A Biomechanical Model of the Human Musculoskeletal System

  • K. Kedzior
  • T. Zagrajek
Part of the International Centre for Mechanical Sciences book series (CISM, volume 375)


The three-dimensional model of human musculoskeletal system consists of 45 rigid bodies (Fig. 1) connected by means of the spring-damper elements representing joints. The model is considered as a kinematic chain having about 270 degrees of freedom driven by 250 muscle actuators. The forcelength-velocity characteristic of muscles as well as force-time characteristic (the rate of muscle force change due to the change of activation) are introduced into the model. The software package acts according to the block diagram shown in Fig. 8. It enables the muscle forces and reactive forces in joints to be determined from the registered (or assumed) kinematic data of human motion.


Rigid Body Reactive Force Intervertebral Disc Muscle Force Musculoskeletal System 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Kedzior
    • 1
  • T. Zagrajek
    • 1
  1. 1.Warsaw University of TechnologyWarsawPoland

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