Romansy 13 pp 459-466 | Cite as

Low-Energy Biped Locomotion

  • Stefan Gruber
  • Werner Schiehlen
Conference paper
Part of the International Centre for Mechanical Sciences book series (CISM, volume 422)


The simulation and realization of legged locomotion robots is an important research topic. A common approach to synthesize a desired walking pattern for a walking machine is to use inverse dynamics techniques. Thus, the nominal control of a walking machine is generated according to fully or partly prescribed and preprogrammed nominal trajectories of legs and body. The equations of motion are solved to obtain the required control forces and torques. These torques are relatively large so that autonomous walking, i.e. walking with energy supply on board, is only possible for a short period. Our aim is to reduce the control torques in the joints of a biped walking model and the total energy consumption of the actuators.

The paper presents the application of the passive walking principle to a biped model. A walking model with knees capable of passive dynamic walking is designed to which small actuators in the joints are added. Active control is used to maintain the passive walking motion compensating the energy losses. The simulation results show that the power consumption during walking is low compared to other machines.


Multibody System Humanoid Robot Biped Walking Biped Model Passive Walking 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Gruber
    • 1
  • Werner Schiehlen
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute B of MechanicsUniversity of StuttgartStuttgartGermany

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