Advertisement

Interference and Proximity Effects

  • R. L. Wardlaw
Part of the International Centre for Mechanical Sciences book series (CISM, volume 335)

Abstract

Severe aeroelastic problems arise in Wind Engineering as a result of close spacing between parallel, slender structures such as stacks, towers and overhead electric power cables. Oscillation amplitude of the structure can be considerably greater than for single isolated structures. The motion can be caused by vortex shedding, buffeting or aerodynamic instabilities. The effect of proximity on the flow around the structures and on their dynamic response is described. Analytical considerations are discussed and case histories from wind tunnel and full scale observations are presented.

Keywords

Wind Tunnel Circular Cylinder Proximity Effect Tune Mass Damper Wind Engineer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Zdravkovich, M.M.: Review of flow interference between two circular cylinders in various arrangements, Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., December 1977, 618–633.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zdravkovich, M.M. and D.L. Pridden: Interference between two circular cylinders; series of unexpected discontinuities, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 2 (1977), 255–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zdravkovich, M.M.: Classification of flow-induced oscillations of two parallel circular cylinders in various arrangements, Proc. ASME Symp. on Flow-Induced Vibrations, 2 (1984), 1–18.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zdravkovich, M.M.: Flow induced oscillations of two interfering cylinders, J. Sound and Vibration, 101 (4) (1985), 511–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zdravkovich, M.M.: The effects of interference between circular cylinders in cross flow, J. Fluids and Structures, 1 (1987), 239–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen, S.S.: Instability mechanisms and stability criteria of a group of cylinders subjected to cross flow, Parts I and II, J. Vibration, Acoustics, Stress and Reliability in Design, 105 (1983), 51–58, 253–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen, S.S.: A general theory for dynamic instability of tube arrays in cross flow, J. Fluids and Structures, 1 (1987), 35–53.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Price, S.J. and N.R. Valerio: A non-linear investigation of single degree-of-freedom instability in cylinder arrays subject to cross-flow, J. Sound and Vibration, 137 (3) (1990), 419–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weaver, D.S. and J.A. Fitzpatrick: A review of cross-flow induced vibrations in heat exchanger tube arrays, J. Fluids and Structures, 2 (1988), 73–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Paidoussis, M.P. et al (Ed): Proc. ASME Symposium on Flow-induced Vibration, Vol. 5: Flow-induced Vibration in Heat Transfer Equipment, (1988).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wardlaw, R.L. and K.R. Cooper: A wind tunnel investigation of the steady aerodynamic forces on smooth and stranded twin bundled power conductors for the Aluminum Company of America, National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-117, August 1973.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Price, S.J., and M.P. Paidoussis: The aerodynamic forces acting on groups of two and three circular cylinders when subject to a cross-flow, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 17 (1984), 329–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cooper, K.R.: Wind tunnel measurements of the steady aerodynamic forces on a smooth circular cylinder immersed in the wake of an identical cylinder, National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-119, September 1974.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bokaian, A. and F. Geoola: Wake-induced galloping of two interfering circular cylinders, J. Fluid Mech., 146 (1984), 383–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bokaian, A. and F. Geoola: Proximity-induced galloping of two interfering circular cylinders, J. Fluid Mech., 146 (1984), 417–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zdravkovich, M.M. and E.B. Medeiros: Effect of damping on interference-induced oscillations of two identical circular cylinders, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 38 (1991), 197–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gerhardt, H.J. and C. Kramer: Interference effects for groups of stacks, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 8 (1981), 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sayers, A.T.: Flow interference between three equispaced cylinders when subjected to a cross flow, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 26 (1987), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sayers, A.T.: Flow interference between four equispaced cylinders when subjected to a cross flow, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 31 (1988), 9–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sayers, A.T.: Vortex shedding from groups of three and four equispaced cylinders situated in a cross flow, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 34 (1990), 213–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ahmed, A. and C. Ostowari: Longitudinal and transversely spaced cylinders in cross