Chido and Rodgers

  • Helmut Schenkel-Brunner


The character groups Chido (Ch) [18] and Rodgers (Rg) [21] are confined to humans. The antigens are found on erythrocytes [18,21] and in plasma [21,24,26,27], but are absent from tissue cells or secretions [10].


Human Complement Human Blood Group Complex Type Oligosaccharide Human Complement Component Characteristic Amino Acid Sequence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Atkinson, J.P., Chan, A.C., Karp, D.R., Killion, C.C., Brown, R., Spinella, D., Shreffler, D.C. & Levine, R.P. (1988): Origin of the fourth component of complement related to Chido and Rodgers blood group antigens. Complement 5, 65 – 76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Belt, K.T., Carroll, M.C. & Porter, R.R. (1984): The structural basis of the multiple forms of human complement component C4. Cell 36, 907 – 914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bett, K.T., Yu, C.Y., Carroll, M.C. & Porter, R.R. (1985): Polymorphism of human complement component C4. lmmunogenetics 21, 173 – 180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Braun, L., Schneider, P.M., Giles, C.M., Bertrams, J. & Rittner, C. (1990): Null alleles of human complement C4. Evidence for pseudogenes at the C4A locus and for gene conversion at the C4B locus. J. Exp. Med. 171, 129 – 140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Campbell, R.D., Dunham, I., Kendall, E. & Sargent, C.A. (1990): Polymorphism of the human complement C4. Exp. Clin. Immunogenet. 7, 69 – 84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chakravarti, D.N., Campbell, R.D. & Gagnon, J. (1983): Amino acid sequence of a polymorphic segment from fragment Cod of human complement component C4. FEBS Lett. 154„ 387 – 390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chan, A.C. & Atkinson, J.P. (1985): Oligosaccharide structure of human C4. J. lmmunol. 134, 1790 – 1798.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dunham, I., Sargent, C., Trowsdale, J., Campbell, R.D. (1987): Molecular map of the human major histocompatibility complex by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 7237 – 7242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Giles, C.M., Gedde-Dahl, T., Robson, E.B., Thorsby, E., Olaisen, B., Aenason, A., Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F. & Schreuder, I. (1976): Rg° (Rodgers) and the HLA region; linkage and associations. Tissue Antigens 8, 143 – 149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Giles, C.M. (1977): Serologically difficult red cell antibodies with special reference to Chido and Rodgers blood groups. In: Human Blood Groups ( J.F. Mohn, R.W. Plunkett, P.K. Cunningham & R.M. Lambert, eds.), Karger, Basel, pp. 268 – 276.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Giles, C.M., Batchelor, J.R., Dodi, I.A., Fiedler, A.H.L., Rittner, C., Mauff, G., Bender, K., Levene, C., Schreuder, G.M.T., & Well, L.J. (1984): C4 and HLA haplotypes associated with partial inhibition of anti-Rg and anti-Ch. J. lmmunogenet. 11, 305 – 317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Giles, G.M. (1985): ‘Partial inhibition’ of anti-Rg and anti-Ch reagents. II. Demonstration of separable antibodies for different determinants. Vox Sang. 48, 167–173.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Giles, C.M., Fiedler, A.H.L., Lord, D.K., Robson, T. & O’Neill, G.J. (1987): Two monoclonal anti-C4d reagents react with epitopes closely related to Rg:1 and Ch:1. /mmunogenetics 26, 309 – 312.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Giles, C.M. & Jones, J.W. (1987): A new antigenic determinant for C4 of relatively low frequency. Immunogenetics 26, 392 – 394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Giles, C.M. (1987): Three Chido determinantsdetected on the B5Rg allotype of human C4; their expression in Ch-typed donors and families. Human /mmuno% 8, 111 – 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Giles, C.M. (1988): Antigenic determinants of human C4, Rodgers and Chido. Exp. C/in. /mmunogenet. 5, 99 – 114.