Advertisement

Fundamentals of Wind Engineering

  • H. Sockel
Part of the International Centre for Mechanical Sciences book series (CISM, volume 335)

Abstract

The atmospheric wind is an unsteady, viscous flow field with irregular changes called a turbulent flow. In chapter 2 there are discussed the basic equations of fluid dynamics for such a flow. For characterizing a turbulent flow there are used time averaged quantities of velocity and pressure and of products of the fluctuations of these quantities and power spectra.s, what is described in chapter 3 generally and in the following chapter especially for the atmospheric boundary layer. Since the probability of the occurrence of a wind velocity in a given interval of time is very important for the safety of a structure, there is one section dealing with wind statistics. Chapters 5 and 6 inform about the flow around rigid bluff bodies, pressure distributions and forces caused by the flow. The following chapter deals with the fundamentals for single-degree and multi-degree of freedom linear dynamic systems. Since the interaction of a wind field and a structure is a very complex problem, model experiments are necessary too. The experimental technique in an artificial boundary layer, in an atmospheric wind tunnel, is discussed in the last chapter, including similarity rules and measurement techniques.

Keywords

Boundary Layer Wind Speed Wind Tunnel Circular Cylinder Turbulence Intensity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature

  1. [1]
    Hinze, J.O.: Turbulence, 2nd ed., MacGraw-Hill Book Comp. 1975.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Plate, E.J.: Aerodynamic Characteristics of Atmospheric Boundary Layers, Atomic Energy Commission Critical Review Series, 1971.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Panofsky, H.A.: The atmospheric boundary layer below 150 meters, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 6, (1974) 147–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Lesieur, M.: Turbulence in Fluids, Martinus Nijhoff Publ, 1987.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Simiu, E., Scanlan, R.H.: Wind effects on Structures, 2nd ed., John Wiley and Sons, 1986.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Davenport, A.G.: The dependence of wind load upon meteorological parameters, Proc. Int. Research Seminar on Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Ottawa 1967. University of Toronto Press, 1968, 19–82.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Businger, J.A., Wyngaard, J.C., Bradley, E.F.: Flux-profile relationship in the atmospheric surface layer, J.Alinos Sei, 28, (1971), 181–189.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Davenport, A.G.: The relationship of wind structure to wind loading, Proc. Symp. on Wind Effects on Buildings ans Structures, Teddington 1963, 53–102.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Counihan, J.: Adiabatic atmospheric boundary layers: a review and analysis of data from the period 1880–1972, Atmospheric Environment 9 (1975), 871–905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Duchene-Marullez, P.: Effect of high roughness on the characteristics of turbulence in the case of strong winds, Proc 5th Int. Conf. on Wind Engineering, Fort Collins 1979, Pergamon Press, 1980, 179–193.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Davenport, A.G.: The relationship of wind structure to wind loading, Proc Symp. Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Teddington, 1963.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Kaimal, J.C. et al.: Spectral characteristics of surface layer turbulence, Quart. J. R. Met. Soc. (1972), 98, 563–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Pasquill, F.: Wind structure in the atmospheric boundary, Phil.Trans Roy Soc. Lond A 269 (1971), 439–456.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Davenport, A.G.: The spectrum of horizontal gustiness near ground in high winds, Quart. J.R.Met.Soc. 87, (1961), 194–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Shiotani, M., Iwatani, Y.: Gust structures over flat terrains and their modification by a barrier, Proc. of the 5th Int. Conf. on Wind Eng., Fort Collins, 1979, Vol 1, 203–214.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Barnard, R.H.: Errors due to the oversimplification of the relationship between wind and resultant load spectra, Coll “Construire avec le vent”, Nantes, 1981, paper VI-3, 5p.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Panofsky, H.A.: Summary paper for session 1, Wind structure, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Wind effects on Buildings and Structures, Heathrow, 1975, 3–6.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Dalgliesh, W.A., Wright, W., Schriever, W.R.: Wind pressure measurements on a full-scale high rise office building, Proc. Int. Res. Sem. Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Ottawa 1967, 167–200.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Panofsky, H.A. et al.: “Two-point velocity statistics over Lake Ontario”, Boundary Layer Met. 7, (1974), 309–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Harris, R.I., Deaves, D.M.: The structure of strong winds, Proc of the CIRIA Conference “Wind Eng. in the Eighties, London 1980, Paper 4.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Wood, D.H.: Internal boundary layer growth following a step change in surface roughness, Boundary Layer Met, 22, (1982), 241–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Cook, N.J.: The designer’s guide to wind loading of building structures, part 1, Butterworth 1985.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Karman, T.: Ueber den Mechanismus des Widerstandes, den ein bewegter Koerper in einer Fluessigkeit erfaehrt. Nachr. d. Koeniglichen Gesellschaft d. Wissenschaften, Goettingen (1911), 509–517, (1912) 547–556.Google Scholar
  24. [24].