flow, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 36 (1990), 1095–1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ruscheweyh, H.P.: Aeroelastic interference between slender structures, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 14 (1983), 129–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Knisely, C.W. and M. Kawagoe: Force-displacement measurements on closely spaced tandem cylinders, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 33 (1990), 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Matsumoto, M., N. Shiraishi and H. Shirato: Aerodynamic instabilities of twin circular cylinders, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 33 (1990), 91–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Simiu, E. and R.H. Scanlan: Wind Effects on Structures, Second edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York 1986.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shiraishi, N., M. Matsumoto and H. Shirato: On aerodynamics instabilities of tandem structures, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 23 (1986), 437–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Reinhold, T.A., H.W. Tieleman and F.J. Maher: Interaction of square prisms in two flow fields, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 2 (1977), 223–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cooper, K.R.: The buffeting of a tall building in a turbulent wake, Canadian Congress of Applied Mechanics, (1973), 715–716, École Polytechnique de Montréal.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wardlaw, R.L., and K.R. Cooper: Mechanisms and alleviation of wind-induced structural vibrations, 2nd Symp. Applications of Solid Mechanics, (1974), 369–399, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Saunders, J.W. and W.H. Melbourne: Buffeting effects of upstream structures, Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Wind Engineering, Pergamon Press, 1 (1979), 593–606.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ruscheweyh, H.: Dynamic response of high rise buildings under wind action with interference effects from surrounding buildings of similar size, Proc. 5th hit. Conf. on Wind Engineering, Pergamon Press, 2 (1979), 725–734.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sykes, D.M.: Interference effects on the response of a tall building model, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 11 (1983), 365–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Blessman, J. and J.D. Riera: Wind excitation of neighbouring tall buildings, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 18 (1983), 91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Blessman, J.: Buffeting effects on neighbouring tall buildings, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 18 (1983), 105–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bailey, P.A. and K.C.S. Kwok: Interference excitation of twin tall buildings, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 21 (1985), 323–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Taniike, Y. and H. Inaoka: Aeroelastic behaviour of tall buildings in wakes, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 28 (1988), 317–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dockstader, E.A., W.F. Swiger and I. Emory: Resonant vibrations of steel stacks, Trans. ASCE, 121 (1956).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vickery, B.J. and R.D. Watkins: Flow-induced vibrations of cylindrical structures, Proc. 1st Australian Conference on Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics, (1962), 213–241.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vickery, B.J.: Across-wind buffeting in a group of four in-line model chimneys, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 8 (1981), 177–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cooper, K.R. and R.L. Wardlaw: Wind tunnel investigation of large amplitude vibrations of slender towers at the Port Hawkesbury heavy water plant, National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-35, July 1969.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cooper, K.R. and R.L. Wardlaw, Aeroelastic instabilities in wakes, Proc. Int. Conf. on Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Tokyo, 1971, 647–655.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cooper, K.R., H.P.A.H. Irwin and R.L. Wardlaw: Aerodynamic investigations of in-line slender towers for heavy water plants, Proc. ASCE Specialty Conference, Methods of Structural Analysis, Madison, Wisconsin, (1976), 286–307.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Irwin, H.P.A.H., K.R. Cooper and R.L. Wardlaw: A wind tunnel investigation of the aeroelastic behaviour of the La Prade heavy water plant, National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-177, August 1975.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Irwin, H.P.A.H., Reduction of aeroelastic vibration of the La Prade heavy water plant during construction, National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-184, December 1975.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cooper, K.R.: A wind tunnel study of the aeroelastic response of a truss supported elevator shaft, National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-190, December 1975.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tanida, Y., A. Okajima and Y. Watanabe: Stability of a circular cylinder oscillating in uniform flow in a wake, J. Fluid Mechanics, G1 (1973), 769.