Spina Bifida and Related Spinal Lesions

  • Reinhard L. Friede


Spina bifida has been described in the medieval literature and was recognized before that time. Indeed, the association of foot deformities with sacral hypertrichosis may represent the source of the mythological figure of satyr (von Recklinghausen, 1866). The common occurrence and social importance of the disease is reflected in an extremely voluminous literature; a bibliography of 2,000 references was compiled by Ingraham et al. (1943). Brocklehurst (1971) gave a lucid review of early descriptions of the disease, and other comprehensive studies include those of Leveuf (1937), Doran and Guthkelch (1961), Smith (1965), and others.


Neural Tube Cyst Wall Spina Bifida Sinus Tract Dermoid Cyst 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reinhard L. Friede
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  2. 2.University of ZurichSwitzerland

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