siedler: an antibody which reacts with A1Le(a-b+) red cells. Vox Sang. 15, 25–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Shen, L, Grollman, E.F. & Ginsburg, V. (1968): An enzymatic basis for secretor status and blood group specificity in humans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Set USA 59, 224–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Shibata, S., Goldstein, I.J. & Baker, D.A. (1982): Isolation and characterization of a Lewis b-active lectin from Griffonia simplicifolia seeds. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 9324–9329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Shinohara, T., Yamamoto, S. & Iseki, S. (1977): Some immunochemical properties of Lea- and Leb-active substances in human urine. J. Immunogenet. 4, 159–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Shinohara, T., Yamamoto, S. & Iseki, S. (1978): Chemical properties of blood group Lea- and Leb active substances isolated from human urine. Proc. Jap. Acad. 54, 408–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Siddiqui, B., Whitehead, J.S. & Kim, Y.S. (1978): Glycosphingolipids in human colonic adenocarcinoma. J. Biol. Chem. 253, 2168–2175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Slomiany, A. & Slomiany, B.L. (1975): Blood group A active difucosyl glycolipid from hog gastric mucosa. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 388, 135–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Slomiany, B.L., Slomiany, A. & Horowitz, M.I. (1975): Characterization of three new fucolipids from hog gastric mucosa. Eur. J. Biochem. 56, 353–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Slomiany, B., Zdebska, E. & Slomiany, A. (1984): Structural characterization of neutral oligosaccharides of human H+Leb+ gastric mucin. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 2863–2869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Smith, E.L., McKibbin, J.M., Breimer, M.E., Karlsson, K.A., Pascher, I. & Samuelsson, B.E. (1975): Identification of a novel heptaglycosylceramide with two fucose residues and a terminal hexosamine. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 398, 84–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Smith, E.L., McKibbin, J.M., Karlsson, L.A., Pascher, I. & Samuelsson, B.E. (1975): Main structures of the Forssman glycolipid hapten and a Leb-like glycolipid of dog small intestine, as revealed by mass spectrometry. Difference in ceramide structure related to tissue localization. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 388, 171–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Smith, E.L., McKibbin, J.M., Karlsson, K.A., Pascher, I., Samuelsson, B.E., Li, Y.T. & Li, S.C. (1975): Characterization of a human intestinal fucolipid with blood group Leaactivity. J. Biol. Chem. 250, 6059–6064.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Sneath, J.S. & Sneath, P.H.A. (1955): Transformation of the Lewis groups of human red cells. Nature 156, 172–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Sneath, J.S. & Sneath, P.H.A. (1959): Adsorption of blood-group substances from serum on to red cells. Bnit. Med. Bull 15, 154–157.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Softer, D. & Knowles, B.B. (1978): Monoclonal antibody defining a stage-specific mouse embryonic antigen (SSEA-1). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5565–5569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Spitalnik, S., Cowles, J., Cox, M.T. & Blumberg, N. (1985): Detection of IgG anti-Lewis(a) antibodies in cord sera by kinetic ELISA. Vox Sang. 48, 235–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Spohr, U., Hindsgaul, O. & Lemieux, R.U. (1985): Molecular recognition. II. The binding of the Lewis b and Y human blood group determinants by the lectin IV of Griffonia simplicifolia. Can. J. Chem. 63, 2644–2652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Spooncer, E., Fukuda, M., Klock, J.C., Oates, J.E. & Dell, A. (1984): Isolation and characterisation of polyfucosylated lactosaminoglycans from human granulocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 4792–4801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Srivatsan, J., Smith, D.F. & Cummings, R.D. (1992): The human blood fluke Schisosoma mansoni synthesizes glycoproteins containing the Lewis X antigen. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 20196–20203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Steplewski, Z., Blaszczyk-Thurin, M., Lubeck, M., Loibner, H., Scholtz, D. & Koprowski, H. (1990): Oligosaccharide Y specific monoclonal antibody and its isotype switch variants. Hybridoma 9, 201–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Stroud, M.R., Levery, S.B., Nudelman, E.D., Salyan, M.E.K., Towell, J.A., Roberts, C.E., Watanabe, M. & Hakomori, S.I. (1991): Extended type 1 chain glycosphingolipids: dimeric Lea (Ill4V4Fuc2Lc8) as human tumor-associated antigen. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 8439–8446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Stroud, M.R., Levery, S.B., Salyan, M.E.K., Roberts, C.E., & Hakomori, S.I. (1991): Extended type 1 chain glycosphingolipids: isolation and characterzation of tifucosyl-Leb antigen (III4V4VI2Fuc3Lce). Eur. J. B/ochem. 