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ruscheweyh, H.: Winderregte schwingungen zweier engstehender kamine, Proc. 3rd Colloquium on Industrial Aerodynamics, 2 (1978), 175–184.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hanenkamp, W., and W. Hammer: Wind tunnel tests on models of steel stacks arranged in groups, Proc. 3rd Colloquium on Industrial Aerodynamics, 2 (1978), 163–174.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gerhardt, H.J., and C. Kramer: Interference effects of groups of stacks, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 8 (1981), 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wardlaw, R.L.: A wind tunnel investigation of devices to suppress the aerodynamic instability of the towers of a Wullenweber high band antenna installation, National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-30, May 1969.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wardlaw, R.L.: Approaches to the suppression of wind-induced vibrations of structures, IAHR/IUTAM Symp. Practical Experiences with Flow-induced Vibrations, Springer-Verlag 1980.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Farmer, M.G. and W.H. Reed: Study of wind excited oscillations of high band Wullenweber antennae, NASA, Langley Research Centre, LWP-324, 1966.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Reed, W.H.: Hanging-chain impact dampers: a simple method for damping tall flexible structures, Proc. hit. Research Seminar, Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Univ. of Toronto Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Henderson, J.P.: Energy dissipation in a vibration damper using a viscoelastic suspension, Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, AF Materials Laboratory, Ohio, USA, AFML-TR 65–403, Sept. 1965.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ruscheweyh, H.: Straked in-line steel stacks with low mass damping parameter, J. Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 8 (1981), 203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Simpson, A.: Stability of subconductors of smooth circular cross-section, Proc. IEEE, 117 (1970), 741–750.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Simpson, A.: On the flutter of a smooth circular cylinder in a wake, Aeronautical Quarterly, XXII (1971), 25–41.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Simpson, A.: Wake induced flutter of circular cylinders: mechanical aspects, Aeronautical Quarterly, XXIII (1971), 101–118.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Simpson, A. and J.W. Flower: An improved mathematical model for the aerodynamic forces on tandem cylinders in motion with aeroelastic applications, J. Sound and Vibration, 51 (2) (1977), 183–217.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rawlins, C.B.: Fundamental concepts in the analysis of wake-induced oscillation of bundled power conductors, IEEE Conference Paper F76 079–4, (1976).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Price, S.J.: Wake induced flutter of power transmission conductors, J. Sound and Vibration 38 (1) (1975), 125–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Price, S.J. and P. Piperni: An investigation of the effect of mechanical damping to alleviate wake-induced flutter of overhead power conductors, J. Fluids and Structures, 2 (1988), 52–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Curami, A., G. Diana, R. Riva, G. DiGiacomo and P. Nicolini: Wake-induced oscillations in bundle systems, Part 1–Finite element method analytical and experimental results, IEEE Conference Paper A77 218–1, (1977).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tsui, Y.T. and C.C.Tsui: Two dimensional analysis of two coupled conductors with one in the wake of the other, J. Sound and Vibration, 69 (3) (1980), 361–394.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cooper, K.R.: Wind tunnel and theoretical investigations into the aerodynamic stability of smooth and stranded twin bundled power conductors, National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-115, January 1973.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wardlaw, R.L., K.R. Cooper, R.G. Ko and J.A. Watts: Wind tunnel and analytical investigations into the aeroelastic behaviour of bundled conductors, IEEE Trans. PAS-94, 2 (1975), 642–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dayoub, A.: Aerodynamic forces on a cylindrical structure in a wake of another cylindrical structure, Applied Scientific Research, 39 (1982), 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ko, R.G.: A wind tunnel investigation into the aerodynamic stability of bundled conductors for Hydro-Québec, Part III: static force measurements in the 6 ft x 9 ft wind tunnel, National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-110, March 1973.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ko, R.G.: Theoretical investigation for Hydro-Québec into the aerodynamic stability of bundled power line conductors, Part I: two-dimensional stability analysis of a conductor in the wake of a fixed conductor, National Research Council of Canada, NAE LTR-LA-122, March 1973.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. L. Wardlaw
    • 1
  1. 1.National Research CouncilOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations