Swelling shales and compacting cakes

  • J. D. Sherwood
Part of the International Centre for Mechanical Sciences book series (CISM, volume 462)


Swelling clays are important to the petroleum industry because of their use in drilling fluids and because of their presence in shales through which oil wells are drilled. Models for compaction of clay filtercakes are discussed; these models incorporate chemical effects both in the equilibrium stress-strain relation and in the transport relations for water and ions. Analyses of shale swelling similarly require models both for equilibrium and for transport. A theory based upon Biot poroelasticity is applied to a wellbore geometry, and laboratory experiments are presented. Transport through a clay membrane is analysed in terms of linear relations for the fluxes of water and ions as functions of the jump in chemical potentials across the membrane, and the analysis is used to interpret experiments.


Void Ratio Clay Particle Pore Fluid Drilling Fluid Shale Sample 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abousleiman, Y., Ekbote, S., Cui, L., Mody, F., Roegiers, J.-C. and Zaman, M. 1999 Time-dependent coupled processes in wellbore design and stability: PBORE-3D. In Proc. SPE Annual Technical Conf., Houston, 3–6 October, paper 56759. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.Google Scholar
  2. American Petroleum Institute, 1988 Recommended practice standard procedure for field testing drilling fluids. API Recommended Practice 13B, 12th edition. API, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  3. Anandarajah, A. 2000 Numerical simulation of one-dimensional behaviour of a kaolinite. Géotechnique 50, 509–519.Google Scholar
  4. Appelo, C.A.J. 1977 Chemistry of water expelled from compacting clay layers: a model based on Donnan equilibrium. Chem. Geol. 19, 91–98.Google Scholar
  5. Atkinson, J.H. and Bransby, P.L. 1978 The mechanics of soils. An introduction to critical state soil mechanics. Maidenhead: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  6. Bailey, L., Denis, J.H. and Maitland, G.C. 1991 Drilling Fluids and wellbore stability current performance and future challenges. In Chemicals in the Oil Industry: developments and applications, ed. P.H. Ogden, pp. 53–70. Cambridge: R. Soc. Chem. Special publication No 97.Google Scholar
  7. Bailey, L., Reid, P.I. and Sherwood, J.D. 1994a Mechanisms and solutions for chemical inhibition of shale swelling and failure. In Recent Advances in Oilfield Chemistry, ed. P.H. Ogden, pp. 13–27. Cambridge: R. Soc. Chem. Special publication No 159.Google Scholar
  8. Bailey, L., Denis, J., Goldsmith, G., Hall, P.L. and Sherwood, J.D. 1994b A wellbore simulator for mud-shale interaction studies. J. Petrol. Sci. Engng 11, 195–211.Google Scholar
  9. Bailey, L., Craster, B., Sawdon, C., Brady, M. and Cliffe, S. 1998. New insight into the mechanisms of shale inhibition using water based silicate drilling fluids. In Proc. 1998 IADC/SPE Drilling Conf., Dallas, Texas, March 3–6, paper 39401. Richardson, Texas: Soc. Petrol. Engineers.Google Scholar
  10. Biot, M.A. 1941 General theory of three-dimensional consolidation. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 155–164.MATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Biot, M.A. 1956a Thermoelasticity and irreversible thermodynamics. J. Appl. Phys. 27, 240–253.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. Biot, M.A. 1956b Theory of deformation of a porous viscoelastic anisotropic solid. J. Appl. Phys. 27, 459–467.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  13. Biot, M.A. 1973 Nonlinear and semilinear rheology of porous solids. J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4924–4937.Google Scholar
  14. Bol, G.M. 1986 The effect of various polymers and salts on borehole and cutting stability in water-base shale drilling fluids. In Proc. IADC/SPE Drilling Conf, Dallas, Texas, 10–12 February, paper 14802. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.Google Scholar
