Active Control: Concepts and Strategies

  • J. Rodellar
Part of the CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences book series (CISM, volume 345)


This chapter describes some concepts and methods related to the design of control laws and algorithms for active control of structures. The first point will be to identify second order differential equations as models to describe the essential components of a control system. Then some issues about the state space representation of these models will be reviewed. State space is the mathematical framework most frequently used to formulate active control laws. Optimal control will be presented as a representative methodology for continuous time control. Predictive control will be formulated as representative of discrete time control methods, also pointing out the issue of the time delay and some questions about robustness.

This chapter does not try to be exhaustive. Control (in general) is a very wide area of knowledge and active control of structures is adopting more and more of its concepts, methods and techniques. The purpose of this chapter is to serve as an introduction to the problem of analysis and design of control laws. Many topics are left and can be covered going through the bibliography suggested in the last Section.


Performance Index Control Loop Control Sequence Gain Matrix Jordan Block 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Control (general)

  1. • Brogan, W.L. (1985). “Modern Control Theory”. Prentice-Hall, USA.MATHGoogle Scholar
  2. • Franklin, G.F., Powell, J.D. (1990). “Digital Control of Dynamic Systems”. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, USA.MATHGoogle Scholar
  3. • Kuo, B.C. (1991). “Automatic Control Systems, 6th edition”. Prentice-Hall, USA.Google Scholar
  4. • Kuo, B.C. (1992). “Digital Control Systems, 2nd edition”. Saunders College Publ., USA.Google Scholar
  5. State space representationGoogle Scholar
  6. • Chen, C.T. (1984). “Linear Systems Theory and Design”. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, USA.Google Scholar
  7. • Ogata, K. (1967). “State Space Analysis of Control Systems”. Prentice-Hall, USA.MATHGoogle Scholar
  8. • Moler, C., Van Loan, Ch. (1978). “Nineteen dubious ways to compute the exponential of a matrix”. SIAM Review, Vol. 20, No.4, pp.801–836.CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar

Active structural control (general)

  1. • Meirovitch, L. (1990). “Dynamics and Control of Structures”. John Wiley, USA.Google Scholar
  2. • Soong, T.T. (1990). “Active Structural Control”. Longman Scientific & TechniCal., England.Google Scholar

Optimal control

  1. • Abdel-Rohman, M., Quintana, V.H., Leipholz, H.H.E. (1980). “Optimal control of civil engineering structures”. ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 106, pp. 57–73.Google Scholar
  2. • Bryson, A.E., Ho, Y. (1969). “Applied Optimal Control”. Ginn and Company, USA.Google Scholar
  3. • Kwakernaak H., Sivan, R. (1972). “Linear Optimal Control Systems”. Wiley-Interscience, USA.MATHGoogle Scholar
  4. • Sage, A.P., White, C.C. (1977). “Optimum Systems Control”. Prentice-Hall, USA.MATHGoogle Scholar
  5. • Yang, J.N (1975). “Application of optimal control theory to civil engineering structures”. Google Scholar

Predictive control

  1. • Lopez Almansa, F., Rodellar, J. (1990). “Feasibility and robustness of predictive control of building structures”. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 19, pp. 157–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. • Rodellar, J., Barbat, A.H., Martin Sanchez, J.M. (1987). “Predictive control of structures”. ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 113, pp. 797–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. • Rodellar, J., Chung, L., Soong, T.T., Reinhorn, A. (1989). “Experimental digital control of structures”. ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 115, pp. 1245–1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Other methods in control of structures

  1. • Abdel-Rohman, M., Leipholz, H.H.E. (1978). “Structural control by pole assignement method”. ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 104, pp. 1157–1175.Google Scholar
  2. • Kelly, J., Leitmann, G., Soldatos, A (1987). “Robust control of base isolated structures under earthquake excitation”. Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, Vol. 53, pp. 159–181.CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  3. • Miller, R.K., Masri, S.F., Dehghanyar, T.J., Caughey, T.K. (1988). “Active vibration control of large civil structures”. ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 114, pp. 1542–1570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. • Rodellar, J., Leitmann, G., Ryan, E.P. (1993). “On output feedback control of uncertain coupled systems”. International Journal of Control, Vol. 58(2), 99. 445–457.CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  5. • Yang, J.N., Akbarpour, A., Ghaemmaghami, P. (1987). “New control algorithms for structural control”. ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 113, pp. 1369–1386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Rodellar
    • 1
  1. 1.Technical University of CatalunyaBarcelonaSpain

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