203, 577–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Sturgeon, P. & Arcilla, M.B. (1970): Studies on the secretion of blood group substances. I. Observations on the red cell phenotype Le(a+b+x+). Vox Sang. 18, 301–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Szulman, A.E. & Marcus, D.M. (1973): The histologic distribution of the blood group substances in man as disclosed by immunofluorescence. VI. The Lea and Leb antigens during fetal development. Lab. Invest. 28, 565–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Takada, A., Ohmori, K., Yoneda, T., Tsuyuoka, K., Hasegawa, A., Kiso, M. & Kannagi, R. (1993): Contribution of carbohydrate antigens sialyl Lewis A and sialyl Lewis X to adhesion of human cancer cells to vascular endothelium. Cancer Res. 53, 354–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Taki, T., Takamatsu, M., Myoga, A., Tanaka, K., Ando, S. & Matsumoto, M. (1988): Glycolipids of metastatic tissue in liver from colon cancer: appearance of sialylated Lex and Lex lipids. J. Bíochem. 103, 998–1003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Tanaka, M., Dube, V.E. & Anderson, B. (1984): Structures of oligosaccharides cleaved by base-borohydride from an I, H and Lea active ovarian cyst glycoprotein. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 798, 283–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Taylor, R.A., Rachkewich, R.A., Gare, D.J., Falk, J.A., Shumak, K.H. & Crookston, M.C. (1974): Effect of pregnancy of the reactivity of lymphocytes with cytotoxic antisera. Transplantation 17, 142–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Tegoli, J., Cortez, M., Jensen, L. & Marsh, W.L. (1971): A new antibody, anti-ILebH, specific for a determinant formed by the combined action of the I, Le, Se and H gene products. Vox Sang. 21, 397–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Tetteroo, P.A.T. De Heij,H.T. van den Eijnden, D.H. Visser, F.J., Schonemaker,E. & Geutrs van Kessel, A.H. (1987): A GDP-fucose:[Galβ1→4]GIcNAc α1→3-fucosyltransferase activity is correlated with the presence of human chromosome 11 and the expression of the Lex, Ley, and sialyl-Lex antigens in human-mouse cell hybrids. J. Biot Chem. 262, 15984–15989.Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    Tilley, C.A., Crookston, M.C., Brown, B.L. & Wherrett, J.R. (1975): A and B and A1Leb substances in glycosphingolipid fractions of human serum. Vox Sang. 28, 25–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Vos, G.H., Moores, P.P., Downing, H.J. & Mihideen, A.F.C. (1976): Haemagglutination inhibition studies for the evaluation of blood group antigens in ethanol soluble substances (ESS) obtained from human, baboon and vervet monkey red blood cells. Transfusion 16, 42–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Watkins, W.M. (1972): Blood group specific substances. In: Gyycoproteins: Their Composition, Structure and Function (A. Gottschalk, ed.), Elsevier Publishing Comp., Amsterdam, 2nd edn., pp. 830–891.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Watkins, W.M. (1980): Biochemistry and genetics of the ABO, Lewis and P blood group systems. In: Advances in Human Genetics (H. Harris & K. Hirschmann, eds.), Plenum Publishing Comp., pp. 1–136.Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Weston, B.W., Nair, R.P., Larsen, R.D. & Lowe, J.B. (1992): Isolation of a novel human α(1,3) fucosyltransferase gene and molecular comparison to the human Lewis blood group α(1,311,4) fucosyltransferase gene. J. Biol. Chem. 267, 4152–4160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Weston, B.W., Smith, P.L., Kelly, R.J. & Lowe, J.B. (1992): Molecular cloning of a fourth member of a human alpha(1,3)fucosyltransferase gene family. Multiple homologous sequences that determine expression of the Lewis x, sialyi Lewis x, and difucosyl sialyl Lewis x epitopes. J. Biot Chem. 267, 24575–24584.Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Wu, J.T. & Chang, J. (1992): Chromatographic characterization of CA 19–9 molecules from cystic fibrosis and pancreatic carcinoma. J. Cain. Lab. Anal. 6, 209–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Wu, J.T., Olson, J. & Walker, K. (1992): Tumor markers CA 19–9 and CA 195 are also useful markers for cystic fibrosis. J. Clin. Lab. Anal 6, 151–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Yamamoto, S. (1982): Inhibitory activities of substances present in plant seeds and fruits against anti-Lewis agglutinins. J. lmmunogenet 9, 137–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Yazawa, S. & Furukawa, K. (1980): α-L-Fucosyltransferases related to biosynthesis of blood group substances in human saliva. J. immunogenet. 7, 137–148.Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Young, W.W., Johnson, H.S., Tamura, Y., Karlsson, K.A., Larson, G., Parker, J.M.R., Khare, D.P., Spohr, U., Baker, D.A., Hindsgaul, O. & Lemieux, R.U. (1983): Characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for the Lewis a human blood group determinant. J. Bioi. Chem. 258, 4890–4894.Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Zopf, D.A., Ginsburg, A. & Ginsburg, V. (1975): Goat antibody directed against a human Leb blood group hapten, lacto-N-difucohexaose I. J. immunoi. 115, 1525–1529.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut Schenkel-Brunner
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für BiochemieUniversität WienViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations