The Management of Failed Spinal Operations
Waddell et al. (1980), painted a gloomy picture of the outcome for patients who have had multiple back operations. Little wonder that patients with persisting serious spinal problems are often given dire warnings about further operations, not only from non-medical sources but even from some specialist surgeons. There are certainly daunting problems in their management. These patients are often debilitated and demoralized. Family breakdown, financial stress, drug dependency and frank persecution by insurers, examining doctors and employers constitute some of their difficulties—leaving aside the question of the actual physical causes of their persisting disability.
KeywordsSpinal Canal Root Canal Facet Joint Interbody Fusion Ligamentum Flavum
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