Cardiovascular and Metabolic Effort in a World Class Sailor at Different Wind Velocities

  • Tanja Princi
  • Carlo Capelli
  • Giorgio Delbello
  • Larissa Nevierov
Part of the CISM Courses and Lectures book series (CISM, volume 473)


The physiological demands of sailing are highly specific, varying with wind conditions, type of craft, and role in the crew. Upwind and downwind sailing involve different types of muscles with predominant isometric or isotonic contraction. The purpose of the present study was to determine the cardiovascular and metabolic effort in one world class athlete (Europe Olympic Class) during training and regattas at different wind velocities. Heart rate (HR) was recorded at rest and during sailing, by using Polar Vantage HRmonitor. VO2 was evaluated by using Cosmed K4 (in water), and Cosmed Quark b2 (in laboratory). The results indicate an increase of HR and VO2 consumption as a function of the wind velocity. HR increased in upwind sailing more than in downwind sailing at wind velocities ranging from 2 m/s to 7 m/s, and in downwind sailing it increased more than in upwind sailing at wind velocities ranging from 8 m/s to 12 m/s. HR and VO2 consumption were larger during regattas than during training at all the evaluated wind velocities. The mental stress could be considered as a relevant factor during regattas, compared with training at the same wind velocities. At high wind velocities (from 8 m/s to 12 m/s) the specific and highly demanding craft position in downwind sailing, associated to the mental stress, could be interpreted as a cause for the higher HR values compared with the values registered during upwind sailing at the same wind velocities.


Dinghy sailing Europe Olympic Class Training regatta Wind velocity 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tanja Princi
    • 1
  • Carlo Capelli
    • 2
  • Giorgio Delbello
    • 3
  • Larissa Nevierov
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and PathologyUniversity of TriesteTriesteItaly
  2. 2.Post-Graduate School of Sports MedicineUniversity of UdineUdineItaly
  3. 3.Post-Graduate School of Sports MedicineUniversity of TriesteTriesteItaly

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