Numerical Modelling of Rock Mass Stress Strain Changes Caused by Underground Excavation in the Bor Copper Mine

  • D. Divac
  • D. Vuckovic
  • M. Zivkovic
  • N. Grujovic
Conference paper
Part of the International Centre for Mechanical Sciences book series (CISM, volume 397)


Extensive investigations have brought up the fact that there are still considerable amounts of ore reserves of copper mine “Bor” (at Yugoslavia), located at the slope and under the abandoned open pit mine. This paper presents the methodology of modeling the process of inducing mass deficit, the process of caving and corresponding stress-strain changes in the surrounding rock mass. The rock mass of the investigated area is composed of: extrusive magmatic rocks, pyroclastites, volcanic sediment rocks (the Bor pelites) and conglomerates. The problem of determining parameters of a rock mass constitutive relations in a large scale has been analyzed. The finite element method (FEM) is adopted as a numerical procedure. The constitutive relations of the rock strata are modeled as elastic and plastic-brittle behaviour. The effects of strain softening around the ground openings are taken into account. Key problems of the model are caving moment criterion and size of the caved zone. Assuming that physical instability coincides with numerical divergence, the criterion of the moment of caving has been introduced as initial divergence of the solution of the stress-strain problem. The results show the development process of the zones of instability as a function of the progress of the exploitation. The proposed numerical procedure combined with in-situ investigation works has many advantages over the usual empirical procedures, and can be a valuable tool to mining engineers assessing the short and long term stability of rock mass caused by underground excavition at open pit slope.


Rock Mass Rock Burst Rock Mass Rating Underground Excavation Instability Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    BARTON N., LIEN R., LUNDE J. (1974). Engineering Classification of Rock Masses for the Desing of Tunnel Support. Rock Mechanics, Vol. 6, No. 4.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    BIENIAWSKI Z.T. (1979). The Geomhechanics Classification in Rock Engineering Application. Proc. 4th Congress of the Int. Society for Rock Mechanics, Motreux, Volum 2, PP 41–48.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    DESAI C.S., CHRISTIAN J.T. (1977). Constitutive Laws for Geologic Media. Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering, McGraw-Hill inc., USA.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    DIVAC D., VUČKOVIĆ D., MAŠALA S., DENIĆ D. (1996). A new method of modelling subsidance above underground mining excavation. News Journal ISRM, Vol. 2, N 2.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    DIVAC D., VUČKOVIĆ D., MAŠALA S., DENIĆ D. (1996). A New Method of Rock Mass Stress-Strain Modelling for Mining Works Impact Analysis in the Bor Mine Tilva Ros Ore Body. 11th Symp. on Hydro and Eng. Geol., Budva.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    HOEK E. (1994). Strength of rock and rock masses. News Journal ISRM, Vol. 2, N 2.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    KOJIC M. (1993). General Concept of Constitutive Relations at Nonelastic Material Strain Implicite Iteration. Ce. for Sci. res. od SANU and Univ. of Kragijevac.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    KOJIĆ M., SLAVKOVIĆ R., GRUJOVIĆ N., VUKIĆEVIĆ M. (1994). Implicit stress integration algorithm for the Cam-clay material. Teorijska i primenjena mehanika 20, pp 95–118.MATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    KOJIĆ M. (1997). Computational Procedures in Inelastic Analysis of Solid and Structures. Cen. for Sci. Res. of SANU and Univ. of Kragujevac.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    KOJIC M, SLAVKOVIC R, ZIVKOVIC M., GRUJOVIC N. (1995). PAK — General Program for Linear and Nonlinear Structural Analyses and Heath Transfer. Mechanical Engeenering Faculty, Univ. of Kragujevac.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    The Bor Copper Mine Documentation on Open Pit Mine Investigations (papers from various fields prepared during last 30 years).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Divac
    • 1
  • D. Vuckovic
    • 1
  • M. Zivkovic
    • 2
  • N. Grujovic
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for the Development of Water Resources “Jaroslav Cerni”BeogradYugoslavia
  2. 2.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringKragujevacYugoslavia

Personalised recommendations