  15. Bol, G.M., Wong, S.-W., Davidson, C.J. and Woodland, D.C. 1992 Borehole stability in shales. In Proc. European Petroleum Conf. Cannes, France, 16–18 November, paper 24975. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers..Google Scholar
  16. Bolt, G.H. 1961a The pressure filtrate of colloidal suspensions. I Theoretical considerations. Kolloid Z., 175, 33–39.Google Scholar
  17. Bolt, G.H. 1961b The pressure filtrate of colloidal suspensions. II Experimental data on homoionic clays. Kolloid Z., 175, 144–150.Google Scholar
  18. Brady, M.E., Craster, B., Getliff, J.M. and Reid, P.I. 1998 Highly inhibitive, low-salinity glycol water-base drilling fluid for shale drilling in environmentally sensitive locations. In Proc. SPE Int. Conf. Health, Safety Environment, Caracas, 7–10 June, paper 46618. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.Google Scholar
  19. Brindley, G.W. and Brown, G. 1984 Crystal structures of clay minerals and their identification. London: Mineral. Soc.Google Scholar
  20. Carrier, W.D. and Beckman, J.F. 1984 Correlations between index tests and the properties of remoulded clays. Géotechnique 34, 211–228.Google Scholar
  21. Chan, D.Y.C., Pashley, R.M. and Quirk, J.P. 1984 Surface potentials derived from co-ion exclusion measurements on homoionic montmorillonite and illite. Clays Clay Miner. 32, 131–138.Google Scholar
  22. Chang, F-R.C., Skipper, N.T. and Sposito, G. 1998 Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations of electrical double layer structure in Potassium-Montmorillonite hydrates. Langmuir 14, 1201–1207.Google Scholar
  23. Chenevert, M.E. 1970 Shale alteration by water adsorption. J. Pet. Tech. 22, 1141–1148.Google Scholar
  24. Chenevert, M.E. and Osisanya, S.O. 1992 Shale swelling at elevated temperature and pressure. In Rock Mechanics, Proc. 33rd U.S. Symposium, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 3–5 June, ed. J.R. Tiller and W.R. Wawersik, pp. 869–878. Rotterdam: Balkema.Google Scholar
  25. Clennell, M.B., Dewhurst, D.N., Brown, K.M. and Westbrook, G.K. 1999. Permeability anisotropy of consolidated clays. In Muds and Mudstones: physical and fluid flow properties, ed. A.C. Aplin, A.J. Fleet and J.H.S. Macquaker, pp. 79–96. London: Geological Society, Special publications 158.Google Scholar
  26. Cook, J.M., Goldsmith, G, Geehan, T., Audibert, A., Bieber, M.-T. and Lecourtier, J. 1993 Mud/shale interaction: model wellbore studies using X-ray tomography. In Proc. SPE/IADC Drilling Conf., Amsterdam, February 22–25, paper 25729. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.Google Scholar
  27. Cui, L., Cheng, A.H.-D. and Abousleiman, Y. 1997 Poroelastic solution for an inclined borehole. ASME J. Appl. Mech. 64, 32–38.MATHGoogle Scholar
  28. de Kretser, R.G., Boger, D.V. and Scales, P.J. 2003 Compressive rheology: an overview. In Rheology Reviews 2003, ed. D.M. Binding and K. Walters, pp. 125–165. Aberystwyth: British Society of Rheology.Google Scholar
  29. Den Haan E.J., 1992 The formulation of virgin compression of soils. Géotechnique, 42, 465–483.Google Scholar
  30. Denis, J.H. 1991 Compaction and swelling of Ca-smectite in water and in CaC12 solutions: water activity measurements and matrix resistance to compaction. Clays Clay Miner. 39, 35–42.Google Scholar
  31. Denis, J.H., Keall, M.J., Hall, P.L. and Meeten, G.H. 1991 Influence of potassium concentration on the swelling and compaction of mixed (Na, K) ion-exchanged montmorillonite. Clay Minerals 26, 255–268.Google Scholar
  32. Detournay, E. and Cheng, A.H.-D. 1988 Poroelastic response of a borehole in a non-hydrostatic stress field. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. é14 Geomech. Abstr. 25, 171–182.Google Scholar
  33. Dewhurst, D.N., Yang, Y. and Aplin, A.C. 1999 Permeability and fluid flow in natural mudstones. In Muds and Mudstones: physical and fluid flow properties, ed. A.C. Aplin, A.J. Fleet and J.H.S. Macquaker, pp. 23–43. London: Geological Society, Special publications 158.Google Scholar