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Giles, C.M., Uring-Lambert, B., Goetz, J., Hauptmann, G., Fiedler, A.H.L., Oilier, W., Rittner, C. & Robson, T. (1988): Antigenic determinants expressed by human C4 allotypes; a study of 325 families provides evidence for the structural antigenic model. /mmunogenetics 27, 442 – 448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Harris, J.P., Tegoli, J., Swanson, J., Fisher, N., Gavin, J. & Noades, J. (1967): A nebulous antibody responsible for cross-matching difficulties (Chido). Vox Sang. 12, 140 – 142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hellman, U., Eggertsen, G., Lundwall, A., Engstróm, A., Sjóquist, J. (1984): Primary sequence differences between Chido and Rodgers variants of tryptic C4d of the human complement system. FEBS Lett 170, 254 – 258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Law, S.K.A., Dodds, A.W. & Porter, R.R. (1984): A comparison of the properties of two classes, C4A and C4B, of the human complement component C4. EMBO J. 3, 1819 – 1823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Longster, G. & Giles, G.M. (1976): A new antibody specificity, anti-Rg°, reacting with a red cell and serum antigen. Vox Sang. 30, 175 – 180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lundwall, A., Hellman, U., Eggertsen, G. & Sjóquist, J. (1982): Isolation of tryptic fragments of human C4 expressing Chido and Rodgers antigens. Mol. /mmuno/. 19, 1655 – 1665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mauff, G., Alper, C.A., Awdeh, Z., Batchelor, J.R., Bertrams, J., Bruun-Petersen, G., Dawkins, R.L., Demant, P., Edwards, J., Grosse-Wilde, H., Hauptmann, G., Klouda, P., Lamm, L., Mollenhauer, E., Nerl, C., Olaisen, B., O’Neill, G., Kutner, G., Roos, M.H., Skanes, V., Teisberg, P.G. & Wells, L. (1983): Statement on the nomenclature of human C4 allotypes. /mmunobiot 164, 184 – 191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Middleton, J. & Crookston, M. (1972): Chido substance in plasma. Vox Sang. 23, 256–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Middleton, J., Crookston, M.C., Falk, J.A., Robson, E.B., Cook, P.J.L., Batchelor, J.R., Bodmer, J., Ferrara, G.B., Festenstein, H., Harris, R., Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F., Lawler, S.D., Sachs, J.A. & Wolf, E. (1974): Linkage in Chido and HL-A. Tissue Antigens 4, 366 – 373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nordhagen, R., Olaisen, B., Teisberg, P. & Gedde-Dahl, T. (1980): Association between the electrophoretically-determined C4M haplotype product and partial inhibition of anti-Ch°. J. Immunogenet. 7, 301 – 306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nordhagen, R., Olaisen, B., Teisberg, P., Gedde-Dahl, T. & Thorsby, E. (1981): C4 haplotype products and partial inhibition of anti-Rodgers sera. J. /mmunogenet. 8, 485 – 491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    O’Neill, G.J., Yang, S.Y., Tegoli, J., Berger, R. & Dupont, B. (1978): Chido and Rodgers blood-groups are distinct antigenic components of human complement C4. Nature 273, 668 – 670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Reid, K.B.M. & Porter, R.R. (1981): The proteolytic activation systems of complement. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 50, 433 – 464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Roos, M.H., Giles, C.M., Demant, P., Mollenhauer, E. & Rittner, C. (1984): Rodgers (Rg) and Chido (Ch) determinants on human C4: Characterization of two C4 B5 subtypes, one of which contains Rg and Ch determinants. J. /mmuno% 133, 2634 – 2640.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tilley, C.A., Romans, D.G. & Crookston, M.C. (1978): Localisation of Chido and Rodgers determinants to the C4d fragment of human C4. Nature 276, 713 – 715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    WHO-IUIS Nomenclature Sub-Committee (1993): Revised nomenclature for human complement component C4. J. /mmuno% Meth. 163, 3 – 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yu, C.Y., Belt, K.T., Giles, C.M., Campbell, R.D. & Porter, R.R. (1986): Structural basis of the polymorphism of human complement components C4A and C4B: gene size, reactivity and antigenicity. EMBO J. 5, 2873 – 2881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yu, C.Y. & Campbell, R.D. (1987): Definitive RFLPs to distinguish between the human complement C4A/C4B isotypes and the major Rodgers/Chido determinants: Application to the study of C4 null alleles. /mmunogenetics 25, 383 – 390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yu, C.Y., Campbell, R.D. & Porter, R.R. (1988): A structural model for the location of the Rodgers and the Chido determinants and their correlation with the human complement component C4A/C4B isotypes. /mmunogenetics 27, 399 – 405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut Schenkel-Brunner
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für BiochemieUniversität WienViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations