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Bioecological and Biomedical Monitoring for Advanced Man in Space Projects

  • Carl-Johan Clemedson
Conference paper

Abstract

Bioecological and Biomedical Monitoring for Advanced Man in Space Projects. Since the physical and mental integrity of the astronaut is of decisive importance for his capability and efficiency and, therefore, also for the success of the mission, monitoring of a number of bioecological and biomedical parameters during the space mission is needed. This paper reviews some of the most pertinent problems regarding the health surveillance of a space crew during mission, and it deals especially with the background to, and philosophy behind the recommendations as to which parameters should be measured rather than with which methods and types of instruments that should be used.

Logically, the parameters to be monitored have been divided into two groups, viz. bioecological, which comprise external and internal environmental factors pertaining to the space vehicle and space suit, and biomedical, comprising physiological and mental factors or in other words, the interior milieu of the astronaut. Of bioecological parameters, space ambient ionizing radiations, and cabin atmosphere factors such as temperature and humidity, oxygen, carbon dioxide and trace contaminants, as well as noise and vibration are dealt with. The physiological and psychical factors discussed, are mainly the function of cardiovascular, respiratory and central nervous systems, awakeness and alertness, body temperature, and biochemical and immuno-biological problems. Finally, some points concerning data collecting and processing are cursorily discussed.

Since this review is based on an extensive number of papers and reports, only a selected bibliography has been added to the paper.

Keywords

Space Mission Radiation Belt Threshold Limit Value Trace Contaminant Advanced Project 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Résumé

Controles bioécologiques et biomédicaux impliqués dans les projets avances pour l’homme dans l’espace. Du fait que l’intégrité physique et mentale de l’astronaute est d’importance capitale, quant à ses capacités et son efficacité et, par consequent, pour le succès de la mission, il est nécessaire de contrôler un certain nombre de paramètres bioécologiques et biomédicaux au cours de la mission spatiale. Dans le présent rapport, on passe en revue certains des problèmes les plus pertinents en ce qui concerne la surveillance de la santé de l’équipage au cours d’une mission spatiale. On accorde une attention particulière aux raisons qui militent en faveur du choix de la mesure de certains paramètres, plutôt qu’aux méthodes et types d’instruments à utiliser.

Logiquement, les paramètres à mesurer doivent être divisés en deux groupes: d’une part, les paramètres bioécologiques, qui comprennent les facteurs d’ambiance externes et internes propres à la cabine et au costume spatiaux; d’autre part, les paramètres biomédicaux, qui comprennent les facteurs physiologiques et mentaux ou, en d’autres termes, le milieu interieur de l’astronaute. On traite des parametres bioecologiques, des rayonnements ionisants de l’ambiance spatiale, des facteurs de l’atmosphère de la cabine tels que la température, l’humidité, l’oxygène, le dioxyde de carbone, des souillures à l’éetat de trace, ainsi que du bruit et des vibrations. Les facteurs physiologiques et psychiques traites sont principalement la fonction des systèmes cardiovasculaire, respiratoire et nerveux central, l’eveil et la vigilance, la temperature du corps, les problèmes biochimiques et d’immunité biologique. Enfin, on traite brievèment certains points concernant la collecte et le traitement des données.

Du fait que cette revue est fondée sur un très grand nombre d’articles et de rapports, on n’a ajouté qu’une bibliographie choisie à la suite du present rapport.

Аннотации

Биоэкологический и биомедицинский контроль при полетах человека в космосе. В связи с тем, что физическая и умственная полноценность космонавта имеет решающее значение для его способности к эффективной работе и, тем самым, для успеха его миссии, необходим контроль ряда биоэкологических и биомедицинских параметров во время космических полетов. В настоящем докладе рассматриваются наиболее насущные проблемы, касающиеся наблюдения за здоровьем членов экипажа при полете, причем особое внимание уделяется обоснованию выбора измеренных параметров, а не вопросу о применяемых методах и типах аппаратуры.

Подлежащие контролю параметры подразделены по сути дела на две группы, а именно на биоэкологические, которые охватывают внешние и внутренние экологические факторы, относящиеся к космическому кораблю и космическому костюму, и на биомедицинские, охватывающие физиологические и умственные факторы, или, иными словами, внутреннюю среду космонавта. В числе биоэкологических параметров рассматриваются: ионизирующая радиация окружающего космического пространства и факторы атмосферы кабины, как то: температура и влажность, содержание кислорода, углекислоты и следов загрязнений, а также шумы и вибрация. Обсуждаемые физиологические и психологические факторы касаются главным образом функций сердечно-сосудистой, дыхательной и центральной нервной систем, состояния бодрствования и бдительности, температуры тела, а также биохимических и имуно-биологических проблем. Наконец, бегло затрагиваются некоторые вопросы сбора и обработки результатов измерений и наблюдений.

Поскольку настоящий обзор резюмирует многие работы и доклады, его сопровождает лишь избранная литература.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl-Johan Clemedson
    • 1
  1. 1.The Medical Board of the Armed ForcesStockholmSweden

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