Advertisement

Considering Stress-Phase Transformation Interactions in the Calculation of Heat Treatment Residual Stresses

  • S. Denis
Part of the International Centre for Mechanical Sciences book series (CISM, volume 368)

Abstract

The models for describing stress-phase transformation interactions (transformation plasticity and the effect of stress on transformation kinetics) are reviewed. It is shown that the macroscopic constitutive law that is generally used in the calculation of heat treatment residual stresses in steels allows to describe well the thermomechanical behaviour of the material in its transformation range. An analysis of the role of these interactions on the stress/strain evolutions during the heat treatment of a piece and on the residual stress states is proposed based on numerical simulations.

Keywords

Residual Stress Phase Transformation Internal Stress Martensitic Transformation Residual Stress Distribution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Denis S., Gautier E., Simon A., Beck G.: Stress-phase transformation interactions–basic principles, modelling and calculation of internal stresses, Material Science and Technology, 1 (1985), 805–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gautier E.: Transformations perlitique et martensitique sous contrainte de traction dans les aciers, Thèse de Doctorat d’Etat, INPL Nancy 1985.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Denis S.: Modélisation des interactions contrainte-transformation de phases et calcul par éléments finis de la genèse des contraintes internes au cours de la trempe des aciers, Thèse de Doctorat d’Etat, INPL Nancy 1987.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Denis S., Gautier E., Simon A.: Modelling of the mechanical behaviour of steels during phase transformation: a review, in: International Conference on Residual Stresses ICRS2 (Ed. G. Beck, S. Denis, A. Simon ), Elsevier Applied Science 1988, 393–398.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gautier E., Zhang J.S., Zhang X.M.: Martensitic transformation under stress in ferrous alloys. Mechanical behaviour and resulting morphologies, Journal de Physique IV, Colloque C8, suppl. Journal de Physique III, 5 (1995), 31–40.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Inoue T., Wang Z.G.: Finite element analysis of coupled thermoinelastic problem with phase transformation, in: Int. Conf. Num. Meth. in Industrial Forming Processes (Ed. J.F.T. Pittmann, R.Wood, J.H. Dand Alexander ), Pineridge Press 1982.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Denis S., Gautier E., Sjöström S., Simon A.: Influence of stresses on the kinetics of pearlitic transformation during continuous cooling, Acta Met., 35 (1987), 1621–1632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Loshkarev V.E.: Interaction between quenching stresses and transformations in steel, Metal Science and Heat Treatment, 28 (1986), 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Denis S., Farias D., Simon A.: Mathematical model coupling phase transformations and temperature in steels, ISIJ International, 32 (1992), 316–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gautier E., Zhang X.M., Simon A.: Role of internal stress state on transformation induced plasticity and transformation mechanisms during the progress of stress induced phase transformation, in: International Conference on Residual Stresses ICRS2 (Ed.G. Beck, S. Denis, A. Simon ), Elsevier Applied Science 1988, 777–783.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gautier E., Simon A., Beck G.: Plasticité de transformation durant la transformation perlitique d’un acier eutectoïde, Acta Metall., 35 (1987), 1367–1375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    De Jong M., Rathenau G.W.: Mechanical properties of iron and some iron alloys while undergoing allotropic transformation, Acta Metall., 7 (1959), 246–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Matsuzaki A., Bhadeshia H.K.D.H., Harada H.: Effect of stress on bainitic transformation in Fe-Si-Mn-C alloy, in: ICOMAT 92 (Ed. C.M. Wayman and J. Perkins ), Monterey Institute for Advanced Studies 1993.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gautier E., Denis S.: Comportement thermomécanique d’un acier au cours de la transformation bainitique, in: Report RENAULT 1995.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ganghoffer J.F., Simonsson K., Denis S., Gautier E., Sjöström S., Simon A.: Martensitic transformation plasticity simulations by finite elements, Journal de Phys. Coll. C3, 4 (1994), 215–220.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marketz F., Fischer F.D.: A micromechanical study of the deformation behaviour of Fe-Ni alloys and martensitic transformation, in: PTM 94 Solid Solid Phase Transformation (Ed. Johnson W.C., Howe J.M., Laughlin D.E., Soffa W.A. ), TMS 1994, 785–790.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Simonsson K.: Micro-mechanical FE-simulations of the plastic behaviour of steels undergoing martensitic transformation, Dissertation N°362 Linköping 1994.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wen Y., Denis S., Gautier E.: Computer simulation of martensitic transformation under stress, Journal de Physique IV Coll. Cl, 6 (1996), 475–483.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Franitza S.: Zur Berechnung der Wärme-und Umwandlungsspannungen in langen Kreiszylindern, Dissertation TU Braunschweig 1972.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Giusti J.: Contraintes et déformations résiduelles d’origine thermique. Application au soudage et à la trempe des aciers, Thèse de Doctorat d’Etat, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 1981.