Control of Laminar-Turbulent Transition for Skin Friction Drag Reduction

  • D. Arnal
Part of the International Centre for Mechanical Sciences book series (CISM, volume 369)


The objective of this paper is to discuss the possibilities of skin friction drag reduction in two- and three-dimensional flows. The discussion is restricted to low speed and transonic problems. The stabilizing or destabilizing effects of pressure gradient, heating/cooling and suction are explained and illustrated by experimental results obtained in wind tunnel or in free flight conditions. Wave cancellation techniques are also presented. An important part of the paper is devoted to the use of the linear stability theory as a practical tool for transition prediction.


Free Stream Velocity Roughness Element Laminar Boundary Layer Critical Reynolds Number Wind Tunnel Experiment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    J.P. Robert. Drag reduction: an industrial challenge. AGARD Report 786, 1992.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Special Course on Skin Friction Drag Reduction. AGARD Report 786, 1992.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    E. Coustols. Control of turbulent flows for skin friction drag reduction. CISM Course on Control of Flow Instabilities and Unsteady Flows, 1995.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    E. Coustols and A.M. Savill. Turbulent skin friction drag reduction by active and passive means. AGARD Report 786, 1992.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    M.V. Morkovin. Critical evaluation of transition from laminar to turbulent shear layers with emphasis on hypersonically travelling bodies. Report AFFDL—TR-68149, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1968.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    G.B. Schubauer and H.K. Skramstad. Laminar boundary layer oscillations and transition on a flat plate. Report 909, NACA, 1948.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    T. Herbert. Secondary instability of boundary layers. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 20: 487–526, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    B. Müller and H. Bippes. Experimental study of instability modes in a three-dimensional boundary layer. AGARD CP No 438, 1988.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    W. Pfenninger. Flow phenomena at the leading edge of swept wings. AGARDograph 97, Part 4, 1965.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    D.I.A. Poll. Some aspects of the flow near a swept attachment line with particular reference to boundary layer transition. Technical Report 7805./K, Cranfield, College of Aeronautics, August 1978.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    P.R. Spalart. Direct numerical study of leading edge contamination. AGARD CP No 438, 1988.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    D. Arnal. Boundary layer transition: prediction, application to drag reduction. In Skin Friction Drag Reduction. AGARD Report No 786, 1992.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    L.M. Mack. Boundary layer linear stability theory. In AGARD Report No 709, 1984.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    L. Lees and C.C. Lin. Investigation of the stability of the laminar boundary layer in a compressible fluid. TN 1115, NACA, 1946.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    D.I.A. Poll. Transition description and prediction in three-dimensional flows. AGARDo Report 709, 1984.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    D. Arnal. Three-dimensional boundary layers: laminar-turbulent transition. In Computation of Three-Dimensional Boundary Layers Including Separation. AGARD Report No 741, 1986.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    W.S. Saric and H.L. Reed. Three-dimensional stability of boundary layers. Perspectives in Turbulence Studies, Springer-Verlag, 1987.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    T. Herbert. Parabolized Stability Equations. In Progress in Transition Modelling. AGARD—FDP—VKI Special Course, 1993.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    M.E. Goldstein. The evolution of TS waves near a leading edge. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 127: 59–81, 1983.CrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    E.J. Kerschen. Boundary layer receptivity. AIAA Paper 89–1109, 1989.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    R.H. Radetsky, M.S. Reibert, W.S. Saric, and S. Takagi. Effect of micron-sized roughness on transition in swept wing flows. AIAA Paper 93–0076, 1993.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    C. Airiau. Stabilité linéaire et non linéaire d’une couche limite laminaire incompressible par un système d’équations parabolisées (PSE). Master’s thesis, ENSAE, Toulouse, June 1994.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    A.M.O. Smith and N. Gamberoni. Transition, pressure gradient and stability theory. Rept. ES 26388, Douglas Aircraft Co., El Segundo.,California, 1956.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    J.L. van Ingen. A suggested semi-empirical method for the calculation of boundary layer transition region. Rept. UTH-74, Univ. of Techn., Dept. of Aero. Eng., Delft, 1956.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    D. Arnal. Prediction based on linear theory. In Progress in Transition Modelling. AGARD Report No 793, 1993.