  34. Dormieux, L., Barboux, P., Coussy, O. and Dangla, P. 1995 A macroscopic model of the swelling phenomenon of a saturated clay. Eur. J. Mech. A/Solids 14, 981–1004.MATHGoogle Scholar
  35. Durand, C., Forsans, T., Ruffet, C., Onaisi, A. and Audibert, A. 1995a Influence of clays on borehole stability: a literature survey. Part one: occurrence of drilling problems. Physico-chemical description of clays and their interaction with fluids. Rev. Inst. Français Pétrole 50, 187–218.Google Scholar
  36. Durand, C., Forsans, T., Ruffet, C., Onaisi, A. and Audibert, A. 1995b Influence of clays on borehole stability: a literature survey. Part two: mechanical description and modelling of clays and shales. Drilling practice versus laboratory simulations. Rev. Inst. Français Pétrole 50, 353–370.Google Scholar
  37. Eitzman, D.M., Melkote, R.R. and Cussler, E.L. 1996 Barrier membranes with tipped impermeable flakes. AIChE J. 42, 2–9.Google Scholar
  38. Elrick, D.E., Smiles, D.E. and Wooding, R.A. 1972 Double membrane diaphragm technique for absolute measurements of diffusion coefficients. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 68, 591–599.Google Scholar
  39. Engelhardt, W. v. and Gaida, K.H. 1963 Concentration changes of pore solutions during the compaction of clay sediments. J. Sedimentary Petrol. 33, 919–930.Google Scholar
  40. Everett, D.H. 1959 An introduction to the study of Chemical Thermodynamics. London: Longmans.Google Scholar
  41. Fletcher, P. and Sposito, G. 1989 The chemical modelling of clay/electrolyte interactions for Montmorillonite. Clay Minerals 24, 375–391.Google Scholar
  42. Ghassemi, A. and Diek, A. 2002 Porothermoelasticity for swelling shales. J. Petrol. Sci. Engng 34, 123–135.Google Scholar
  43. Gross, R.J. and Osterle, J.F. 1968 Membrane transport characteristics of ultrafine capillaries. J. Chem. Phys. 49, 228–234.Google Scholar
  44. Guggenheim, E.A. 1967 Thermodynamics 5th edition. Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar
  45. Hale, A.H., Mody, F.K. and Salisbury, D.P. 1992 Experimental investigation of the influence of chemical potential on wellbore stability. In Proc. SPE/IADC Drilling Conf., New Orleans, Louisiana, Feb 18–21, paper 23885. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.Google Scholar
  46. Heidug, W.K. and Wong, S.W. 1996 Hydration swelling of water-absorbing rocks: a constitutive model. Int. J. Num. Anal. Method Ceomech. 20, 403–430.MATHGoogle Scholar
  47. Helfferich F.G. and Klein, G. 1970 Multicomponent Chromatography. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  48. Hunter, R.J. 1981 Zeta potential in colloid science. London: Academic.Google Scholar
  49. Huyghe, J.M. and Janssen, J.J. 1997 Quadriphasic mechanics of swelling incompressible porous media. Int. J. Eng. Sci. 35, 793–802.MATHGoogle Scholar
  50. Israelachvili, J. 1992 Intermolecular and surface forces. 2nd edn, London: Academic.Google Scholar
  51. Jacazio, G., Probstein, R.F., Sonin, A.A. and Yung, D. 1972 Electrokinetic salt rejection in hyperfiltration through porous materials. Theory and experiment. J. Phys. Chem. 76, 4015–4023.Google Scholar
  52. Katchalsky A. and Curran, P.F. 1965. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics in biophysics. Cambridge Ma.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Kedem, O. and Katchalsky, A. 1963 Permeability of composite membranes. Part 1. electric current, volume flow and flow of solute through membranes. Trans. Faraday Soc. 59, 1918–1930.Google Scholar
  54. Kemper, W.D. and Rollins, J.B. 1966 Osmotic efficiency coefficients across compacted clays. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 30, 529–534.Google Scholar
  55. Kemper, W.D. and Quirk, J.P. 1972 Ion mobilities and electric charge of external clay surfaces inferred from potential differences and osmotic flow. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 36, 426–433.Google Scholar