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hamata N.: Modélisation du couplage entre l’élasto-viscoplasticité anisotherme et la transformation de phase d’une fonte G.S. ferritique, Thèse de Doctorat, Univ. Paris 6 1992.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Videau J.C., Cailletaud G., Pineau A.: Modélisation des effets mécaniques des transformations de phases pour le calcul des structures, Journal de Phys. IV Coll. C3, 4 (1994), 227–232.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Leblond J.B.: Mathematical modelling of transformation plasticity in steels II Coupling with strain hardening phenomena, Int. Journal of Plasticity, 5 (1989), 573–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fischer F.D.: Transformation induced plasticity in triaxially loaded steel specimens subjected to a martensitic transformation, European Journal Mech. A/ Solids 11 (1992), 233–244.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sjöström S., Ganghoffer J.F., Denis S., Gautier E., Simon A.: Finite element calculation of the micromechanics of a diffusional transformation. II. Influence of stress level, stress history and stress multiaxiality, Eur. J. Mech. A/Solids 13 (1994), 803–817.MATHGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Videau J.C., Cailletaud G., Pineau A.: Experimental study of the transformation induced plasticity in a Cr-Ni-Mo-Al-Ti steel, Journal de Physique IV Coll. Cl, 6 (1996), 465–474.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Graja P., Scholtes B., Müller H., Macherauch E.: Residual stress distributions in cylindrical parts due to continuous and discontinuous hardening processes, in: International Conference on Residual Stresses ICRS (Ed. E. Macherauch and V. Hauk) DGM 1987, 687–694Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hildenwall B.: Prediction of residual stresses created during quenching, Dissertation N°39, Linköping University 1979.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Melander M.: Computational and experimental investigation of induction and laser hardening Dissertation N° 124, Linköping University 1985.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Leblond J.B., Devaux J.: A new kinetic model for anisothermal metallurgical transformations in steels including effect of austenite grain size, Acta Metall., 32 (1984), 137–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hougardy H.P., Wildau M.: Berechnung der Wärmebehandlung von StählenUmwandlungsverhalten, Spannungen, Verzug, Stahl u. Eisen, 105 (1985), 1289–1296.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Waeckel F.: Modélisation du comportement thermométallurgique des aciers, Journal de Physique C3, 4 (1994), 221–232.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Buchmayr B., Kirkaldy J.S.: A fundamental based microstructural model for the optimization of heat treatment processes, in: 1st Int. Conf. on Quenching and Control of Distortion (Ed. G.E. Totten) ASM Intern. 1992, 221–227.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sjöström S.: The calculation of quench stresses in steel, Dissertation N° 84, Linköping University 1982.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Leblond J.B., Devaux J., Devaux J.C.: Mathematical modelling of transformation plasticity in steels I Case of ideal-plastic phases, Int. Journal of Plasticity, 5 (1989), 551–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rammerstorfer F.G., Fischer F.D., Till E.T., Mitter W., Gründler O.: The influence of creep and transformation plasticity in the analysis of stresses due to heat treatment, in: Numerical Methods in heat transfer (Ed. R.W. Lewis K. Morgan B.A. Schrefler) John Wiley and Sons Ltd 1983, 447–460.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Assaker D., Hogge M., Dubois M., Magnee A.: Computer prediction of residual stresses in bi-metallic heat treated roll mill cylinders, Société Belge des Mécaniciens, 1404 (1989), 7. 1–7. 8.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wang Z., Inoue T.: Viscoplastic constitutive relation incorporating phase transformation–Application to welding, Materials Science and Technology, 1 (1985), 899–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Colonna F., Massoni E., Denis S., Gautier E., Wendenbaum J.: On thermo-elasticviscoplastic analysis of cooling processes including phase changes, Journal of Mat. Proc. Techn., 34 (1992), 525–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rammerstorfer F.G., Fischer F.D., Mitter W., Bathe K.J., Snyder M.D.: On thermoelastic-plastic analysis of heat treatment processes including creep and phase changes, Computers and Structures, 13 (1981), 771–779.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Liébaut C.: Rhéologie de la déformation plastique d’un acier Fe-C durant sa transformation de phase, Thèse de doctorat INPL Nancy 1988.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gautier E., Denis S., Liébaut Ch., Sjöström S., Simon A.: Mechanical behaviour of Fe-C alloys during phase transformations, Journal de Phys. C3, 4 (1994), 279–284.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Denis S., Sjöström S., Simon A.: Coupled temperature, stress, phase transformation calculation model. Numerical illustration of the internal stresses evolution during cooling of a eutectoïd carbon steel, Met. Trans, 18A (1987), 1203–1212.