Functional Electrical Nerve Stimulation: A Way to Restore Lost Functions

  • Frank Rattay


Today electrical nerve and muscle stimulation has a broad field of application which includes the following:
  • • cardiac pacemakers

  • • phrenic pacemakers against respiratory insufficiency

  • • motor nerve stimulation for the paralyzed

  • • electrical stimulation for urinary or anal incontinence

  • • improvement of spasticity

  • • visual prostheses for the blind

  • • auditory prostheses for the deaf.


Surface Electrode Functional Electrical Stimulation Membrane Voltage System Manual Control Double Layer Charge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank Rattay
    • 1
  1. 1.Technical UniversityViennaAustria

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