Application to Heat Treatment and Surface Treatment

  • F. D. Fischer
Part of the International Centre for Mechanical Sciences book series (CISM, volume 368)


An attempt is made for the calculation of residual stresses due to nitriding in a component. The knowledge of the determinating processes and the evaluation of their influence on the residual stress state may assist the selection of the nitriding paramters for the optimization of the nitriding process. Special interest is laid on the description of the micromechanical effects occuring during nitriding. The following processes are considered within the model: * The creep behavior and plasticity, * the diffusion of nitrogen into the material, * the kinetics of the growth of nitrides, * the volumetric strains due to the interstitial nitrogen and the nitrides, * the transformation induced plasticity (here precipitation induced plasticity, PRIP) caused by the plastic accommodation process around the growing nitrides. The influence of all these processes on the residual stress state is studied for a cylindrical specimen.

The results are quantatively compared with measurements from the literature.


Residual Stress Volumetric Strain Parent Phase Creep Strain Rate Nitriding Process 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Carburizing and Nitriding with Atmospheres: Conference Proceedings (Eds J.Grosch, J. Morral and M. Schneider), ASM International, Materials Park 1995.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Conference Report: Carburizing & nitriding, Adv. Mat. Processes, 149 (1996), 63–71.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mittemeijer, E.J.: Gitterverzerrungen in nitriertem Eisen und Stahl, Härt. Techn. Mitt., 36 (1981), 57–66.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lesage, J., Degallaix, G. and J. Barralis: Calculation of residual stresses in case carbonitrided steel, in: Fatigue & Stress (Ed. M.P. Lieurade ), ITT-International, France 1989, 265–276.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schreiber, G., Oettel, H., Darbinjan, W. and R. Wiedemann: Residual stresses in the precipitation zone of nitride layers, in Residual Stresses (Eds V. Hauk, M.P. Hougardy, E. Macherauch and H.-D. Tietz ), DGM, Oberursel 1993, 965–974.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oettel, H. and G. Schreiber: Eigenspannungsbildung in der Diffusionszone, in: Nitrieren und Nitrocarburieren (Eds E.J. Mittemeijer and J. Grosch ), AWT, Darmstadt 1991, 139–151.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Daves, W.: Mikro-und makromechanische Simulation des Deformationsverhaltens von Stählen unter Berücksichtigung von Umwandlungs-und Diffusionsvorgängen, Fortschrittsberichte VDI, Reihe 18, Nr. 141, VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf 1994.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Christian, J.W.: The Theory of Transformation in Metals and Alloys, Pergamon Press, Oxford 1965.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bulgach, A.A., Solodkin, G.A. and L.A. Gliberman: Computersimulation of the kinetics of the growth of nitrides, Met. Sci. Heat Treat. (USSR) 26 (1984), 41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heger, D.: Die mathematische Modellierung des Stickstoiikonzentrationsprofiles der Ausscheidungsschicht nitrierter Eisenlegierungen am Beispiel von Fe - Cr - Legierungen in Abhängigkeit der Nitrierparamter, Ph.D. Thesis, Bergakamie Freiberg 1990.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Redding, K.A.: Plastizitätstheorie und ihre Anwendung auf Festigkeitsprobleme, Springer-Verlag, Berlin et al. 1967.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fischer, F.D.: A micromechanical model for transformation plasticity in steels, Acta metall. mater. 38 (1990), 1535–1546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Daves, W. and Fischer F.D.: Finite element simulation of the development of residual stresses during nitriding under consideration of the micromechanical and metallurgical processes, in: Materials Science Forum, Vols 163–165, Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland (1994), 713–718Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arzt, E.: Creep of dispersion strengthened materials: a critical assessment, Res Mechanica 31 (1991), 399–453Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorensen Inc., ABAQUS User Manual, Version 5.4, Pawtucket, R. I. 1994Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rothman, M.F.: High Temperature Property Data: Ferrous Alloys, ASM International, Metals Park (1980), 316 ff.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Heger, D. and D. Bergner: Berechnung der Stickstoffverteilung in gasnitrierten Eisenlegierungen, Härt.-Techn. Mitt., 46 (1991), 331–338Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. D. Fischer
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Mining and MetallurgyLeobenAustria

Personalised recommendations