The fundamentals of occupant protection involve vehicle crash worthiness where are strong occupant compartment resists intrusion and crushable front and rear structures deform and absorb energy in a crash. This combination provides a controlled vehicle deceleration and survival space in the occupant compartment. The use of lap-shoulder belts and airbags provides ride-down of the vehicle crush, containment on the seat, and load distributing forces on the pelvis, should and upper body to decelerate the occupant. This has proven an effective means of restraining the occupant and reducing the risk of serious injury and death in a crash. Lap-shoulder belts are 42% effective in preventing death. This includes the highest effectiveness of 77% in rollovers and lowest of 27% in near-side impacts. The addition of the frontal airbag raises the level to 47%. The addition of belt system enhancements for comfort and performance and introduction of side airbags and curtains for rollover protection further improve the safety in automotive crashes.
KeywordsPassenger Compartment Restraint System Safety Belt Seating Position Frontal Crash
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- [27.1]Viano, D.C., Cause and control of automotive trauma, Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, Second Series, 64 (5), 376–421, 1988.Google Scholar
- [27.2]Struble, D., Airbag technology: what it is and how it came to be, SAE Paper N. 980648, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1998.Google Scholar
- [27.3]Adomeit, D. and Heger, A.1., Motion sequence criteria and design proposals for restraint devices in order to avoid unfavorable biomechanic conditions and submarining, Proceedings of the 19 Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Paper N. 751146, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA., 139–166, 1975.Google Scholar
- [27.4]Adomeit, D., Evaluation methods for the biomechanical quality of restraint systems during frontal impact, Proceedings of the 2r Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Paper N. 770936, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 911–932, 1977.Google Scholar
- [27.5]Adomeit, D., Seat design — a significant factor for safety belt effectiveness, Proceedings of the 23 rd Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Paper N. 791004, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 39–68, 1979.Google Scholar
- [27.8]Evans, L., Traffic Safety and the Driver, Van Nostrad Reinhold, 1991.Google Scholar
- [27.9]Viano, D.C., Effectiveness of safety belts and airbags in preventing fatal injury, In Crash Safety Technologies for the 90’s, SAE Paper N. 910901, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale PA, 1991Google Scholar
- [27.10]Zador, P. and Ciccone, M., Driver Fatalities in Frontal Impacts: Comparisons Between Cars with Airbags and Manual Belts, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Arlington VA, October 1991.Google Scholar