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    SYSWELD, Users Manual, Framasoft + CSI, Lyon (France)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Abbasi F., Fletcher A.J.: Effect of transformatin plasticityon generation of thermal stress and strain in quenched steel plates, Material Science and Technology, 1 (1985), 830–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Convert F., Turbat A.: Estimation and experimental determination of residual stresses and distortion in quenched bars, in: Eigenspannungen (Ed. Macherauch E., Hauk V.) DGM 1983, 251–277.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Denis S., Simon A.: Discussion on the role of transformation plasticity in the calculation of quench stresses in steels, in: International Conference on Residual Stresses ICRS (Ed. E. Macherauch and V. Hauk) DGM 1987, 565–572.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Desalos Y., Giusti J., Gunsberg F.: Déformations et contraintes lors du traitement thermique de pièces en acier, Report RE902 IRSID, May 1982.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mitter W.: Umwandlungsplastizität und ihre Berücksichtigung bei der Berechnung von Eigenspannungen, Gebrüder Bornträger Berlin 1987.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Besserdich G., Scholtes B., Müller H., Macherauch E.: Development of residual stresses and distortion during hardening of SAE 4140 cylinders taking into account transformation plasticity, in: Residual Stresses (Ed. V. Hauk, H.P. Hougardy, E. Macherauch, H.D. Tietz) DGM 1993, 975–984.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nagasaka Y., Brimacombe J.K., Hawbolt E.B., Samarasekera I.V., Hernandez-Morales B., S.E. Chidiac: Mathematical model of phase transformations and elastoplastic stress in the water spray quenching of steel bars, Met. Trans., 24A (1993), 795–808.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Denis S., Boufoussi M., Chevrier J.Ch., Simon A.: Analysis of the development of residual stresses for surface hardening of steels by numerical simulation: effect of process parameters, in International Conference on Residual Stresses ICRS4 (Ed. M.R. James) Society of Experimental Mechanics Bethel 1994, 513–519.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yang Y.S., Na S.J.: Effect of transformation plasticity on residual stress fields in laser surface hardening treatment, J. Heat Treating, 9 (1991), 49–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bergheau J.M., Pont D., Leblond J.B.: Three dimensional simulation of a laser treatment through steady state computation in the heat source’s comoving frame, in: Mechanical effects of welding (Ed. L. Karlsson L.E. Lindgren M. Jonsson) Springer Verlag 1992, 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zandona M., Mey A., Boufoussi M., Denis S., Simon A.: Calculation of internal stresses during surface heat treatment of steels, in: European Conf. on Residual Stresses (Ed. V. Hauk, H.P. Hougardy, E. Macherauch und H.D. Tietz) D.G.M. 1993, 1011–1020.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sjöström S.: Interactions and constitutive models for calculating quench stresses in steels, Material Science and Technology, 1 (1985), 823–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bühler H., Rose A.: Darstellung des Entstehens von Eigenspannungen in Werkstücken aus Stahl in ihren Umwandlungsschaubildern, Archiv. Eisenhüttenw., 40 (1969), 411–423.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Josefson B.L.: Effects of transformation plasticity on welding residual stress fields in thin walled pipes and thin plates, Material Science and Technology, 1 (1985), 904–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Oddy A., Goldak J., McDill M.: Transformation plasticity and residual stresses in single-pass repair welds, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 114 (1992), 33–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Leblond J.B., Devaux J., Devaux J.C.: Simulation de l’essai d’implant, Soudage et Techniques connexes (1988), 312–324.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Anastassiou M.: Distorsions lors de la trempe d’organes de boîte de vitesses, in: Internationaux de France de Traitement Thermique ( Ed. ATTT) PYC Edition 1993, 11–36.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Toshioka Y.: Heat treatment deformation of steel products, Material Science and Technology 1 (1985), 883–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Inoue T., Wang Z.G., Miyao K.: Quenching stress of carburised steel gear wheel, in: International Conference on Residual Stresses ICRS2 (Ed. G. Beck, S. Denis, A. Simon) Elsevier Applied Science 1988, 606–611.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bourdouxhe M., Denis S., Simon A.: Computation of phase changes and deformations in long products undergoing thermal treatments, in: International Conference on Residual Stresses ICRS3 (Ed. H. Fujiwara, T. Abe, K. Tanaka) Elsevier Applied Science 1992, 202207Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Colonna F.: Modélisation numérique du refroidissement de rails, Thèse de Doctorat de l’Ecole des Mines de Paris 1992.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Saliou F., Zandona M., S. Denis, E. Gautier, Internal work LSG2M 1991. This paper has been already published in Journal de Physique IV, Coll. Cl, Vol. 6 (1996), 159–174.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Denis S., Basso C., Fernandes F., Simon A. Contribution des contraintes internes d’origine thermique dans le calcul de l’avancement des transformations de phases en refroidissement continu d’un acier XC80, Mém. et Etud. Scient. Revue Métal’. (1986), 533–542.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Denis
    • 1
  1. 1.CNRS URA 159NancyFrance

Personalised recommendations