  56. Keren, R. and Shainberg, I. 1979 Water vapour isotherms and heat of immersion of Na/Ca-montmorillonite systems II: mixed systems. Clays Clay Miner. 27, 145–151.Google Scholar
  57. Kharaka, Y.K. and Berry, F.A.F. 1973 Simultaneous flow of water and solutes through geological membranes — I. Experimental investigation. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 37, 2577–2603.Google Scholar
  58. Leote de Carvalho, R.J.F., Trizac, E. and Hansen, J.-P. 2000 Nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory of a Wigner-Seitz model for swollen clays. Phys. Rev. E 61, 1634–1647.Google Scholar
  59. Lide, D.R. (ed.) 1996 CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 77th edn. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  60. Lomba, R.F.T., Chenevert, M.E. and Sharma, M.M. 2000 The ion-selective membrane behaviour of native shales. J. Petrol. Sci. Engng 25, 9–23.Google Scholar
  61. Lubetkin, S.D., Middleton, S.R and Ottewill, R.H. 1984 Some properties of clay-water dispersions. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 311, 353–368.Google Scholar
  62. McKelvey, J.G. and Milne, I.H. 1962 The flow of salt solutions through compacted clay. Clays Clay Miner. 9, 248–259.Google Scholar
  63. Malusis, M.A., Shackelford, C.D. and Olsen, H.W. 2001 A laboratory apparatus to measure chemico-osmotic efficiency coefficients for clay soils. Geotechnical Testing J. ASTM 24, 229–242.Google Scholar
  64. Malusis, M.A. and Shackelford, C.D. 2002 Chemico-osmotic efficiency of a geosynthetic clay liner. J. Geotech. Geoenvironmental Eng. 128, 97–106.Google Scholar
  65. Meeten, G.H. 1994 Shear and compressive yield in the filtration of a bentonite suspension. Colloids and Surfaces 82, 77–83.Google Scholar
  66. Meeten, G.H. and Sherwood, J.D. 1994 The hydraulic permeability of bentonite suspensions with granular inclusions. Chem. Engng Sci. 49, 3249–3256.Google Scholar
  67. Mesri, G. and Olson, R.E. 1971 Consolidation characteristics of montmorillonite. Géotechnique 21, 341–352.Google Scholar
  68. Mody, F.K. and Hale, A.H. 1993 A borehole model to couple the mechanics and chemistry of drilling fluid shale interaction. In Proc. SPE/IADC Drilling Conf., Amsterdam, February 22–25, paper 25728. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.Google Scholar
  69. Mody, F.K., Tare, U.A., Tan, C.P., Drummond, C.J. and Wu, B. 2002 Development of novel membrane efficient water-based drilling fluids through fundamental understanding of osmotic membrane generation in shales. In Proc. SPE Annual Technical Conf., San Antonio, October, paper 77447. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.Google Scholar
  70. Mokady, R.S. and Low, P.F. 1968 Simultaneous transport of water and salt through clays: I. Transport mechanisms. Soil Sci. 105, 112–131.Google Scholar
  71. Molenaar, M.M. and Huyghe, J.M. 2002 An electro-chemo-mechanical mixture formulation of shale. In Chemo-Mechanical coupling in clays; from nano-scale to engineering applications, ed. C. Di Maio, T. Hueckel and B. Loret, pp. 247–260. Lisse: Balkema.Google Scholar
  72. Moyne, C. and Murad, M.A. 2002 Micromechanical computational modeling of hydration swelling of montmorillonite. In Chemo-Mechanical coupling in clays; from nano-scale to engineering applications, ed. C. Di Maio, T. Hueckel and B. Loret, pp. 121–133. Lisse: Balkema.Google Scholar
  73. Neuzil, C.E. 2000 Osmotic generation of `anomalous’ fluid pressures in geological environments. Nature 403, 182–184.Google Scholar
  74. Norrish, K. and Rausell-Colom, J.A. 1963 Low-angle X-ray diffraction studies of the swelling of montmorillonite and vermiculite. Clays Clay Miner. 10, 123–149.Google Scholar
  75. Onaisi A., Audibert, A., Bieber, M.T., Bailey, L., Denis, J. and Hammond, P.S. 1993 X-ray tomography vizualization and mechanical modelling of swelling shale. J. Petrol. Sci. Engng. 9, 313–339.Google Scholar
  76. Overbeek, J.Th.G. 1956 The Donnan Equilibrium. Prog. Biophys. 6, 57–84.Google Scholar
