ROMANSY 11 pp 165-171 | Cite as

Gait Rhythm Generators of a Two Legged Walking Machine

  • T. Zielinska
Part of the International Centre for Mechanical Sciences book series (CISM, volume 381)


The gait of currently designed two-legged walking machines differs from the humans’, although the kinematic structures of these machines’ legs frequently imitate human limbs. The paper presents the method of generating the trajectories of hip and knee joint angles resulting in a gait pattern similar to that of a human. For that purpose the solutions of coupled van der Pol oscillator equations are utlised. In the view of many researches these equations can be treated as a good model of the Central Pattern Generator generating functional (also locomotional) rhythms in living creatures. The oscillator equations are solved by numerical integration. The method of changing the type of gait by changing adequate parameter values in oscillator equations is presented (change of velocity and trajectory of legends). The obtained results enable an enhancement of two-legged walking control systems by including gait pattern generators which will assume a similar role to that of biological generators.


Oscillator Parameter Gait Pattern Central Pattern Generator Biped Robot Human Gait 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Bay J.S., Hemami H.: Modelling of a Neural Pattern Generator with Coupled Nonlinear Oscillators. IEEE Trans. on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. BME-34, No. 4, 297–306, Apr. 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Budanov V.M, Lavrowsky E.K.: Design of the Program Regime for Biped Walking Antropomorphic Apparatus. Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators. Proc. of ROMANSY 10. Ed,. by Morecki A., Bianchi G., Jaworek K., 379–386. Springer Verlag 1995.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Cohen A.H., Rossignol S., Griller S: Neural Control of Rhythmic Movements in Vertebrates. John Wiley and Sons, New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto, Singapore 1988.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Formalsky A.M.: Impulsive Control for Antropomorphic Biped. Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators. Proc. of ROMANSY 10. Ed,. by Morecki A., Bianchi G., Jaworek K., 387–394. Springer Verlag 1995.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Grillner S.: Control of Locomotion in Bipeds, Tetrapods and Fish. Hanbook og Physiology. Ed. by Brookhat J.M., Mountcastle V.B., 1179–1236, American Physiological Society, 1981Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Hertz J., Krogh A., Palmer R.G.: Introduction to the Theory of Neural Computation (in Polish). WNT, Warsaw 1993.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Shuuji Kajita, Tornio Yamaura, Akira Kobayashi: Dynamic Walking Control of a Biped Robot Along a Potential Energy Conserving Orbit. IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, vol. 8, no. 4, 431–438, 1992.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Kandel E.R., Schwartz J.H. Jessel T.M.: Principles of Neural Science. Elsevier, New York 1991.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Raibert M.H., Brown H.B., Murthy S.S.: 3-D Balance Using 2-D Algorithms? The Int. Journal of Robotics Research, no.1, 215–224, MIT Press 1984.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Vukobratovic M.: Legged Locomotion and Anthropomorphic Mechanism. Michailo Pupin Institute. Beograd 1975.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Zielinska T.: Coupled Oscillators Utilised as Gait Rhythm Generators of Two Legged Walking Machine. Biological Cybernetics. Springer Verlag, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 263–273, 1996Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Zielinska
    • 1
  1. 1.Warsaw University of TechnologyWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations