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Functional Disturbances of Vestibular Origin of Significance in Space Flight

  • Ashton Graybiel
Conference paper

Abstract

Functional Disturbances of Vestibular Origin of Significance in Space Flight. This report deals with comparative investigations on the function of the vestibular organ which were carried out on normal subjects and on deaf persons with bilateral labyrinthine defects (L-D subjects). Experimental findings strongly lead to the conclusion that functional disturbances of vestibular origin in L-D subjects are due mainly to the fact that these persons have lost the semicircular canals. The functions of the nonotolith gravireceptor systems overlap those of the otolith organs; hence, the latter are, in some circumstances at least, not essential. L-D subjects are free from illusory phenomena which have their origin in the canals but not entirely free of illusions which have their main genesis in the otolith apparatus. L-D subjects do not become sea sick even in severe storms at sea or in rotating environments. In the latter case at least this freedom from motion sickness is related to absence or depressed function of the semicircular canals. Some of the implications of these findings for space flight are set forth.

Keywords

Semicircular Canal Motion Sickness Parabolic Flight Functional Disturbance Otolith Organ 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Résumé

Perturbations fonctionnelles d’origine yestibulaire ayant une importance dans les vols spatiaux. Dans ce rapport, on expose les etudes comparatives sur la fonction de l’organe vestibulaire, effectuées sur des sujets normaux et sur des personnes sourdes presentant des défauts bilatéraux du labyrinthe (sujets L-D). Les constatations expérimentales conduisent fermement vers la conclusion que ces perturbations fonctionnelles d’origine vestibulaire chez les sujets L-D sont dues principalement au fait que ces personnes ont perdu les canaux semicirculaires. Les fonctions des systemes gravirécepteurs nonolithes recouvrent ceux des organes otolithes; de ce fait, ces derniers ne sont pas essentiels, au moins dans certaines circonstances. Les sujets L-D ne presentent pas de phénomènes d’illusion ayant leur origine dans les canaux, mais ne sont pas entièrement exempts des illusions ayant leur source principale dans l’appareil otolithe. Les sujets L-D n’éprouvent pas le mal de mer, même au cours de tempêtes très fortes en mer ou dans un mouvement giratoire. Dans le dernier cas au moins, cette absence de mal du mouvement est liée à l’absence de la fonction en depression des canaux semicirculaires. On continue d’examiner les implications de ces constatations sur les vols spatiaux.

Аннотации

Функциональные расстройства вестибулярного происхождения имеющие значение при космических полетах. Доклад касается сравнительных исследований функции вестибулярного аппарата, проводившихся на нормальных субъектах и на глухих с двухсторонними дефектами лабиринта (L-D). Результаты экспериментов служат веским основанием для вывода, что функциональные расстройства вестибулярного происхождения у лиц L-D объясняются главным образом тем, что эти лица утратили полукружные каналы. Функции систем неотолитных гравирецептор- ных систем перекрывают функции отолитных органов, в связи с чем последние, по крайней мере при некоторых обстоятельствах, не имеют значения. Лица L-D свободны от явлений иллюзий, имеющих происхождение в каналах, но не полностью свободны от иллюзий, возникающих в основном в отолитном аппарате. Лица L-D не страдают морской болезнью даже во время самых сильных морских штормов или во вращающейся среде. По крайней мере в последнем случае эта свобода от болезненного состояния объясняется отсутствием или подавленной функцией полукружных каналов. Излагаются некоторые последствия этих явлений для полетов в космическом пространстве.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashton Graybiel
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Naval School of Aviation MedicineU.S. Naval Aviation Medical CenterPensacolaUSA

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