  77. Philip, J.R. and Smiles, D.E. 1982 Macroscopic analysis of the behaviour of colloidal suspensions. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 17, 83–103.Google Scholar
  78. Posner, A.M. and Quirk, J.P. 1964 The adsorption of water from concentrated electrolyte solutions by montmorillonite and illite. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 278, 35–56.Google Scholar
  79. Powell, D.H., Fischer, H.E. and Skipper, N.T. 1998 The structure of interlayer water in Li-Montmorillonite studied by neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution. J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 10899–10905.Google Scholar
  80. Rice, J.R. and Cleary, M.P. 1976 Some basic stress diffusion solutions for fluid-saturated elastic porous media with compressible constituents. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 227–241.Google Scholar
  81. Rieke, H.H. and Chilingarian, G.V. 1974 Compaction of argillaceous sediments Ch. 5. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  82. Robinson, R.A. and Stokes, R.H. 1959 Electrolyte Solutions. London: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  83. Rolfe, P.F. and Aylmore, L.A.G. 1981 Water and salt flow through compacted clays. II Electrokinetics and salt sieving. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 79, 301–307.Google Scholar
  84. Rowan, D.G. and Hansen, J.-P. 2002 Salt-induced ordering in lamellar colloids. Langmuir 18, 2063–2068.Google Scholar
  85. Russel, W.B., Saville, D.A. and Schowalter, W.R. 1989 Colloidal Dispersions. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Salisbury, D.P., Ramos, G.G. and Wilton, B.S. 1991 Wellbore instability of shales using a downhole simulation test cell. In Rock Mechanics as a multidisciplinary science, Proc. 32rd U.S. Symposium, Norman Oklahoma, 10–12 July, ed. J.-C. Roegiers, pp. 1015–1024. Rotterdam: Balkema.Google Scholar
  87. Savage, W.Z. and Braddock, W.A. 1991 A model for hydrostatic consolidation of Pierre shale. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr. 28, 345–354.Google Scholar
  88. Schlemmer, R., Friedheim, J.E., Growcock, F.B., Bloys, J.B., Headley, J.A. and Polnaszek, S.C. 2002 Membrane efficiency in shale an empirical evaluation of drilling fluid chemistries and implications for fluid design. In Proc. IADC/SPE Drilling Conf., Dallas, February 26–28, paper 74557. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.Google Scholar
  89. Schultz, L.G. 1978 Mixed-layer clay in the Pierre shale and equivalent rocks, Northern Great Plains Region. US Geological survey professional paper 1064-A. Washington: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  90. Shainberg, I., Bresler, E. and Klausner, Y. 1971 Studies on Na/Ca montmorillonite systems 1. The swelling pressure. Soil Sci. 111, 214–219.Google Scholar
  91. Shainberg, I. and Kemper, W.D. 1972 Transport numbers and mobilities of ions in bentonite membranes. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 36, 577–582.Google Scholar
  92. Sherwood, J.D. 1992 Ionic motion in a compacting clay filtercake. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 437, 607–627.Google Scholar
  93. Sherwood, J.D. 1993 Biot poroelasticity of a chemically active shale. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 440, 365–377.MATHGoogle Scholar
  94. Sherwood, J.D. 1994a A model for the flow of water and ions into swelling shale. Langmuir 10, 2480–2486.Google Scholar
  95. Sherwood, J.D. 1994b A model for hindered transport of solute in poroelastic shale. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 445, 679–692.MATHGoogle Scholar
  96. Sherwood, J.D. 1997 The initial and final stages of compressible filtercake compaction. AIChE J. 43, 1488–1493.Google Scholar
  97. Sherwood, J.D. and Bailey, L. 1994 Swelling of shale around a cylindrical wellbore. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 444, 161–184.Google Scholar
