Learning Through Association Without Feedback Reporting Success

  • Konrad Z. Lorenz


Wilhelm Wundt (1922) defined associations as ”...connections between contents of consciousness which... possess the general character of non-intentional processes, taking place in a passive state of conscious attention” (“...Verbindungen zwischen Bewußtseins-Inhalten die...den allgemeinen Charakter unwillkürlicher, bei passivem Zustand der Aufmerksamkeit eintretender Bewußtseinsvorgänge besitzen”). Associations are produced when two events happen at once or several times in the same sequence and within short intervals of time. From this Wundt formulated the laws of “succedaneity” and of “contiguity.” Both are valid for a majority, if not for all of the learning processes that will be described here.


Conditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus Zebra Finch Conditioned Inhibition Sexual Object 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Konrad Z. Lorenz
    • 1
  1. 1.ViennaAustria

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