Drop Impacts on Liquid Layers: Some New Phenomena at the Edges of Parameter Space

  • S. T. Thoroddsen
Part of the CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences book series (CISM, volume 456)


Here we report experiments on three separate “drop-impact” phenomena. The first phenomena is entirely driven by surface tension whereas the second evolves in the absence of surface tension at the surface of a granular medium. The former of these is realized when a stationary drop of liquid coalesces with a flat layer of the same liquid. This coalescence is observed to take place in steps generating smaller and smaller drops. The latter phenomena occurs when a solid sphere is impacted onto a deep layer of granular medium. The resulting transient crater collapses radially driving up a thin vertical jet of material along the axis of symmetry. This jet is reminescent of Worthington jets which are observed in analogous liquid experiments. The third experiment looks at some intriguing shapes of newly discovered ejecta sheets.


Impact Velocity Liquid Layer Granular Medium Solid Sphere Drop Diameter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Charles, G.E. and Mason, S.G., (1960). The mechanism of partial coalescence of liquid drops at liquid/liquid interfaces J. Colloid Sci., 15:105–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hogrefe, J.E., Peffley, N.L., Goodridge, C.L., Shi, W. T., Hentschel, H.G.E. and Lathrop, D. P. (1998). Power-law singularities in gravity-capillary waves. Physica D, 123:183–205.MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Hsiao, M., Lichter S. and Quintero L.G., (1988). The critical Weber number for vortex and jet formation for drops impinging on a liquid pool. Physics of Fluids, 31:3560–3562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Prosperetti, A. and Oguz, H. N. (1993) The impact of drops on liquid surfaces and the underwater noise of rain. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 25:577–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Rein, M. (1993) Phenomena of liquid drop impact on solid and liquid surfaces. Fluid Dyn. Res., 12:61–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Rein, M. (1996). The transitional regime between coalescing and splashing drops. J. of Fluid Mechanics, 306:145–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Shin, J. and McMahon, T. A. (1990). The tuning of a splash. Physics of Fluids, 2:1312–1317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Thoroddsen, S. T. (2001). The ejecta sheet generated by the impact of a drop. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  9. Thoroddsen, S.T. and Shen, A. Q. (2001). Granular jets. Physics of Fluids, 13:4–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Thoroddsen, S. T. and Takehara, K. (2000). The coalescence-cascade of a drop. Physics of Fluids, 12:1265–1267.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Weiss, D. A. and Yarin, A. L. (1999) Single drop impact onto liquid films: neck distortion, jetting, tiny bubble entrainment, and crown formation. J. Fluid Mech. 385:229–254.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. Zeff, B. W., Kleber, B., Fineberg, J. and Lathrop, D. P. (2000) Singularity dynamics in curvature collapse and jet eruption on a fluid surface. Nature, 403:401–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. T. Thoroddsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Theoretical and Applied MechanicsUniversity of IllinoisUrbana-ChampaignUSA

Personalised recommendations