  98. Sherwood, J.D. and Craster, B. 2000 Transport of water and ions through a clay membrane. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 230, 349–358.Google Scholar
  99. Sherwood, J.D. and Meeten, G.H. 1997 The filtration properties of compressible mud filtercakes. J. Petrol. Sci. Engng 18, 73–81.Google Scholar
  100. Sherwood, J.D. and Stone, H.A. 1995 Electrophoresis of a thin charged disc. Phys. Fluids 7, 697–705.MATHGoogle Scholar
  101. Sherwood, J.D. and Van Damme, H. 1994 Non-linear compaction of an assembly of highly deformable plate-like particles. Phys. Rev. E 50, 3834–3840.Google Scholar
  102. Sherwood, J.D., Meeten, G.H., Farrow, C.A. and Alderman, N.J. 1991 The concentration profile within non-uniform mudcakes. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 87, 611–618.Google Scholar
  103. Sherwood, J.D., Craster, B., Bailey, L. and Baigazin, K. 2002 Osmotic transport through a clay membrane. In Chemo-Mechanical coupling in clays; from nano-scale to engineering applications, ed. C. Di Maio, T. Hueckel and B. Loret, pp. 317–323. Lisse: Balkema.Google Scholar
  104. Sherwood, J.D., Risso, F., Collé-Paillot, F., Edwards-Lévy, F. and Lévy, M.-C. 2003 Transport rates through a capsule membrane to attain Donnan equilibrium. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 263, 202–212.Google Scholar
  105. Simpson, J.P. and Dearing, H.L. 2000 Diffusion Osmosis An unrecognised cause of shale instability. In Proc. SPE/IADC Drilling Conf., New Orleans, February 23–25, paper 59190. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.Google Scholar
  106. Simpson, J.P., Dearing, H.L. and Salisbury, C.K. 1989 Downhole simulation cell shows unexpected effects of shale hydration on borehole wall. SPE Drilling Engng 4, 24–30.Google Scholar
  107. Slade, P.G., Quirk, J.P. and Norrish, K. 1991 Crystalline swelling of smectite samples in concentrated NaCl solutions in relation to layer charge. Clays Clay Miner. 39, 234–238.Google Scholar
  108. Smiles, D.E. and Harvey, E.G. 1973 Measurement of moisture diffusivity of wet swelling systems. Soil Sci. 116, 391–399.Google Scholar
  109. Smith, J.E. 1977 Thermodynamics of salinity changes accompanying compaction of shaly rocks. Paper SPE 6329, Soc. Petrol. Engin. J., October 377–386.Google Scholar
  110. Staverman, A.J. 1952 Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of membrane processes. Trans. Faraday Soc. 48, 176–185.Google Scholar
  111. Staverman, A.J. and Smit, J.A.M. 1975 Thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Membrane theory: osmosis, electrokinetics, membrane potentials. In Physical Chemistry: Enriching topics from colloid and surface science, ed. H. van Olphen and K.J. Mysels, Ch. 22, pp. 343–384. La Jolla, California: TheorexGoogle Scholar
  112. Stehfest, H. 1970 Numerical inversion of Laplace transforms. CACM 13, 47–49 and 624.Google Scholar
  113. Swolfs, H.S. and Nichols, T.C. Jr 1987 Anisotropic characterization of Pierre shale preliminary results. U.S. Geological Survey Open file report 87–417.Google Scholar
  114. van Olphen, H. 1977 An introduction to clay colloid chemistry. 2nd edn. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  115. van Olphen, H. and Fripiat, J.J. (eds.) 1979 Data handbook for clay materials and other non-metallic minerals. Oxford: Pergamon Press. See also geoscjy/SourceClay/
  116. van Oort, E., Hale, A.H., Mody, F.K. and Roy, S. 1996 Transport in shales and the design of improved water-based shale drilling fluids. SPE Drilling Completion 11, 137–146.Google Scholar
  117. Wyllie, M.R.J. 1951 An investigation of the electrokinetic component of the self potential curve. Trans. AIME 192, 1–18.Google Scholar
  118. Yew, C.H., Chenevert, M.E., Wang, C.L. and Osisanya, S.O. 1990 Wellbore stress distribution produced by moisture adsorption. SPE Drilling Engng. 5, 311–316.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. D. Sherwood
    • 1
  1. 1.Schlumberger Cambridge ResearchCambridgeEngland

Personalised recommendations