Jets Injected Normally into Compressible Crossflow

  • Ann R. Karagozian
  • K.-S. Charles Wang
  • Owen I. Smith
Part of the International Centre for Mechanical Sciences book series (CISM, volume 439)


An overview of in-flight experiments and modeling relevant to the compressible transverse jet, in subsonic and transonic crossflow, is described here. Modeling efforts employed a low order, locally two-dimensional representation of the transverse jet, relying on the presence and dynamics of the counter-rotating vortex pair that is observed to dominate the jet cross-section. The experiments involved injection of iodine-seeded nitrogen into compressible air flow, with trajectory visualization via planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of the iodine. The experiments were conducted in a flight test fixture situated under the fuselage of an F-104G aircraft, allowing examinations of crossflows in the high subsonic and transonic flow regimes. Both uniform crossflows and the crossflow created by compressible flow over a rearward-facing step were considered in these studies. Further details on these studies may be found in separate papers (Heister & Karagozian (1990a), Heister & Karagozian (1990b), Wang, et al. (1995), Karagozian, et al. (1996)).


Mach Number Supersonic Flow Step Height Vortex Pair Freestream Mach Number 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbitt, J. D. III, Segal, C., McDaniel, J. C., Krauss, R. H., and Whitehurst, R. B. (1993). Experimental Supersonic Hydrogen Combustion Employing Staged Injection Behind a Rearward-Facing Step. Int Journal of Propulsion and Power, 9: 472–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Curran, E. T. (2002). Scramjet engines: The first forty years. Int J. Propul. Power, 17 (6): 1138–1148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fletcher, D. G. and McDaniel, J. C. (1989). Laser-Induced Iodine Fluorescence Technique for Quantitative Measurement in a Nonreacting Supersonic Combustor. Int AIM Journal, 27: 575–580.Google Scholar
  4. Hollo, S. D., McDaniel, J. C., and Hartfield, R. J. Jr. (1994). Quantitative Investigation of Compressible Mixing: Staged Transverse Injection into Mach 2 Flow. Int AIM Journal, 32: 528–534.Google Scholar
  5. Heister, S. D. and Karagozian, A. R. (1990a). Vortex Modeling of Gaseous Jets in a Compressible Cross Flow. Int J. Prop. Power, 6: 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Heister, S. D. and Karagozian, A. R. (1990b). Gaseous Jet in Supersonic Crossflow. Int AIAA Journal, 28: 819–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Heister, S. D., McDonough, J. M., Karagozian, A. R., and Jenkins, D. W. (1990) The Compressible Vortex Pair. Int J.Fluid Mech., 220: 339–354.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. Johnson, L. W. and Riess, R. D. (1982) Numerical Analysis, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, p. 85.MATHGoogle Scholar
  9. Kamotani, Y., and Greber, I. (1972) Experiments on a turbulent jet in a cross flow, Int AIAA J., 10: 1425–1429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Karagozian, A. R. (1986b). An analytical model for the vorticity associated with a transverse jet. Int AIM J., 24: 429–436.Google Scholar
  11. Karagozian, A. R., Wang, K. C., Le, A.-T., and Smith, O. I. (1996). Transverse Gas Jet Injection Behind a Rearward-Facing Step. Int Journal of Propulsion and Power, 12, 1129–1136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Le, A.-T. (1991). Transverse Gaseous Jet Injection Behind a Rearward-Facing Step into Supersonic Cross-flow. M.S. Thesis, UCLA.Google Scholar
  13. McDaniel, J. C. and Graves, J., Jr. (1988). Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Visualization of Transverse Gaseous Injection in a Nonreacting Supersonic Combustor. Int Journal of Propulsion and Power, 4: 591–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. McMillin, B. K., Seitzman, J. M., and Hanson, R. K. (1994). Comparison of NO and OH Planar Fluorescence Temperature Measurements in Scramjet Model Flowfields. Int AIAA Journal, 32 (10): 1945–1952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Northam, G. B. and Anderson, G. Y. (1986). Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Research at Langley. In AIAA Paper 86–0159.Google Scholar
  16. Orth, R.C., Schetz, J.A. and Billig, F.S. (1969). The Interaction and Penetration of Gaseous Jets in Supersonic Flow Int NASA CR-1386.Google Scholar
  17. Papamoschou, D. and Roshko, A. (1988). Compressible Turbulent Shear Layer: An Experimental Study. Int Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 197: 453–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rogers, R. C. and Weidner, E. H. (1983). Numerical Predictions of Residence Times Behind a Rearward Facing Step with Transverse Injection. In Proc. of the 20th JANNAF Combustion Meeting,U. S. Naval Post-graduate School, Monterey, CA.Google Scholar
  19. Schetz, J. A. and Billig, F. S. (1987). Studies of Scramjet Flowfields. In AIAA Paper 87–2161.Google Scholar
  20. Segal, C., McDaniel, J. C., Whitehurst, R. B., and Krauss, R. H., (1995). Mixing and Chemical Kinetics Interactions in a Mach 2 Reacting Flow. Int Journal of Propulsion and Power, 11, 308–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Spaid, F. W. and Zukoski, E. E. (1966). Further Experiments Concerning Secondary Injection of Gases into a Supersonic Flow. Int AIAA Journal, 4 (12), 2216–2218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Torrence, M.G. (1971). Effect of Injectant Molecular Weight on Mixing of a Normal Jet in a Mach 4 Airstream. In NASA TN D-6061.Google Scholar
  23. Uenishi, K., Rogers, R. C., and Northam, G. B. (1989). Numerical Predictions of a Rearward-Facing-Step Flow in a Supersonic Combustor. Int Journal of Propulsion and Power, 5: 158–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wang, K. S. C., Smith, O. I., and Karagozian, A. R. (1995). In-Flight Imaging of Gas Jets Injected into Subsonic and Supersonic Crossflows. Int AIM Journal, 33, 2259–2263.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann R. Karagozian
    • 1
  • K.-S. Charles Wang
    • 1
  • Owen I. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations