Subdural Hematomas, Hygromas and Effusions

  • Reinhard L. Friede


Chronic subdural hematomas have been recognized since the middle of the nineteenth century, when these lesions were commonly referred to as “pachymeningitis hemorrhagica interna”. However, the peculiarities of subdural hematomas in infancy received relatively little attention compared to the numerous publications on their occurrence in adults. The early literature on subdural hematomas in infants was reviewed by Rosenberg (1921). There are wide fluctuations in the indicated frequency of subdural hematomas in infants. Kowitz (1914) reports an 8 percent incidence of pathologic changes in the dura of 3,875 autopsies of infants between 8 days and 2 years; 4.9 percent had rust brown discoloration and 3.9 percent “pachymeningitis”. Courville (1971), on the other hand, observed only 4 cases of chronic subdural hematoma for 50,000 consecutive autopsies of infants, and the lesions were also considered rare by Christensen and Husby (1962). Such variations in frequency may involve subjective factors in identifying and assessing the lesions, but there may also be true changes based on socio-economic factors and advances in obstetric management.


Dura Mater Subdural Hematoma Arachnoid Membrane Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Subdural Hemorrhage 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reinhard L. Friede
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  2. 2.University of ZurichSwitzerland

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