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    E. Reshotko. Laminar flow control— viscous simulation. Special Course on Stability and Transition of Laminar Flow, AGARD—R-709, 1984.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    L. Lees. The stability of the laminar boundary layer in a compressible fluid. TN 876, NACA, 1947.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    D.F. Fisher and N.S. Dougherty. In-flight transition measurements on a 10 deg. cone at Mach numbers from 0.5 to 2. TP 1971, NASA, 1982.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    A.V. Dovgal, V.Ya. Levchenko, and V.A. Timofeyev. Laminarisation of the boundary layer through localised surface heating. In Proceedings of the Siberian Section of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 1989.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    A.V. Dovgal, V.Ya. Levchenko, and V.A. Timofeyev. Action of local heating on the transition to turbulence in a three-dimensional gas boundary layer. In Proceedings of the Siberian Section of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 1990.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    A.V. Fedorov, V.Ya. Levchenko, and A.M. Tumin. Problems of laminar-turbulent transition control in a boundary layer. Russian J. of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 1: 85–101, 1991.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    G. Casalis, M.L. Copie, Ch. Airiau, and D. Arnal. Nonlinear analysis with PSE approach. IUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear Instability and Transition in Three-dimensional Boundary Layers, Manchester, July 1995.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    W.S. Reynolds and W.S. Saric. Experiments on the stability of the flat plate boundary layer with suction. AIAA Paper 82–1026, 1982.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    D. Amal, J.C. Juillen, and G. Casalis. The effects of wall suction on laminar-turbulent transition in three-dimensional flow. First ASME/JSME Fluids Engineering Conference, Portland, Oregon, Juin 1991.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    E. Reshotko. Boundary layer instability, transition and control. AIAA Paper 94–0001, 1994.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    V.S. Kosorygin, R.H. Radetztsky, and W.S. Saric. Laminar boundary-layer, sound receptivity and control. In R. Kobayashi, editor, Laminar-Turbulent Transition, IUTAM Symp., Sendai. Springer-Verlag, 1995.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    E. Laurien and L. Kleiser. Numerical simulation of boundary layer transition and transition control. J. Fluid Mech., 199: 403–440, 1989.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    H.W. Liepmann and D.M. Nosenchuck. Active control of laminar-turbulent transition. J. Fluid Mech., 118: 201–204, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    P. Pupator and W.S. Saric. Control of random disturbances in a boundary layer. AIAA Paper 89–1007, 1989.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Xuetong Fan, Th. Herbert, and J.H. Haritonidis. Transition control with neural networks. AIAA Paper 95–0674, 1995.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    D.I.A. Poll and M. Danks. Relaminarisation of the swept wing attachment-line by surface suction. In R. Kobayashi, editor, Laminar-Turbulent Transition, IUTAM Symp., Sendai. Springer-Verlag, 1995.Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    J.C. Juillen and D. Arnal. Experimental study of boundary layer suction effects on leading edge contamination along the attachment line of a swept wing. In R. Kobayashi, editor, Laminar-Turbulent Transition, IUTAM Symp., Sendai. Springer-Verlag, 1995.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    M. Gaster. On the flow along leading edges. The Aeron. Quarterly, XVIII, Part2, May 1967.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    G.R. Seyfang. Turbulence reduction on swept leading edges. In Turbulent Drag Reduction by Passive Means, London, September 1987.Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    F.S. Collier Jr. An overview of recent subsonic laminar flow control flight experiments. AIAA Paper 93–2987, 1993.Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    C. Bulgubure and D. Arnal. Dassault Falcon 50 laminar flow flight demonstrator. In First European Forum on Laminar Flow Technology, Hamburg, March 1992.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    R. Henke, F.X. Munch, and A. Quast. Natural laminar flow: a wind tunnel test campaign and comparison with flight test data. AIAA Paper 90–3045, 1990.Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    K.H. Horstmann, G. Redeker, A. Quast, U. Dressler, and H. Bieler. Flight tests with a natural laminar flow glove on a transport aircraft. AIAA Paper 90–3044, 1990.Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    G. Schrauf. Transition prediction using different linear stability analysis strategies. AIAA Paper 94–1848, 1994.Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    G. Schrauf. Evaluation of transition in flight tests using nonlinear PSE analysis. AIAA Paper 95–1801, 1995.Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    D.V. Maddalon, F.S. Collier Jr, L.C. Montoya, and R.J. Putnam. Transition flight experiments on a swept wing with suction. In D.Arnal and R.Michel, editors, Laminar-Turbulent Transition, IUTAM Symp., Toulouse. Springer-Verlag, 1990.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Arnal
    • 1
  1. 1.CERT-ONERAToulouseFrance

Personalised recommendations