    Scruton, C.: Wind effects on structures, Proc.Inst. Mech. E. 185 /1 (1971) 301–317.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Bearman, P.W.: Some effects of turbulence on the flow around bluff bodies, Proc. Symp. on Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Loughborough 1968, Paper 11, 13 p.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    ESDU: Mean forces and moments on rectangular prismas: surface-mounted structures in turbulent shear flow. Data Item 80003. London, ESDU International 1986.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Lanewille, A., Williams, C.D.: The effect of intensity and large scale turbulence on the mean pressure and drag coefficients of 2D rectangular cylinders, Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Wind Eng., Fort Collins 1979, Vol. 1, 397–404.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Hoerner, S.F.: Fluid Dynamic Drag, Bricktown, 1965.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Prandtl, L., Betz, A.: Ergebnisse der Aerodynamischen Versuchsanstalt in Goettingen, IV Lieferung, 1932.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Baines, D.W.: Effects of velocity distribution on wind loads and flow patterns on buildings, Proc. Symp. Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Teddington 1963, 197–226.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    R.uscheweyh, H.: Dynamische Windwirkung an Bauwerken, Bd. 1 Grundlagen, Bauverlag GmbH Wiesbaden und Berlin, 1982.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Novak, M., Tanaka, H.: Pressure correlations on a vibrating cylinder, in: Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures (Ed.: Eaton K.J. ), Heathrow 1975, 227–232.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Foersching, H.W.: Grundlagen der Aeroelastik, Springer 1954.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Aynslay, R.M., Melbourne, W., Vickery, B.J.: Architectural Aerodynamics, Applied Science Publ. 1977.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Panofsky, H.A.: Some comments on wind tunnel modeling by a meteorologist, in: Wind Tunnel Modeling for Civil Eng. Applications (Ed.: Reinhold T.A. ), Cambridge Univ. Press 1982, 236–242.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Wardlaw, R.L.: Prepared critique of papers on aeroelastic modeling, in: Wind Tunnel Modeling for Civil Eng. Applications (Ed.: Reinhold T.A. ), Cambridge Univ. Press 1982, 457–461.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Isyumov, K.: The aeroelastic modeling of tall buildings, in: Wind Tunnel Modeling for Civil Eng. Applications (Ed.: Reinhold T.A. ), Cambridge Univ. Press 1982, 373–407.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Scruton, C.: Aerodynamics of structures, Proc. Int. Res. Seminar Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Ottawa 1967, Vol. 1, 117–161.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Cook, N.J.: Jensen number, a proposal, Journal of Wind Eng. and Ind. Aerodynamics, 22 (1986), 95–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Scanlan, R.H.: Aeroelastic modeling of bridges, in: Wind Tunnel Modeling for Civil Eng. Applications (Ed.: Reinhold T.A. ), Cambridge Univ. Press 1982, 440–456.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    Davenport, A.G.: The use of taut strip models in the prediction of the response of long span bridges to turbulent wind, in: Flow-induced Structural Vibrations (Ed.: Naudascher E.), IUTAM-IAHR Symp. Karlsruhe 1972, Springer Berlin 1974, 373–382.Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    Sockel, H.: Aerodynamik der Bauwerke, Springer 1985.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Standen, N.M.; A spire array for generating thick turbulent shear layers for natural wind simulation in wind tunnels, Lab Techn. Rep. LA94, Ottawa, Nat. Aeronautical Establishment, 1972.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Cook, N.J.: Wind tunnel simulation of the adiabatic atmospheric boundary layer by roughness barrier and mixing-device methods, J. of Industrial Aerodynamics, 3 (1978), 157–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    Counihan, J.: A method of simulating a neutral boundary layer in a wind tunnel, AGARD Conf. Proc. No 48, Paper No 14, The Aerodynamics of Atmospheric shear flow, 13p.Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    Kroenke, I.: Extreme Windlasten an quaderfoermigen Baukoerpern, Diss. TU Wien, 1988.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Sockel, H., Ottitsch, F.: Numerical and theoretical investigation of a pressure measuring system with a restrictor, to appear in Journal of Wind Eng. and Industrial Aerodynamics.Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    Holmes, J.D., Lewis, R.E.: Optimization of dynamic-pressure-measurement systems, I. Single point measurements, J. of Wind Eng. 25, (1987), 249–273.Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    Sockel, H., Kroenke, I.: Investigation of the accuracy of the pneumatic averaging technique, to appear in Journal of Wind Eng. and Industrial Aerodynamics.Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    Stathopoulos, T.: Techniques and modelling criteria for measuring area averaged pressures, in: Wind Tunnel Modeling for Civil Eng. Applications (Ed.: Reinhold T.A. ), Cambridge Univ. Press 1982, 257–274.Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    Kareem, A.: Measurement of total loads using surface pressures, in: Wind Tunnel Modeling for Civil Eng. Applications (Ed.: Reinhold T.A. ), Cambridge Univ. Press 1982, 275–295.Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    Szechenyi, E.: Supercritical Reynolds number simulation for two-dimensional flow over circular cylinders, J. of Fluid Mech., 70 (1975), 529–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    Tschanz, T.: Measurement of total loads using elastic models with high natural frequencies, in: Wind Tunnel Modeling for Civil Eng. Applications (Ed.: Reinhold T.A. ), Cambridge Univ. Press 1982, 296–312.Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    Cook, N.J.: A sensitive 6-component high-frequency-range balance for building aerodynamics, J.Phys. E: Instrum., Vol 16 (1983), 390–393.Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    Cook, N.J.: The designer’s guide to wind loading of building structures, part 2, static structures, Butterworth 1990.Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    Isyumov, N., Poole, M.: Wind induced torque on square and rectangular building shapes, J. of Wind Eng. and Ind. Aerodynamics, 13 (1983), 180–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    Saunders, J.W.: Melbourne, W.H.: Tall rectangular building response to cross wind excitation, in: Proc. of the 4th Int. Conference on Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Heathrow 1975, ( Ed.: Eaton K.J. ), 369–379.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Sockel
    • 1
  1. 1.Technical University ViennaViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations